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Full text of "Dictionary of painters and engravers, biographical and critical"



CORNELL 

UNIVERSITY 

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CAYLORD 






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The original of this book is in 
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http://www.archive.org/details/cu31924092716970 



DICTIONARY 



OF 



PAINTERS AND ENGRAVERS, 

BIOGRAPHICAL AND CRITICAL, 



BY 

MICHAEL BRYAN. 



NEW EDITION, REVISED AND ENLARGED, 

EDITED BY 

WALTER ARMSTRONG, B.A. Oxon.. 

AUTHOR OF " SCOITISH PAINTERS" AND "PETER DE WINT," 
AND 

ROBERT EDMUND GRAVES 

OF THE BRITTSH MUSEUM. 



VOLUME II : L— Z. 



LONDON: GEORGE BELL AND SONS, 

4, YORK STREET, COVENT GARDEN. <v'^ 

1889. •^. , .,i\\ 



-if , 



/.; f (J 






A. H5"\^ 5" 

iUNIVERSfTYl 
LSBRARV^' 

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3^1 + 

V. 5l 



Richard Clay & Sons, Limited, 
London & Bungay. 



CII^<3?~c=rO_J 



1^3. 



BRYAN'S DICTIONARY 



OF 



PAINTERS AND ENGRAVERS. 



VOL. II. 



PEEFACE. 



FOE the present edition of Bryan's " Dictionary of P&inters and Engravers," the two editors 
thus divide the responsibility : for the general form of the -work, as well as the whole 
of the first volume and the letter L in the second volume, Mr. E. E. Graves is responsible ; 
for the rest, Mr. Walter Armstrong. 

Since the appearance of the last edition in 1849, the development of connoisseurship, chiefly 
through the help of photography; and the publication of many valuable works on art and 
I artists, embodying the results of careful research among city records, guild books, and church 
registers, particularly in Italy and in the Netherlands, has furnished much new material for 
i|!,' the correction and enlargement of such a dictionary as this. More especially are the Editors 
indebted to the invaluable works of Messrs. Crowe and Cavalcaselle, Burckhardt, Milanesi, and 
Morelli on the Italian painters, of Messrs. Crowe and Cavalcaselle, Weale, Bredius, Bode and 
Kramm on Flemish and Dutch art, and of the late Sir William Stirling Maxwell and D. 
Pedro de Madrazo, on the artists of Spain. 

Dealing, as a dictionary does, with facts rather than with criticism, the labours of preceding 
writers must necessarily be used with a frequency which makes special acknowledgment in 
every case impossible, but the Editors trust they will not be found to have placed themselves 
under any obligations that may not be frankly acknowledged. 

Besides the addition of a large number of names, new authority has been given to every one 
of the old entries by a careful revision, and in most instances by important changes. In several 
cases the notices have been supplied by contributors specially qualified for the task ; a list of 
these, with their distinguishing initials, is given below. 

Among the improvements is a more scientific arrangement of the names, of which the 
foUowing is the plan : — 



PBEPACE.. 

I. Every artist having a surname is placed under that surname. Assumed 

names and sobriquets are given in cross-reference when needed. 

e. g. The artist commonly Icnown as — 

Correggio will he found under ... Alleqei, Antonio 

Giorgione „ „ ... Barbaeblli, Giorgio 

Pinturicchio „ „ ... Biagio, Bernardino 

Sebastiano del Piombo „ ... Luoiani, Sebastiano 

Tintoretto „ „ ... Eobusti, Jaoopo 

Titian „ ,, ... Vboebli, Tiziano 

(a) When the prefix to a name is an aeticle it is retained, because it is an integral 
part of the name; but when a preposition it is rejected. Thus, the French Le 
and La, the Spanish Los and Las, and the Dutch and Flemish De are accepted ; 
while the I^ench de, the Italian da and di, the German von, and the Dutch van 
are rejected. 

e.g. OhaxlQs'LQ'&rmi will he found under ... Le Bedn, Charles 

Jan David De Heem ,, ,, ... De Heem, Jan David 

Jean Francois de Troy ,, ,, ... Tkot, Jean Franjois de 

Heinrioh von Hess ,, ,, ... Hess, Heinrich von 

Isaac van Ostade „ ,, ... Ostadb, Isaac van 

(6) When an article is joined to or preceded by a preposition, as in the French du, 

de la, and des, the Italian del, della, dai, dalle, and degli, the Spanish del and de la, 

the Portuguese dal, and the Dutch Van de and Van der, they are together treated as 

an article : for, in order to retain the article, we are forced to retain the preposition 

as well. 

e. g. Alphonse du Fresnoy will he found under Du Feesnoy, Alphonse 

Laurent de La Hire ,, ,, ... De La Hike, Laurent 

Niccol6 deir Abbate ,, ,, ... Dell' Abbate, Niccol6 

Alonso del Baroo ,, ,, ... Del Barco, Alonso 

Willem van de.Velde ,, ,, ... Van de Velde, Willem 

(c) English artists hearing foreign names are placed under the prefix whether it be a 
preposition or not. 
e. g. 7ster 1)6 ^mt will he found under ... De Wint, Peter 

{d) Proper names with the prefix St. are placed as though the word were written in full, 
Saint ; and M' and M" are arranged as Mac. 

(e) Foreign compound names are arranged under the first name. 

e.g. 'B3.-pt\st& kuhvy-lif^comi^ will he found under Aubrt-Lbcomte, Baptiste 
Juan Cano de Arevalo ,, ,, „ Cano de Aeevalo, Juan 

II. An artist having no surname is placed under the name of the place from which 

he is known. 

e.g. A.rAxta.di&'&olognvi, will he found under ... Bologna, Andrea da 



PREFACE. 



Or, failing that, under his own Christian name. 

0. g. Andrea del Sarto will he found under 
Fra Bartolommeo ,, „ „ 



Andkea d'Agnolo 
Baetolommeo di Pagholo 



in. Anonymous artists known as the Master of the Grab, the Master of the Die, the 
Master of the Bat-trap, will be found under the common title of Master. 



GONTBIBUTOBS OF INITIALED ABTIGLES. 



W. A. 


Walter Armstrong. 


0. J. D. 


0. J. DuUea. 


B. E. G. ... 


Robert Edmund Graves. 


M.M. H. ... 


Mary M. Heaton. 


J. P. R. 


J. P. Eichter. 


W. B. S. ... 


William Bell Scott. 


P. S. 


Florence Simmonds. 



COEEIGENDA. 



VOLUME II. 



Page 20, under LAPO, Tomm. di. At end add See 

also GlOTTINO. 

LEUX,/or LuTX read Luycx. 

LOVELL, Peregrine, for 16th 
read 17th. 

MACEDO, for Clovis read Clovio. 

MAES, Jan Baptist, fm- MAES, 
Jan Baptist, read MAES, Jan 
Baptist Lodewtk. 

Do. AfUr from 1821 to 1826 read 
He died at Rome in 1856. 

MAES-CANNmi,/o?- MABS-CAN- 
NINI, Jan Baptist Lodewye, 
read MAES, Canini. 

Do. i^or born at Ghent in 1794 read 
born at Ghent about the middle 
of the 18th century. 

Do. For He died at Rome in 1856 
read He settled in Italy, where he 
died. 

MAtTRE ROUX, for DE' ROSSI, 
Rosso, read Dei Rossi. 

MARNE. Add [Supplement]. 

Delete article, Maetis, Ottaviano. 

MASTER OF the CANDLESTICK, 
for HoPFEB, Jan, read Hopfbe, 
Daniel, Hibeonymus, and Lam- 
bert. 

MATHAM, Theodor, for born at 
Haarlem in 1569 read born at 
Haarlem 1606. 

Do. For He died about 1677 read 
He died in 1660. 

MAZZOCCHI,/oj- Doni, Paolo, read 
DoNO, Paolo di. 

MEER, for Johannes (of Utrecht) 
and N.,see Van dee Mebe; JAN(of 
Delft), see Vee Mebb ; Geeaed 
and Jan the younger (of Ghent 
and of Haarlem), read: and N., 
Bee Van dee Mbee; Jan (of 
Delft), see Vbe Mebe ; Geeard 
and Jan (both of Ghent). 

MELLAN, for born at Abbeville 
about 1601 read born at Abbe- 
ville about 1598. 

MONT, for See Dblmont read See 
Van der Mont. 

MOUOHEEON, Feedbeik,/o?- bom 



49, 
80, 



93, 



93, 
93, 



93, 



93, 



96, 

110, 
115, 
121, 



123, 



123, 
127, 
131, 



135, 



166, 
181, 



Page 181, under 



214, 



.£iJ.O, 


)) 


218, 


n 


259, 


}) 


263, 


5) 


278, 


J3 


390, 




397, 




401, 


» 


426, 
429, 


») 


442, 


>J 


443, 




475, 


)) 


481, 


J> 


496, 


» 


528, 


)> 


529, 


Jl 


535, 


)J 


689, 





at Embden in 1663 read bom at 

Embden in 1633 or 1634. 
Do. ifbr The year ofhis death is not 

known, but there is a picture by 

him at Dresden with the date 

1713 upon it, read He died at 

Amsterdam, where he was buried 

January 5, 1686. 
NONZIO, for 18th century read 

16th century. 
NUTI, for under Maeini, Ant. read 

Supplement. 
NUTSCHIDEL, for Netifchatbl 

read Neuchatel. 
PATAVINUS,/or See Otbllo reoti 

See Osello. 
PAUTRE, for Lepauteb read Le 

Paultee. 
PETHER, Abr. Delete the son of 

William Pether. 
Delete cross reference, ROBERTO da 

CIVITELLA, see Eobeetus. 
Delete cross reference, EODERIGO, 

see SiciLiANi. 
ROMANO, ViNCENzo, for Ariemolo 

read Aniemolo. 
RUET,/or Dbevbt read Deeuet. 
Delete cross reference,^VSSl, Fban- 

co db', see Ceivelli, Taddbo de'. 
SAL VIATINO, /or Rossi read Dbi 

Eossi. 
Delete cross reference, SAMMI- 

CHELI, see San Micheli. 
SCHONGAUER, Martin. Add at 

end of article, Martin's brother 

LuDWiG was also an engraver. 
SCIAMERONI, for Filippo read 

Feanoesco. 
SIEGERT, after dioramas read He 

died in 1883. 
STEEVENS, for Stibvbns read 

Stevens. 
STEFANO, ToMM., for Stefano 

read Di Stefano, and after 1356 

add See also Giottino. 
STIMMER, JoHANN Cheistoph. 

At end add See also Lb Suisse. 
Transfer Teoso da Monza to p. 587. 



BIOGEAPHICAL DIOTIONAEY 



PAINTEES AND ENGEAYEES. 



LAAK, Maeia van dee. See Van deb Laak. 

LAAN, Van dee. See Van dee Laan. 

LAAR, J. 0. VAN, the youngest brother of Pieter 
van Laar, ia said to have accompanied his brother 
to Italy, and to have perished by falling into a moun- 
tain torrent while crossing a bridge near Rome. 

LAAR, Pietee van, called Bamboccio and Sntif- 
FELAEE, was born at Haarlem, in 1682. His 
parents were in easy circumstances, and so were 
able to indulge the inclination which he early 
showed for art, by having him instructed in the 
elements of design by Jan van Campen, and after-' 
wards by Adam Elsheiraer. He went when young 
to Italy, and resided for sixteen years in Rome, 
where he was distinguished by the uncommon 
vivacity of his genius and the amiability of his 
disposition. He lived in habits of intimacy with 
Nicolas Poussin, Claude Lorrain, and Sandrart, in 
whose company he made drawings of the most 
interesting monuments, in the neighbourhood of 
Rome. These studies were of use to him in the 
composition of his pictures, as forming the back- 
grounds. He acquired the name of ' Bamboccio ' 
most probably from his usually painting such sub- 
jects as the Italians call ' bambocciate,' sach as 
fairs, rural festivals, huntings, and masquerades, 
rather than from any deformity of his body. In 
1639 he left Rome and settled at Haarlem, where 
his pictures were not less admired than in Italy. 
His works are scarce, and are deservedly held in 
high repute. He died at Haarlem in 1642. The 
following paintings by him are in European gal- 
leries : 

Brunswick. Museum. Scene before a Tavern. 

Cassel. Gallery. A Quack Doctor. 

„ „ Italian Peasants dancing. 

Dresden. Gallery. Italian Peasants. 

Florence. Uffizi. His own Portrait. 

Dlunich. Gallery. Two Horses in a Stall. 

„ „ Italian Porters playing under 

the wall of a Fortress^ 

Louvre. The Departure. 

„ The Shepherds. 

Hermitage. Halt of the Travellers. 

Gallery. Peasant Scenes. 
B 



Paris. 

Petersbnrg. 
Vienna. 

VOL. II. 



LAAR, EoELAND VAN, a younger brother of 
Pieter van Laar, was born at Haarlem in 1610. He 
painted in the style of his brother, with whom he 
travelled in Italy. He died young at Genoa in 1640. 
LABACCO, Antonio. See Abacoo. 
LABACCO, Maeio, was an Italian engraver, 
who flourished from 1551 to 1567. He engraved 
some of the plates to a wort on architecture by his 
father, Antonio Labacco, published at Rome in 
1559 ; and also copied Martin Schongauer's print 
of the ' Temptation of St. Anthony,' and Beatri- 
zet's print, after Giotto, of 'Peter walking on 
the Sea.' No particulars of his life are recorded. 
Both this 'artist and his father are sometimes called 
Abacoo. 

LABADIE', Andeeas, a German painter and 
sculptor, was born at Bautzen in 1731, and was 
instructed in art by Schwarzenberg at Leipsic. In 
1763 he went to Berlin, where he was appointed a 
professor in the Academy, and where he died at the 
beginning of the present century. 
LA BAER, Johannes de. See De la Baee. 
LABAES, Jakob, was a Flemish painter, who 
flourished at Ypres about 1388, and executed some 
portraits for the magistracy of his native city. 

LABA!&A, ToMAS, was a Spanish amateur painter, 
who flourished at Madrid in the reign of Philip IV. 
(1621—1665). 

LA BAUME, , was a French painter, who 

flourished in 1673, and executed some pictures for 
the Castle of Loo by command of Prince Frederick 
Henry of the Netherlands. 

LABBE, Nicolas, a French historical painter, 
flourished in Paris in 1570, in which year, on the 
king's entry into Paris, he and his son Camille 
were commissioned bj'the municipality of Paris to 
paint sixteen historical and allegorical pictures in 
the Reception Hall. 

LABENSKY, F. X., a Russian painter, and con- 
servator of the Royal Gallery at St. Petersburg, 
was born about 1765. In 1805 he published in 
two quarto volumes the ' Galerie de I'Hermitage,' 
containing plates in outline of many of the best 
pictures in the collection. 



Labeo 



A BIOGRAPHICAL DICTIONARY OF 



Laccur 



LABEO, TiTiDins, or Ateids, praetor and pro- 
consul of the province of Narbonne, a.d. 69, painted 
small historical pictures. He died at an advanced 
age in the reign of Vespasian. 

LA BERGE, Charles AnGUSTB db. See De 
LA Beege. 

LABILLE DES VERTUS, Adelaide. See 
Vincent. 

LA BOISSIERE, Simon db. See De la Bois- 
sii;RB. 

LABORDE, L^ON Emmanuel Joseph Simon de. 
Marquis, was born in Paris in 1807. He distin- 
guished himself as a lithographer, wood-engraver, 
and arohseologiat. He visited Arabia and the Bast 
in company with his father, and on his return was 
appointed secretary to the French Embassy in 
Rome, which post he subsequently held in London, 
the Hague, and Cassel. In 1841 he was elected a 
deputy, and in 1842 a member of the Academy. 
He was afterwards appointed Keeper of the Sculp- 
ture in the Louvre, and in 1856 Keeper of the 
Archives of the Empire and Senate. He published 
an account of his travels in the East, and also a 
history of engraving in mezzotint. He died at the 
chateau of Beauregard, Eure, in 1869. 

LABOUCHBRB, Pierre Antoinb, a French 
painter, was born at Nantes in 1807. After study- 
ing in Germany and England he was placed in a 
house of business at Antwerp. In 1827 he made 
a voyage to the United States, and in 1832 to China. 
His residence at Antwerp had fostered the great 
love he had for art, and so in 1836 he definitely 
abandoned his commercial career, and after a year's 
travel in Italy, he went to Paris, and studied under 
his friend Paul Delaroehe. He afterwards travelled 
in Africa, whence he brought back with him a large 
number of water-colour sketches. He died in Paris 
in 1873. His most important productions were : 

Lnther at Wittenberg in 1520. 1855. 

Luther at the Diet of Worms. 1857. 

Luther's Family at Prayer. 1865. 

Lucas Cranaoh painting Luther's portrait. 1865. 

Luther's Death at Bisleben. 1866. 

Charles V. at the Battle of Miihlberg, 1855. 

Erasmus at the house of Sir Thomas More. 1855. 

A Huguenot. 1859. 

Albrecht Diirer painting the Emperor Maximilian. 

1848. 
Olympia Morata at Ferrara. 1869. 
Penserosa. 1870. 

LABRADOR, Juan, a Spanish painter, bom at 
Badajoz about 1530, was a pupil of Morales. He 
painted fruit and flower pieces, which were admired 
for their truth and brilliancy of colour. He was 
also very successful in representing drops of water. 
He died at Madrid in 1600. 

LABROCTE, Alphonse db, a French miniature 
painter, was born in 1792, and died at Metz in 1863. 

LABRUZZI, Carlo, was born at Rome about 
1765. He painted several large landscapes, and 
also had a reputation as a figure draughtsman. 
Most of his etchings are in outline, and among 
them may be mentioned those after the works of 
Masaooio and Michelangelo. 

LABRUZZI, TOMMASO Pietro, the son of I'ietro 
Labruzzi, an historical painter, lived at Rome in 
the latter part of the 18th century, and painted 
several historical pictures. He died about 1808. 

LABY, AuGUSTB FBANgois, a French historical 
and portrait painter, was born in Paris in 1784, and 
studied under David. He was engaged on a picture 
for the church at Etale, in Belgium, when he died 
in Paris in 1860. Amongst his works are : 

2 



Miracle of St. Leu. {Church of Ville-Therry.) 
Passage of the Pass of St. Bernard. _ 

The Crucifixion. 1827. (Church of Villemomb e.) 
Portrait of Louis XVIII. (Society de I'Umon, Lille.) 
Portrait of Charles X. (^Hotel-de- Ville, Beziers.) 
LA CALLEJA, Andreas de. See De la Cal- 

LEJA. , , 

LACEPEDE, Am^lie db, a Frer.ch miniature 
painter, whose maiden name was Kaiitz, was 
bom in 1796, and died in Paris in 1860. 

LA CHAPBLLE, George db. See De la Cha- 

PELLE. 

LACHAUME DE GAVAUX, Jean Louis, called 
Chi^bet, a French landscape and decorative painter, 
was born at New Orleans in 1820. He was the son 
of a French musician, and a pupil of Joseph Thierry. 
He exhibited landscapes at the Salon from 1835, 
but his best work was the scenery for ' Les Hugue- 
nots,' ' Le Roi de Lahore,' ' Michel StrogofE,' ' Paul 
et Virginie,' ' Aida,' ' Le Roi Carotte,' ' Le Tribut de 
Zamora,' ' Le Prophete,' ' Quatre-vingt-treize,' and 
other famous pieces. He died in 1882. 

LACHBNWITZ, F. Siegmund, bom at Neuss in 
1820, was a student at the Diisseldorf Academy 
from 1840 to 1867, studying mostly by himself 
with animal life for his subjects. He died at 
Diisseldorf in 1868. The following are some of 
his best works : 

Horses frightened by a Bear. 1848. 

A Family of Lions ^sturbed by Tigers. 1850. 

A Skirmish. 

Illustrations of the Story of Eeynard the Fox. 

LACHNBR, Hans, was a German painter and 
engraver, who flourished about 1580. 

LACKMAIR, Melchior, was a native of Munich, 
who died in 1625. He was a pupil of Sigmund 
Hebenstreit. 

LACOMA, Francisco Josifi Pablo, a Spanish genre 
painter, was born at Barcelona in 1780. He entered 
the Academy, where he carried ofE all the prizes- 
and received a pension for five years, with which 
he visited Paris, and studied under Spaendonck, 
David, and Gros. In 1810 he received a gold 
medal in Paris, and in 1819 was appointed court 
I painter. He painted portraits, among which was 
one of the King of Spain, engraved by Blan of 
Barcelona, and fruit and flower pieces. 

LACON, , was a portrait painter, who died 

about 1757. He painted water-colour portraits, 
i and set up a puppet-show at Bath. 

LA CORTB. See De la Coktb. 

LACOSTB, Jean Louis Joseph Camille, a 
French engraver on wood, was bom at Toulouse 
in 1809, and died in Paris in 1866. 

LACOUR, Pierre, the elder, an historical 
painter, born at Bordeaux in 1745, was a pupil 
of Vien. After studying at Rome he settled at 
Bordeaux, and was appointed professor in the 
Academy of that city, and it is there that the 
greater number of his pictures are to be found in 
the churches and the collections of amateurs-. 
Among his principal works are, ' St. Paulin, Arch- 
bishop of Bordeaux, opening his Palace to the 
Afflicted,' ' Orpheus bringing Eurydice from the 
Infernal Regions,' 'A Miser sleeping on his Trea- 
sure,' and ' A Mendicant.' He also painted por- 
traits, landscapes, and marine subjects. He died 
at Bordeaux in 1814. 

LACOUR, Pierre, , the younger, son of Pierre 
Lacour the elder, was born at Bordeaux in 1778. 
He was a painter, and succeeded his father as pro- 
fessor in the Academy of Bordeaux, though \\f is 



La Croce 



PAINTERS AND ENGRAVERS. 



Laegb 



better known as an archseologist and engraver. 
lie died at Bordea'tix in 1859. 

LA CROCE, JoHANN Nepomtjk. See De la 
Crock. 

LACROIX, Gaspard Jean, a Frenob landscape 
painter, was born at Turin in 1810. He studied 
under Corot, and died in Paris in 1878. Amongst 
his chief works are : 

Catalan Fishers. 1842. (Nantes Museum.) 
Labourers. 1849. {Grenoble Museum.) 
A green Path near Meauz, 
View in Auvergne. 

LACROIX, Pierre, a French historical painter, 
was born at Nimes in 1783. He afterwards went 
to Paris and studied under David and Gros. In 
the castle at Eosny is a picture by him of the 
Duchess de Berry and her children, which he also 
ilithographed. In the church at Valence is ' The 
Preaching of St. Francis Xavier.' He died in 1856. 

LA CRDZ. See De la Cruz. 

LADAM, Ghislain Franqois, was a Flemish 
historical painter, who flourished in 1659. He 
was made free of the Corporation of St. Luke at 
Tournai in 1659. In the cathedral of Tournai is a 
picture by him of ' Christ giving the Keys to St. 
Peter.' 

LADAME, Gabriel, flourished at I'rankfort 
about 1650. Florent Le Comte mentions this artist 
as the engraver of several plates, representing Holy 
FamiUes, and other devotional subjects, in the style 
of Claude Mellan. 

LADBEOOKE, Henry, a landscape painter, born 
at Norwich in 1800, was the second son of Robert 
Ladbrooke. He received a good education, and 
was brought up for the church, but at his father's 
wish he devoted himself to art. He did not 
exhibit at the Royal Academy, but his works 
appeared at the Norwich Society of Artists, in the 
catalogue of which he is described as " writing and 
drawing master." His works were faithful tran- 
scripts of nature, and his representations of moon- 
light effects were very successful. He died in 1870. 

LADBROOKE, John Berney, a landscape painter, 
the third son of Robert Ladbrooke, was born at 
Norwich in 1803. His attention was early devoted 
to art, for he exhibited at the Norwich Society of 
Artists as early as 1817. He was then described 
as " Master J. Ladbrooke," and was represented by 
two works after Morland and a flower piece. His 
style was chitefly based on that of Crome, and he 
excelled in depicting foliage. He did not often 
exhibit — he only appeared at the Royal Academy 
once or tw^ice in the early part of his cai^eSr — but 
he is said to have received good prices for his 
works. He died at Norwich in 1879. 

LADBROOKE, Robert, a landscape painter of 
the Norwich school. Was bom in 1770. He began 
life as a printer, but his love for art triumphed, and 
he was content to commence the profession of an 
artist by painting portraits at five shillings each. 
He early became acquainted with " Old " Crome, 
and they married sisters. Together they were the 
moving spirits in the foundation of the Norwich 
Society of Artists in 1805, but later in life he 
quarrelled with Crome, and they headed opposition 
societies. Ladbrooke was a large contributor to 
the exhibitions of the Society. His works were 
chiefly views in Norfolk and on the Norfolk coast, 
with an occasional portrait. In the catalogues he is 
described as "drawing-master." He also exhibited 
pictures in London at the Royal Academy between 



1809 and 1816, and published 'Views of Norfolk 
Churches ' in five volumes. He died at Norwich 
in 1842. 

LADD, Anne, who was born in London in 1746, 
and died in 1770, painted portraits and fruit pieces. 

LADDER, , was an English painter of the 

18th century, who painted genre pictures in the 
style of Morland. 

LADENSPELDER, Johann, or Hans von Essen, 
an engraver, was born at Essen, a frontier city of 
the duchy of Berg, about the year 1512, according 
to the inscription on his portrait ; but nothing 
further is known of his life, or of the time of his 
death. Bartsch and Passavant describe sixty-one 
prints by this master, the latest date on any one of 
these being 1554, some of them bear monograms 
composed of the letters J. L. V. E. S., which 
he interprets Johann Ladenspelder von Essen 
sculpsit. Bartsch thinks he was a painter as well 
as an engraver, and that all the prints specified 
by him were after his own pictures, or designs ; at 
least, there are several on which he pnt his name, 
with the word in. or inventor, besides the mono- 
grams mentioned. Among his prints are : 

His own Portrait. 

The Descent from the Cross. 

The Man of Sorrows. 

The Trinity. 

The Four Evangelists. 

The Conversion of St. Paul. 

Allegory of the Christian Virtues. 

The Planets. 

LADEY, Jean Maro, a French painter of fruit 
and flowers, born in Paris in 1710, was a pupil of 
Belin de Fontenay. He became an academician 
in 1741, and died in Paris at the Gobelins Tapestry 
Manufactory in 1749. There is in the Louvre a 
painting by him of a ' Vase surrounded by Flowers 
and Fruit,' dated 1743. 

L'ADMIRAL, Jakob, was bom in 1699, and 
accompanied his brother Jan on his travels. He 
was employed in engraving insects. 

L'ADMIRAL, Jan, a Dutch engraver, was born 
at Leyden of French parentage in 1680. He. came 
to London, where he worked for Le Blon, and then 
went to Amsterdam, where he engraved the por- 
traits for Van Mander's ' Livre des Peintres.' He 
also executed in colours many prints of anatomical 
subjects and natural history, and was much em- 
ployed by the celebrated Frederik Ruysch. He 
died at Amsterdam in 1773. 

LADRON Y GUEVARA, Felipe de, a scion of 
the noble house of Onate, was no less distin- 
guished for his valour than for his love of art. He 
accompanied the Emperor Charles V. to Bologna 
in 1530, and acquired there the friendship of Titian 
and other Italian and Flemish masters. From this 
intercourse and a careful study of their woriss he 
became an excellent amateur. He died at Madrid 
in 1563. He wrote a ' Commentary on Painting,' 
which after long neglect was published by Pony at 
Madrid in 1788. 

LADURNER, Adolphe, was a French historical, 
portrait, and battle painter, who was born in 1798. 
He was a pupil of Horace Vernet. In 1829 he 
went to St. Petersburg, where he became painter 
to the Emperor Nicholas, and where he died in 
1865. 

LAECK, Reinier van, or van der, was an his- 
torical and mythological painter, who flourished 
about 1640. 

LAEGH, Willem van der. See Van der Laegh. 

3 



Laen 



A BIOGRAPHICAL DICTIONARY OF 



Xiagren^e 



LAEN, Thierry van der. See Vas der Laen. 

LAETHEM, Jakob van, was a Flemish portrait 
painter of the 16th century, who iii 1517 painted 
a portrait of the Emperor Charles V. 

LAETHEM, Jan Alexander, was a Belgian 
Dainter of genre subjects, whose works appeared 
at the exhibitions of Antwerp, Ghent, and Brussels, 
between the years 1825 and 1836. 

LA FABRIQDE, Nicolaes, a Flemish painter, 
was born about 1649 at Namur, where he was a pupil 
of Bouge. He went to Rome when quite young, 
and on his return settled at Liege, where he prac- 
tised and died in 1736. There is a picture of ' The 
Money Counter ' by him in the Brussels Gallery. 

LA FAGE. See De la Fage. 

LA FARGUE, Maria, sister of Paul Constantin 
La Fargue, practised painting in various subjects, 
which are well composed and highly finished. 

LA FARGUE, Paul Constantin, a Dutch 
painter, was born at the Hague. His pictures are 
generally small, representing views of the environs 
of his native city. His drawings are, however, 
more esteemed than his paintings in oil. He had 
considerable skill in copying the works of the 
older Dutch masters. He died at Leyden in 1782. 
There exist several etchings by him. 

LA FERTB, M. de. See De la FertiS. 

LAPITTE, Louis, a French historical painter, 
was born in Paris in 1770, and studied under Des- 
inarteau and J. B. Regnault. In 1791 he obtained 
the first prize with his work entitled ' Regulus 
returning to Carthage,' and was sent to Rome. 
After studying some time there he settled in Paris, 
and under the Restoration was appointed painter 
to the king, and became a member of the Institute 
and of the Academies of Rome and Florence. 
The French Revolution and Napoleon I. provided 
him with plentiful materials for his drawings and 
paintings. He died in Paris in 1828. 

LA FLEUR, Nicolas Gdillaume de. See De 
LA Flbur. 

LAFOND, Charles Nicolas Raphael, was born 
in Paris in 1774. He was a pupil successively of 
Barth^lemi, of Suvee, and of Regnault, and holds a 
distinguished rank among the modern French 
painters of historical and poetical subjects. His 
works are numerous, and are to be found in the 
Versailles and other public galleries, as well as in 
private collections. His pictures of the ' Good 
Samaritan,' ' Jacob blessing his Sons,' and ' Charles 
VII.' obtained for him the gold medal. He died in 
Paris in 1835. 

LAFOND, Daniel, a native of France, was born 
in 1760. During the religious troubles he removed 
from France to Switzerland, and settled at Berne. 
He was a pupil of Siegmund Freudenberger. He 
excelled chiefly in landscapes, and executed several 
Swiss views. He died at Berne in 1831. 

LAFONTAINE, Pierre Joseph, was born at 
Courtrai in 1758. He was first instructed by 
Kaplau van Neste, who assisted him to enter the 
Academy at Courtrai, and afterwards by Jean 
Douelle. Interiors of churches were his favourite 
subjects. He went to Paris, aud in 1782 was elected 
a member of the Academy. The figures in his 
works were often painted by Taunay, De Marne, 
Swebach, or Drolling. To the profession of an 
artist he joined the business of a picture-dealer. 
He died in Paris in 1835. 

LA FOSSE. See De la Fosse. 

LAFRENSBN, Nicolaus, (or Lavreince), born at 
Stockholm in 1737, was instructed in the rudiments 



of painting by his father, a miniature painter. At 
first he devoted himself to the same branch, and m 
1771 visited Paris, where he painted portraits of- a 
small size in water-colours and in oil. After return- 
ing to Sweden he became a member of the Academy 
at Stockholm in 1773, and was appointed court 
painter. On his second visit to Paris in 1774 he 
painted very pleasing rococo scenes._ His last 
productions represent portraits, historical scenes, 
festivals, &o. He painted the figures in Bellanger's 
works, and his paintings have been engraved by 
Benossi, Delaunay, Helman, Br^a, Vidal, Mariage, 
and Pierron. He left Paris in 1791, and died at 
Stockholm in 1807. Among his works may be 
mentioned : 

The Happy Moment. 

Le Billet doux. 

The Dancing-School. 

Preparations for the Ball. 

Ebba Brahe, writing on a window. 

Brahe and Gyllenstjerna. 

Erick XIT. and his Wife. 

Catharine Jagellonla and her Favourite. 

LAFRERY, Antoine, a French engraver, was 
born at Salins in 1512. In 1540 he went to Rome, 
and with his uncle, Claude Duchet, established a shop 
which had a great reputation for prints and maps. 
Among his engravings are 'Jupiter slaying the 
Giants,' after Raphael, and ' The Birth of Adonis,' 
after Salviati. He died about 1680. 

LA FUENTE. See De la Fdbnte. 

LAGEMAN, Hendrik, a Dutch engraver, was 
born at Amsterdam in 1765. He was instructed 
by Karel Konse and J. G. Holtzhey, and he en- 
graved several portraits. He died in 1816. 

LAGNIET, Jacques, was a French engraverof • 
the 17th century, of whose' life there are no details, 
but his works are rare and much sought after. 

LAGOOR, JoHAN, was a painter and engraver of 
the 17th century at Haarlem, who entered the Guild 
there in 1645, and was living in 1649. His genre 
paintings are generally attributed to other artists. 
There are six very rare plates by Lagoor, among 
which are ' The Square Tower ' and ' The Rotunda.' 

LA GOURDAINE, Jean Pierre Norblin de. 
See Norblin de la Gourdaine. 

LAGRENI^IE, Anthelmb FRANgois, a French 
historical, genre, portrait, and miniature painter, 
was born in faris in 1774. He was a son of Louis 
Jean Franpois Lagrenee, and studied under Vincent. 
In 1793 he served in the army, but on his release 
from military service he returned to art. He was 
patronized by the Emperor Alexander, on whose 
invitation he paid a visit to Russia in 1823. His 
latter years were entirely devoted to miniature 
painting. He died of cholera in Paris in 1832. 

LAGRENEE, Jean Jacques, a French historical 
and portrait painter, was born in Paris in 1739. He 
studied under his brother, Louis Jean Francois 
Lagrenee, and also in the Academy, where he 
obtained the second prize in 1760. After con- 
tinuing his studies at Rome, he followed his 
brother to Russia. On his return he was received 
into the Academy in 1775, becoming assistant- 
professor in 1776, and professor in 1781. He 
was engaged on the decorations of the Louvre, 
and was also attached to the manufactory at Sevres, 
where he did much good work. A process for pro- 
ducing designs on marble was invented by him. 
He died in Paris in 1821. Amongst his works are : 

Angers. Museum. The Betrothal. 

Auxerre. Cathedral. The Baptism of Christ. 

„ „ St. Michael and the Devil. 



LagrenSe 



PAINTERS AND ENGRAVERS. 



Lairesse 



Ohalon-sar-Sa6ne. 3/as. Venus and Vulcan. 

Grenoble. Museum. St. John preaching. 

Orleans. Museum. Artemisia. 

Paris. Louvre. 'Winter. 

,, „ Melancholy. 

LAGRENBE, Louis Jean FRANgois, was born 
in Paris in 1725. He was a scholar of Carle van 
Loo. In 1749 his picture of ' Joseph interpret- 
injs; the Dream of Pharaoh' obtained the great 
prize from the Academy of Painting, and he was 
sent as a pensioner to Rome. He returned to 
Paris in 1753, and was admitted a member of the 
Academy in 1755. His picture of admission was 
the ' Rape of Deianeira by the Centaur Nessus.' This 
and his ' Justice and Clemency,' painted in 1765, 
are in the Louvre. His' reputation induced the 
Empress Elizabeth to appoint him to the office 
of director of the Academy at St. Petersburg, and 
to that of her principal painter. In 1781 he was 
made director of the French school at Rome ; and 
there he painted some of his best pictures. They 
are chiefly from sacred and profane history, and 
the ancient poets, and the greater part have been 
engraved. He was professor-rector of the School 
of Fine Arts, and honorary conservator and ad- 
ministrator of the Musde, when he died in Paris 
in 1805. He etched several small plates from his 
own designs and others, with great spirit ; among 
which are the following : 

The Virgin, vrith the Infant sleeping ; after Guido. 

St. Peter and St. Jerome ; two prints ; from liis own 
designs. 

The Virgin and Child. 

Charity and Justice ; two emblematical subjects. 

The Sacrifice of Noah. 

A Sacrifice to Pan. 

LAGDERRE, John, called 'Jack Laguerre,' 
was the son of Louis Laguerre. He was bom in 
London, and was instructed in painting by his 
father, and worked also under Hogarth, but having 
a talent for music and singing, he had recourse to 
the stage, where he met with considerable success. 
Towards the latter part of his hfe he painted scenes 
and decorations for the theatre. He etched a plate 
representing FalstaflF, Pistol, and Doll Tearsheet, 
with other theatrical characters, in allusion to a 
quarrel between the players and patentees. He 
also engraved a set of prints to the farce of ' Hob 
in the Well,' which had a great sale, though in- 
difEerently executed. As a caricaturist he is con- 
sidered the founder of a school. He was one of 
the class of pleasant, clever, and careless fellows 
whose disposition and habits preclude any great 
attainment. He died in poverty in 1748. 

LAGUERRE, Louis, called ' Old Laguerre,' was 
born in Paris in 1663, and had Louis XIV. for 
his godfather. His father was a Catalan who 
settled in France, and became master of the Mena- 
gerie at Versailles. He placed his son to be in- 
structed in literature in the college of the Jesuits, 
where he acquired sufficient learning to be of use 
to him in his historical subjects and allegories. He 
was for some time a scholar of Charles Le Brun, 
and frequented the Academy in Paris. In 1683 he 
came to England with one Ricard, a painter of 
architecture, and was first employed by Antonio 
Verrio to assist him in the numerous decorative 
works in which he was engaged. Laguerre painted 
the greater part of Verrio' s work in St. Bartholo- 
mew's Hospital, and when he was little more than 
twenty years of age, got into very extensive busi- 
ness in painting saloons, ceilings, &c. in the man- 
sions of the principal nobihty. King William 



employed him at Hampton Court, where he repaired 
Mantegna's cartoons of the 'Triumphs of Julius 
Caesar,' and painted, in chiaroscuro, the ' Labours of 
Hercules.' Horace ^Yalpole states, that he was at 
first chosen unanimously by the commissioners for 
rebuilding St. Paul's, to decorate the cupola, but 
was set aside by the paramount interest of Sir 
James Thornhill. Sir Godfrey Kneller employed 
him to paint the staircase of his house at Whitton, 
where he distinguished himself beyond his usual 
performances. There is an etching by Louis 
Laguerre of the ' Judgment of Midas.' He died in 
1721 whilst witnessing a performance in Drury 
Lane Theatre. Pope has immortalized him and 
his employer Verrio in the line, "Where sprawl 
the saints of Verrio and Laguerre." This, how- 
ever, is unjust to Laguerre's ability. In the 
National Portrait Gallery is a portrait by him of 
William, first Earl of Cadogan. 
LA GUERTIERE, Fbanqois de. See De la 

GUERTIERE. 

LA HAYE. See De la Hate. 

LAHDB, Gerhard Ludwig, bom at Bremen in 
1766, studied at the Academy at Copenhagen, and 
distinguished himself as a designer and engraver. 
He obtained several medals, and was painter at the 
court of Denmark. He died at Copenhagen in 1820. 

LA HBLE, Isaak de. See De la Hele. 

LA HIRE. See De la Hire. 

LA HUERTA. See De la Huerta. 

LA IGLESIA, Francisco Ignacio Ruiz de. See 
Ruiz dr la Iglesia. 

LAIXATI, Maeco, a painter of the Parmese 
school, was born at Piacenza, and flourished about 
1777. He was a pupil of Louis de La Forest. He 
worked at Carpi, where he executed several pictures. 

LAING, John Joseph, a Scottish wood engraver, 
was born at Glasgow in 1830. He practised for 
some time in his native city, but afterwards came 
to London, where he was chiefly employed on 
architectural subjects for the ' Builder.' He died 
at Glasgow in 1862. 

LAIR, Jean Louis C^sae, a French painter of 
historical subjects and of portraits, was born at 
Janville (Eure et Loire) in 1781, and died there in 
1828, after passing the greater part of his life in 
Paris. He was a scholar of Regnault and David. 
He painted many religious subjects of large dimen- 
sions for churches, and a multitude of portraits 
and smaller pictures. 

LAIRB, SiGMUND, a German miniature paint«r, 
was born in Bavaria about 1553. He studied 
painting under the Flemish painter, Francisco de 
Castello, at Rome, during the pontificate of Pope 
Gregory XIII. The greater part of his Madonnas 
went to India. He died at Rome in 1639, aged 86. 

LAIRESSE FAMILY. 



Kenier de Lairesse 
(law?— 1667.) 



Ernest 
(1635?— 16753 



Gerard 
(1641—1711). 



Jacob. 



Jan. 



Abraham 
(1681-1739.) 



Jan. 



Gerard. 



LAIRESSE, Abraham de, bom at Amsterdam 
in 1681, was a son of Gerard de Lairesse, in whose 
style he painted. He died at Amsterdam in 1739. 

LAIRESSE, Ernest de, the elder brother of 
Gerard de Lairesse, was bom at Li6ge about the 
year 1635, and was instructed in design by his 
father. He painted animals and hunting scenes in 
distemper, and was sent to Italy to study, by hia 
patron, the Elector Maximilian Heinrich of Cologne, 

6 



Xiairesse 



A BIOGRAPPIICAL DICTIONARY OF 



liallemaiit 



who, on his return, appointed him his painter, and 
in whose service he died at the age of fortj'. His 
best worli perished at the bombardment of Bonn. 

LAIEESSB, Geeaed de, was born at Li^ge in 
1641. He was the son of Eenier de Lairesse, an 
artist of some celebrity, who had him instructed in 
the belles-lettres, poetry, and music, and taught him 
the principles of design. He afterwards studied 
under Berth olet Plemalle, and at the age of sixteen 
had made himself known as a portrait painter. He 
was soon after employed in some historical works 
for the Electors of Cologne and Brandenburg, and 
these established his reputation. Unfortunately an 
expensive and dissolute course of life kept him in 
indigence, although his gains were considerable. 
Not iinding sufficient employment in his native 
city, he settled at Utrecht, and soon afterwards 
removed to Amsterdam, where he was regarded as 
the greatest historical painter of his time. Lairesse 
was afflicted with loss of sight in 1690, when he 
was only iifty years of age ; but so great was his 
love for art, that he continued till his death to 
coramunioate his ideas on its theory and practice, 
in discourses from which were collected the ma- 
terials for the treatise on design and colouring, 
pu blished after his decease. He died at Amsterdam! 
in 1711. His style is grand and poetical, he was 
perfectly acquainted with history and fable, pos- 
sessed a lively and ready in\'ention, and was attent- 
ive to propriety of costume. In his composition and 
design he has been compared to Nicolas Poussin, but 
he has very slender pretensions to Poussin's classic 
elevation of thought, profound acquaintance with 
the antique, elegance of taste, and purity of design. 
He painted with an extraordinary facility, and is said 
to have finished in one day a picture of 'Mount 
Parnassus, v/ith Apollo and the Nine Muses ; ' an 
achievement which Poussin would not have been 
ambitious of performing. His backgrounds are 
enriched with architecture, the principles of which 
lie perfectly understood. A visit to Italy might have 
given more elegance and delicacy to his figures, 
which are occasionally ungraceful and too short. It 
is, however, surprising that he could arrive at so 
accomplished a style as is generally visible in his 
works, without the advantages of travel, and with 
no better models to-consult tlian those he met with 
in his own country. Among his paintings are : 



Amsterdam. 


Museum, 


A Festival of Bacchanals. 


„ 


)j 


Legitimate Power. 


, 


,, 


Eevolution. 


„ 




Venus, Mars, and Cupid. 


jj 


)> 


Venus, Mars, Cupid, and Mer- 
cury. 




„ 


Diana and Endymion. 


Berlin. 


Oallenj. 


The Baptism of Acliilles. 


„ 


„ 


Satyr and Nymph. 


Brussels. 


Oallei-y. 


The Death of Pyrrhus. 


Cassel. 


Gallery. 


The Death of Germanicus. 


Hague. 


Museum. 


Achilles recognized by Ulysses. 


Palis. 


Louvre. 


Institution of the Eucharist. 


" 


JJ 


Disembarkation of Cleopatra at 
Tarsus. 




J, 


Dance of Children. 


n 


» 


Hercules between Vice and 
Virtue. 


Stockholm. 


Gallery. 


Achilles made known by 



Vienna. 



Gallery. Neptune and Amphitrite. 



Others are to be met with at Augsburg, Bruns- 
wick, Christiania, Dresden, Munich, &c. 

As an engraver, Gerard de Lairesse claims par- 
ticular notice. He etched a large number of plates 

6 



from his own designs, executed with great freedom 
and spirit : the lights are broad and powerful, and 
the eye is carried at once to the principal figures 
of the composition. He sometimes marked his 
works with the initials O de L ; G L ; : D : L : 
pinx. ;G L; GL fee et exc. : G L F ; GLf; G. 
Zaire; G. Laires. The following are engraved 
by himself : 

The Fall of our first Parents 

Adam and Eve driven from Paradise. 

Joseph and his Brethren. 

Solomon consecrated by the High Priest. 

The Infant Jesus explaining to his Parents the Divine 

WiU. 
The Incredulity of St. Thomas. 
Saint Theresa. 

The Parting of Hector and Andpomaohe. 
Antony and Cleopatra. 
A March of Amazons. 
A large Bacchanalian subject. 
Venus lamenting the Death of Adonis. 
The Four Seasons ; designs for ceilings. 
Diana and Endymion. 
Bacchante, with Silenus asleep. 

LAIEESSB, Jacob de and Jan de, were the 
younger brothers of Gei-ard de Lairesse, who dis- 
tinguished themselves in painting flowers, fruit, 
and bas-reliefs. Their chief residence was at 
Amsterdam. 

LAIRESSE, Eenieh de, a Dutch painter, was 
born at Liege about 1696. He was a pupil of Jan 
Taulier, whose daughter he married. He was 
principal painter to Ferdinand of Bavaria, Electsr 
of Cologne and Prince Bishop of Liege. Among 
his historical pictures are, ' The Martyrdom of the 
Eleven Thousand Virgins,' 'The Martyrdom of St. 
Lawrence,' ' The Death of Seneca,' and ' The Rape 
of Helen.' He afterwards abandoned painting, and 
took to painting on wood to resemble marble and 
jasper and precious stones, in which art he specially 
excelled. He died at Vitry-Ie-Fran9ais in 1667. 

LA JOUE, Jacques de. See De la Joue. 

LALA was a feinale portrait painter of Cyzicus, 
who flourished at Rome about B.C. 74. She painted 
in encaustic on ivory, and obtained a great re- 
putation. 

LA LIVE DE JULLT, Ange Laueent de. See 
De la Live de Jullt. 

L'ALLEMAND, Feiedeioh, or more usually 
Feitz, who was born at Hanau in 1812, studied at 
the 'Vienna Academy, and became a good painter 
of military subjects, for which he was very popular. 
He died at Vienna in 1866. An ' Episode in the Battle 
of Znaim,' dated 1845, is in tire Vienna Gallery. 

L'ALLEMAND, Geoeges, a French historical 
painter, who was a native of Nancy, executed in 
1630 and 1633 the first and fourth 'mais' for the 
cathedral of Notre-Dame.. 

LALLEMAND, Jean Baptiste, a French land- 
scape and marine painter, was born at Dijon about 
1710. He was originally a tailor, but abandoned 
the shears for the brush. He came over to England, 
then returned to France, and after a visit to Italy 
again came back to his own country, where he died 
about 1805. 

L'ALLEMAND, Thiesey, a portrait draughts- 
man, was born at Hanau in 1809, and died at 
Hanover in 1881. He studied at the Academy 
of Vienna. 

LALLEMANT, Philippe, who was born at 
Rheims in 1629, and died in 1716, was a painter 
residing in Paris. In 1672 he was received into 
the Academy, on which occasion he painted the 



Lama 



PAINTERS AND ENGRAVEES. 



Lamberts 



portraits of Perrault and Barbier du Metz, which 
are now at Versailles. He was the master of De 
La Hire, and the second master of Nicolas Poussin. 
LAMA, Giovanni Beenabdo, the son of an artist 
of little celebrity, named Matteo Lama, was born at 
Naples in 1508. After learning the first principles 
of design from his father, he was placed under the 
tuition of Giovanni Antonio d' Amato. In 1527 the 
memorable saoliing of Rome drove from that city 
the greater part of the inhabitants ; among others, 
Polidoro da Caravaggio, who took refuge at Naples, 
and Lama had the advantage of his instruction. 
He, however, followed rather the style of Andrea 
Sabbatini, and his paintings are sometimes weak 
and affected. He died at Naples in 1579. Many 
of his works are to be found in the churches of that 
city ; amongst them the following are noteworthy : 

S. Severino. The Entombment. 

S, Gregorio Armeno. The Ascension. 

S. Lorenzo Magyiore. The Marriage of St. Catharine. 

S. M. della Sapienza. Christ amongst the Doctors. 

LAMA, Giovanni Battista, was born at Naples 
about the year 1660, and was a fellow-student with 
Paolo de Matteis, under Luca Giordano. He 
painted history, and was much employed in easel 
pictures of mythological subjects, some of which 
were in the gallery of the Duke of San Niccola 
Gaeta, at Naples, and were admired for the elegance 
of their style and the sweetness of their colouring. 
Others are to be met with in the environs of the 
same city. He died after 1740. 

LAMA, GiULlA, was an historical painter of 
Venice, who flourished in the 18th century. 

LA MAIR, — — , was a pauiter of serpents, 
lizards, and other reptiles, in the manner of Otho 
Masseus, or Marcellis, as he is frequently named. 
He particularly excelled in the representation of 
butterflies ; and his works are generally attributed 
to Masseus, but they are painted on u lighter 
ground. Neither the year of his birth nor that of 
his death is known, but he lived at Nymwegen in 
the 18th century. 

LA MAISON, Nicolas de. See Della Gasa. 

LAMANNA, Gibolamo, an historical painter and 
poet, was born at Catania, in Sicily, about 1580, and 
died in 1640. 

LA MARE-EICHART, Florent I. de. See De 
LA Mare-Richaet. 

LAMARS, D., was a Flemish historical painter, 
who flourished about 1621. In the Augustine Con- 
vent at Ghent is a picture by this artist of the 
' Circumcision.' 

LAMBERT, George, was bom in Kent in 1710, 
and was a scholar of William Hassell, and after- 
wards of Woptton, to whom he was greatly superior. 
His first employment was as a theatrical^ scene- 
painter, in which line he worked for the Lincoln's 
Inn Fields Theatre, but in 1736 he obtained the 
post of principal painter at Covent Garden, where 
his productions were numerous and important, but 
many of them perished in the fire of 1808. He has 
the credit of being one of the first of the ETiglish 
painters who treated landscape with a pleasing and 
picturesque effect. In conjunction with Samuel 
Soott, he painted some views of the settlements of 
the East India Company, for their house in Leaden- 
hall Street, which has since been demolished. The 
Foundling Hospital possesses a landscape by him. 
Some of his English landscapes have been engraved 
by Vivares, Mason, &c. George Lambert etched, 
in a coarse but painter-like manner, two prints, 
now become scarce, one of which represents an 



upright landscape, with ruins, and three small 
figures. He died in 1765. 

LAMBERT, James, was a landscape painter, who 
gained a premium at the Society of Arts in 1770, 
and exhibited at the Society of Artists, the Free 
Society of Artists, and the Royal Academy from 
1761 to 1778. He died near Lewes in 1779. His 
son, also named James, was a genre, fruit, and 
flower painter, who exhibited at the Free Society of 
Artists and the Royal Academy from 1769 to 1778. 
LAMBERT, Jean, was a painter of Lidge, who 
flourished about 1427. 

LAMBERT, John, was born about 1620. He was 
of good family, and rose to the rank of major- 
general in the service of the Commonwealth. On 
the Restoration he was banished to Guernsey, where 
he employed himself in flower painting, having in 
his youth been a pupil of Jan Baptist Gaspers. 
He died in Guernsey in 1683. His son John was 
a portrait painter, who died at his estate in Yorkshire. 
LAMBERT, Josse, was a Flemish engraver, who 
died at Ghent in 1566 or 1557. There is a curious 
engraving by hun representing 'The Triumph of 
Christ,' after Titian, which is engraved on wood in 
ten pieces. 

' LAMBERT, Mark, a wood engraver, was one of 
Bewick's assistants. He was born in 1781, and 
died at Newcastle in 1855. 

LAMBERT, Martin, who was born in Paris in 
1630, was a portrait painter and a pupil of the 
cousins Beaubrun. He was elected an Academician 
in 1663 ; his picture of reception represented 'The 
Cousins Beaubrun working at the same easel: ' it is 
now in the Louvre. He died in Paris in 1699. 
LAMBERT the LOMBARD. See SasTBEMAN. 
LAMBERTl, Buonaventura, was born at Carpi 
in 1652, and after residing some time at Modena, 
he established himself at Rome. He is said to 
have been one of the last and ablest scholars of 
Carlo Cignani. He painted some pictures for St. 
Peter's, which have been executed in mosaic by 
Ottaviani, and his fine picture of ' St. Francis of 
Paola resuscitating a dead Child,' in the church of 
the Spirito Santo de' Napolitani, has been engraved 
by Jacob Frey. His ' Virgin showing the Infant 
Saviour to St. Jerome ' was engraved by Dorigny. 
There are several of his easel pictures in the Palazzo 
Gabrielli, which are deservedly admired. He died 
at Rome in 1721. 

*LAMBERTI, Niccol6, a painter of the Florentine 
school, was living in 1382. He was a pupil of the 
Orcagnai, and painted in company with Jacopo in 
the palace at Volterra a fresco representing the 
' Annunciation ' with Saints. 

LAMBERTINI, Miohele di Matteo, was a 
painter of Bologua, who in 1447 painted in the 
church of San Giovanni at Siena the twelve articles 
of the Apostles' Creed. There are a ' Pieta ' between 
SS. Jolm, Mark, Roch, and Anthony Abbot, dated 
1462, and a ' Virgin and Child,' dated 1469, by 
him in the Academy of Bologna. The churches 
of San Petronio and San Giacomo in the same 
city also possess specimens of his work ; whilst 
the Academy of Venice has an altar-piece of the 
'Virgin and Child,' with Saints and scenes from 
the life of St. Helena. No dates can be given of 
his birth or death. 

LAMBERTS, Gerard, a Dutch landscape and 
architectural painter, was born at Amsterdam 
in 1776, and died in 1850. He was a conservator 
of the Amsterdam Museum and a member of the 
Academy. 



Iiambinet 



A BIOGRAPHICAL DICTIONARY OF 



liamsvelt 



LAMBINET, Emile Charles, a French land- 
scape painter, was born at Versailles in 1815, and 
studied under Drolling, Boisselier, and Horace 
Vernet. He died at Bougival in 1877. Amongst 
his works are : 

Amiens. Museum. Les Baigneuses. 1849. 

Avignon. Museum. The Banks of the Gardon. 1840. 

Besan(;ou. Museum. The Course of the Ivette. 1865. 

Camhrai. Museum. Interior of a Cottage. 1835. 

„ „ View of Senhsse. 1836. 

Montpellier. Museum.. Landscape. 

LAMBOENB, Peter Spendblowe, an engraver, 
was born in London in 1722. He was chiefly 
engaged on architectural and antiquarian works, 
and practised at Cambridge. He also painted 
miniatures, and belonged to the Incorporated 
Society of Artists. He died at Cambridge in 1774. 

LAMBRECHTS, C, was a Dutch historical and 
genre painter, who flourished in the 17th century. 

LAMBRI, Steeano, an Italian historical and 
portrait painter, who flourished about 1620, was 
a pupil and imitator of Malosso. He painted in 
1623, for the Dominican Church of Cremona, a 
picture representing ' St. William and St. Louis 
Bertrand.' 

LAME, BiAGio DALLE, See Pdpini. 

LAMEN, Van der. See Van der Lamen. 

LAMINIT, Paul Jakob, a German engraver, 
was born at Augsburg in 1773, and studied under 
Ignaz Sebastian Klauber. His plates represent : 

Several Towns and Landscapes, in Lipowsky's Almanac. 

Several Views, for the Emperor of Bassia. 

LAMINOY, Simon de, a French battle and land- 
scape painter, was born at Noyon in 1623, and was 
made an Academician in 1663. He died at Verrines 
(Loiret) in 1683. 

LAMION, Jean, was a distinguished French 
miniature painter, who flourished at Troyes in 1336. 

LAMMA, Agostino, an Italian battle painter, was 
born at Venice about 1636. He was instructed by 
Antonio Calza, and his chief production is the 
' Siege of Vienna by the Turks,' painted in the style 
of M. Stom. He died in Venice about 1700. 

LAMME, Akie, a Dutch landscape painter, was 
born at Heerensjansdam in 1748. He studied under 
J. Ponse at Utrecht, and practised in the style of 
Cuyp. He was much engaged on decorative work, 
and was also a poet. His daughter Cornelia was 
the mother of Ary SchefEer. He died in 1801. 

LAMME, Aenoldus, a Dutch animal, landscape, 
and battle painter, the son of Arie Lamme, was a 
native of Dordrecht. He established himself as a 
line-art dealer at Rotterdam, where he died in 1856. 

LAMME, Cornelia. See Sohefper. 

LAMMLEIN, Alexandre^ was born at Hohenfels, 
Bavaria, in 1813. At the early age of ten he was 
sent to Paris and placed under an engraver ; sub- 
sequently he entered the Ecole des Beaux-Arts and 
studied under Eegnault and Picot. He distin- 
guished himself as a portrait painter, but also 
executed religious and mythological subjects. 
With Alaux he restored the Primaticcio Gallery 
at Fontainebleau in the years 1836-39. Many 
etchings and paintings on enamel by him are to be 
met with. He was naturalized in France, and died 
in 1871. Among his paintings may be mentioned : 

The Chastity of Joseph. 

The Awakening of Adam. 

Job. 

Jacob's Ladder. 

The Vision of Zechariah. {Uoche/ort Museum.) 

The Awakening of Tabitha. 

Diana and Endymion. 

8 



LAMO, Pierre, was an historical painter, who 
died at Bologna in 1678. He was a pupil of Inno- 
cenzo da Imola. 

LA MONCE, Raimond Ferdinand dk. See Db 

LA MoNCE. 

LAMORLET, Joseph, was a Flemish historical 
painter, who flourished about 1665. In 1661 he was 
made free of the Guild of St. Luke at Antwerp, 
and became its dean in 1672-3. He died between 
1680 and 1688. 

LAMOTTE, , was a French historical painter 

of the 18th century. In 1721 he took the second 
prize at the French Academy for his picture of 
' Gideon's Sacrifice.' 

LAMPARELLI, Carlo, an Italian portrait and 
historical painter, who flourished about 1680, was 
a native of Spello. He was a pupil of Giacinto 
Brandi. 

LAMPI, Franz von, a painter of portraits and 
battle pieces, was born at Klagenfurt in 1783, 
and instructed in the art by his father, Johann 
Baptista Lampi the elder. He died at Warsaw in 
1852. There are by him : 

Portrait of the Empress Catharine II. of Bussia, 

Portrait of the Princess of Liechtenstein. 

Portrait of the Dancer Heberle. 

LAMPI, JoHANN Bafpist von, the elder, a 
Tyrolese historical and portrait painter, was born 
at Romeno in 1761, He became a professor at the 
Vienna Academy in 1786, but subsequently he 
resided in Russia, where he devoted himself to 
portrait painting, and amassed a large fortune. 
He died at Vienna in 1830. There are by him : 

Darmstadt. Museum. The Portrait of a young Painter. 
Petersburg. Hermitage. Portrait of the Empress Maria 

Fedorowna. 
Vienna. Gallery. Repose of Venus. 

„ „ Portrait of Himself. 

LAMPI, Johann Baptist von, the younger, an 
Austrian portrait painter, was born at Trent in 1775, 
and studied under his father, Johann Baptist Lampi 
the elder, and at the Academy at Vienna. He 
went afterwards to St. Petersburg, where he stayed 
thirteen years, and became a member of the Acad- 
emy at that city as well as of that at Vienna id 
1813, He painted many of the most distinguished 
personages of his time. Among his other works is 
to be mentioned a ' Venus ' in the style of Fiiger. 
He died at Vienna in 1837. 

LAMPSONiUS, DoMiNicns, a Flemish historical 
painter, was born at Bruges in 1532. He was a 
pupil of Lambert Lombard, whose life he after- 
wards wrote. He went in the suite of Cardinal 
Pole to England, and after his death in 1558 he 
settled at Li^ge, and was secretary to several 
Bishops in succession. He was also a sculptor and 
a poet, and wrote an elegy in Latin verse on the 
painters of Lower Germany, published in 1572. 
He died at Li^ge in 1599. 

LAMSIN was a Flemish painter, who flourished 
at Ypres in 1290. 

LAMSVELT, Jan, a Dutch engraver, was born 
at Utrecht about the year 1660. His style resembles 
that of Romeyn De Hooghe. There are by him 
some portraits, which are scarce, and some other 
subjects, of which the following are the principal ; 

Oliver Cromwell ; an oval. 

Jan De Wit, pensionary of Holland, 

Cornelis Pieterszoon Hooft. 

Joris Cassander, 

Hubert Duishuis, of Rotterdam. 

The Siege of Tournay, by the Duke of Marlborough and 
Prince Eugene. 



J^amsweerde 



PAINTERS AND ENGRAVERS. 



Lanconello 



LAMSWEEEDE, Simon. Anton van, a Dutch 
designer and engraver, was born at Utrecht about 
1625, and was living up to 1683. He engraved 
several portraits in the style of Suyderhoef, though 
very inferior ; among which are the following : 

Franz Gomarius, professor of theology at Groningeu. 

Heiurich Alting, professor of theology at Heidelberg. 

Anna Maria van Sohurman. 1657. 

Cyprian Eegnier, jurist of Utrecht. 

Karel De Maets, professor of theology at Utrecht. 1 659. 

LA MURA, Feancesco, (or Db Muba,) called 
Fkancbschiello, was born at Naples in 1699. He 
was one of the numerous scholars of Francesco 
Solimena, and was much employed in ornamenting 
the churches and other public edifices in his native 
city. In the royal palace of Turin he painted, 
in competition with Claudio Beaumont, frescoes 
representing the Olympic Games, and the Life of 
Achilles. He died in 1782. The following frescoes 
by him are at Naples : 

jS. Chiara, St. Clara putting the Saracens to Flight. 

„ The Adoration of the Sacrament. 

„ Solomon building the Temple. 

Monte Cassino, Scenes from the Old and New Testaments. 

„ Lives of the Saints. 

LAMY, Charles, a French historical painter, was 
born at Mortagne (Orne) in 1699, and became an 
academician in 1736. He died in Paris in 1743. 
An ' Assumption of the Virgin ' by him is in the 
Museum at Tours. 

LAMY, Jean Auguste, a French painter of still- 
life, was the son and pupil of Louis Auguste Lamy. 
He was born at Marseilles in 1773, and died there 
in 1844. Some of his works are in the Museum at 
Marseilles. 

LAMY, Louis Auguste, a French landscape 
painter, was born at Marseilles in 1746. He was 
received into the Academy in 1788, and died in his 
native city in 1831. Many of his works are in the 
Museum at Marseilles. 

, LANA, LoDovico, a painter and engraver, was 
born at Modena in 1597, and was educated at 
Ferrara under Ippolito Scarsellino, but afterwards 
studied under Guercino at Bologna. The theatre 
of his triumph is. however, at Modena, where there 
are many admirable productions of his pencil ; par- 
ticularly his celebrated emblematical picture of the 
city of Modena delivered from the horrors of the 
plague, in the Chiesa Nuova ; a production with 
which few works of art at Modena can be com- 
pared. Lana was a successful imitator of Guercino, 
and exhibits the vigorous opposition of his masses, 
to which he united something of the spirited move- 
ment of Tintoretto. He was the rival of Giovanni 
Battista Pesari, who appears to have yielded to him 
the superiority, by retiring to Venice when Lana 
established an Academy at Modena, which became 
famous through Italy. He died at Rome in 1646. 
Among his best etchings are : 

The Empress Irene binding up the Wounds of St. 

Sebastian. 
Six Labours of Hercules. 
The Holy Family. 
The Virgin. 
The Death of Seneca. 

There is a list of his prints in Bartsch's ' Peintre- 
Graveur,' vol. xviii. 

LANCASTER, Hume, was a painter of marine 
subjects and coast scenery. He was a member of 
the Society of British Artists, and exhibited also 
at the Royal Academy. Some of his views ofE the 



coast of Holland are among his best paintings. 
He died at Erith, in Kent, in 1850. 

LANCE, Geokge, a still-life psiinter, was born at 
Little Easton, Essex, in 1802. It was originally 
intended that he should follow a mercantile life, 
but his distaste for trade, as well as delicate health, 
induced his parents to consent to bis pursuing art, 
and he accordingly, by his own introduction, became 
a pupil of Haydon, with whom he remained seven 
years. He also studied in the schools of the Royal 
Academy, where he exhibited fi-om 1828 to 1862, 
contributing in all only thirty-eight works. His 
contributions more frequently appeared at the 
British Institution. Although it was in the repre- 
sentation of flowers and fruit that Lance won his 
greatest reputation, for some years he produced 
many subject pictures, and one of these, ' Melanc- 
thon's First Misgivings,' won the prize of the 
Liverpool Academy in 1836. In his later years, 
however, he gave the preference to still-life pic- 
tures. He died at Sunnyside, near Birkenhead, in 
1864. Amongst his chief works are : 

Captain Bolando showing Gil Bias the Treasures of the 

Cave. 1839. 
The Village Coquette. 1843. 

Portrait of Himself. 1830. 1 / n *7, i- ■ * Tir \ 

Two Fruit Pieces. j (*"*'' Keiisington Museum.) 

Three Fruit Pieces. (Blenheim Palace.) 
A Basket of Fruit, Pineapple, \ 

and Bird's Nest. 1834. / 

Bed Cap. 1847. > (National Gallery.) 

Fruit ; Pineapple, Grapes, and \ 

Melon. 1848. ■' 

The Biron Conspiracy. 1845. 
The Lady-in-Waiting. 
Two Fruit Pieces. ( Wohurn Alley.) 

LANCE, Michel, a French fruit and flower 
painter, was born at Rouen in 1613, and died in 
1661. 

LANCHARES, Antonio, was born at Madrid ii) 
1686. He entered the school of Patricio Caxes, 
where he acquired a style so like that of his 
master's son, Eugenic, that it is difficult to dis- 
tinguish between their works. He was employed to 
paint various pictures for the Jesuit Convent at 
Madrid, and for the Carthusians at Paular, all of 
which have perished. In 1625 he was commissioned 
to paint some pictures for the Convent of the Order 
of Mercy at Madrid, the subjects being taken from 
the life of Pedro Nolasco, a zealous redeemer of 
Christian captives in the 13th century. He also 
executed a large composition for the choir. He 
died at Madrid in 1668. 

LANCILAO, one of the best masters of miniature 
painting, lived in the 16th century at Padua, and 
studied under Bartolommeo della Gatta. 

LANCILOTTO. See Blondeel. 

LANCISI, ToMMASO, was an historical painter, 
who was bom at Citta San Sepolcro in 1603, He 
was a pujjil of Sciaminosso. Two of his brothers 
also were painters. He died in 1682. 

LANQON, Auguste, a French water-colour 
draughtsman and sculptor, was a native of Sainte- 
Claude (Jura), and first exhibited at the Salon in 
1872. His etchings of episodes in the war of 1870-71, 
published in V^ron's ' Troisieme Invasion,' and his 
two albums, ' La Rue a Londres,' and ' Les Animaux,' 
show considerable ability. He died in 1885. 

LANCONELLO, Cristofobo, was a native of 
Faenza, who flourished about the year 1587. From 
his style, Lanzi thinks it probable that he was a 
disciple of Federigo Barocci. In the Palazzo 
Ercolani, at Bologna, is a picture by him of the 

9 



Lancreuon 



A BIOGRAPHICAL DICTIONARY OF 



Landerer 



' Madonna and Child,' with a glory of angels, 
and St. Francis, St. Clara, and other Saints below. 
LANCRENON, Joseph Feedinakd a French 
historical painter and lithographer, was boni at 
Lods (Doubs) in 1791. He entered the Eoole 
dea Beaux-Arts in 1814, and after studying^ under 
Girodet-Trioson, was in. 1835 appointed Director 
of the Museum at Besangon. He died in his native 
village in 1874. Amongst his works are : 

Tobit restoring his Father's Sight. 1819. ) (Sesangon 
Portrait of M. Oourvoisier. J Museum. 

Boreas earrying oft Oreithyia. 1822. (Cdling in the 

Tuileries, destroyed by jire in 1871.) 
A young Girl finding the Eiver Scamander. 1824. 

{Amiens Museum.) 
The Apotheosis of St. Genevieve. 1827. (St. Laurent, 

Paris.) 

LAN CRBT, Nicolas, a French painter of ' fetes 
galantes,' was born in Paris, January 22nd, 1690. 
His parents were in a humble position, and his 
father died when he was quite young. Intended 
for an engraver, he early received elementary in- 
struction in drawing, but, becoming ambitious of 
higher things, he entered the studio of Pierre D'Ulin, 
one of the professors of the Academy. It was, 
however, to Gillot that he chiefly owed his art 
education. With him he remained some years, 
and there he came under the influence of Watteau. 
His friendship with the chief of the ' f Stes galantes ' 
school was not long-lived. According to Ballot de 
Sovot, the success obtained by two works exhibited 
by him, and which were attributed to Watteau, 
caused a rupture between the two painters. Doubt 
has been expressed as to this account of the origin 
of the quarrel. Whatever may have been the 
cause, the estrangement lasted till the closing year 
of Watteau's life. Lancret was a thorough ' bour- 
geois,' and passed his time chiefly in Paris. He 
was a regular frequenter of the opera and the 
' Comique,' and was a friend of the dancers La 
Camargo and La Salle, whom he frequently repre- 
sented in his works. Such time as he did not spend 
in Paris was passed in sketching excursions iii the 
country, and in the winter he drew much in the 
life school of the Academy. In 1719 he was 
received into the Academy as a painter of ' fStes 
galantes.' Lancret long remained a bachelor : he 
appears to have appreciated the Parisian life ' en 
gar9on ' too much to enter early into the state of 
matrimony. It was not till 1740 that he married 
a grand-daughter of the comic poet Boursault. 
His married life did not, however, last long, for he 
died in Paris on the 14th September, 1743. Lancret 
has sometimes been called the art-child of Watteau, 
but he lacks his warmth, and he fails to invest 
his works with the airy gracefulness which con- 
stitutes the great charm of that master. The fol- 
lowing is a list of his pictures in the chief public 
collections of Europe : 



Angers. 


Museum. 


■Wedding Breakfast. 1737. 


„ 


» 


Wedding Dance. 1737. 


Berlin. 


Gallery. 


Fete galante. 




'Royal Palace. 


Hunting Scene. 




„ 


Rustic Scene. 




)) 


Conversation galante. 




J, 


Blind-man's Buff. 






A Game at Skittles. 


Besan^on. 


Museum. 


Puss in the Comer. 


„ 


), 


A Minuet. 


Dresden. 


_ Gallery. 


Three ' Danses champStres.' 


London. 


Bu'cMnghain 
Palace. 


I Pastoral Scene. 
Infancy. 


„ National Gallery. 


„ 


It 


Youth. 



London. Nat Gallei^. 


Manhood. 

Age. 

Columbine in Carriage drawn 


If 
Nantes. 


Museum. 






by Dogs. 






Bal oostum^. 


" 




Portrait of La Camargo. 


j» 


yj 


Conversation galante. 


Orleans. 


Museum. 


Dfijeuner au jambon. 


Paris. 


Louvre. 


Spring. 
Summer. 


»j 


" 


Autumn. 
Winter. 


» 




The Bird's Nest. 
The Turtle-doves. 






The Gascon punished. 1738. 
The Actors of the Itahau 
Comedy. 


jj 


j> 


Conversation galante. 


»> 


?» 


The Cage. 


Perpignan. 


Museum. 


Promenade at Longchamps. 


Petersburg. 


Hermitage, 


The Concert. 


„ 


„ 


The young Bird-catchers. 


jj 


)j 


A Kitchen. 


J, 


)) 


Kitchen Courtship. 


J) 


j» 


Portrait of La Camargp. 
The Earl of Essex. 


" 


» 


The Philosopher married. 
1739. 


)» 


,9 


Scene from ' Le Glorieux.' 1739. 


Rouen. 


Museum. 


Girls bathing. 


Schleisslieim. 


Gallery. 


F^te champgtre. 


Stockholm. 


Gallery. 


The Swmg. 


jj 


„ 


Skating. 


» 


„ 


Blind-man's Buff. 


Valenciennes 


Museum. 


Nest of Turtle-Doves. 



10 



Further details as to Lancret can be obtained from 
Charles Blanc's 'Peintres des Ffites galantes,' 1854, 
and the ' ^^loge de Lancret,' by Ballot de Sovot, 
edited, with catalogues of his pictures and of 
prints engraved after his works, by J. J. Guiffirey, 
Paris, 1874. OJ.D. 

LANDA, Juan db, was a Spanish painter of 
frescoes and historic.il subjects, who flourished at 
Pampeluna f rom 1670 to 1630. In 1599 he painted 
the high altar of Santa Maria de Tafalla, and in tlie 
following year a ' St. Michael ' and a ' St. Catharine ' 
for the church of Caseda. 

LANDELLS, Bbenezee, a wood engraver, was 
born at Newcastle-on-Tyne in 1808. He was a 
pupil of Bewick, and came to London about 1829. 
He was much employed on the illustrated journals, 
contributing to ' Punch ' and the ' Illustrated 
London News ' from their commencement, as well 
as to the ' Illuminated Magazine ' and the ' Ladies' 
Newspaper.' He died at Brompton in 1860. 

LANDELLS, Robert Thomas, the son of 
Ebenezer Landells, was born in 1833. He was 
a special artist on the staff of the 'Illustrated 
London News,' for which he depicted the Crimean, 
Danish, Austro-Prussian, and Franco-German Wars. 
In his later years he reproduced in oil and water- 
colours many of the scenes he had witnessed. 
He died in 1877. 

LANDERER, Ferdinand, a German engraver, 
was born at Stein, in Austria, in 1743. He studied 
under Jacob Sohmutzer, and became a member of 
the Academy at Vienna, as also a professor at the 
Imperial Military Academy. He died in 1796. He 
engraved several plates, both as etchings and in the 
crayon manner ; among them are the following : 

POETEAITS. 
Franz Moriz, Count Lacy ; after Konolitz 
Joseph Kurz, actor; from his own design. 

SUBJECTS. 
Samson and Delilah ; after Rembrandt. 
Two Landscapes, with ruins and animals ; after Dietrich. 



I^andfeld 



PAINTERS AND ENGRAVERS. 



Laudseer 



Two mountainous Landscapes ; after Pillement. 

Two large Landscapes, with figures and cattle ; after De 
Loutherhourg. 

Sixteen plates of Heads ; after M. J. Schmidt. 

LANDFELD, Assuerus van. See Londeeseel. 

LANDI, Gaspabo, was born at Piaoenza in 1756. 
He was a pupil of Pompeo Batoni and Corvi. 
Though brought up in the school of the Mannerists 
at Rome, he did not follow their principles. His 
study of the great artists of the 16th century 
caused him to paint in a style in which he united 
the broad colouring of the Venetians with the 
pleasing chiaroscuro of the Lombards. He is con- 
sidered the founder of the modem Italian school. 
He was Director and President of the Academy of 
St. Luke at Rome, and obtained the first prize at 
the Academy at Parma in 1781. He died at Rome 
in 1830. There are by him : 

The Ascent to Cjilvary. 
Florence. Pitti Palace. The Maries at the Tomb. 
Fiacenza. Cathedral. The Burial of the Virgin. 

LANDI, Giuseppe Antonio, was an architectural 
painter of the 18th century. He was a pupil of 
Ferdinando Galli, and was received as an Acade- 
mician of Bologna. 

LANDI, Neeocoio di Baktolommeo, was a 
partner of Francesco di Giorgio, from whom he 
parted in 1475. He was bom in 1447, and followed 
the professions of painting and sculpture ; his death 
occurred in 1500 at Siena. The ' Hellespontic Sybil ' 
in the pavement of the cathedral at Siena was 
designed by him in 1483, and the Academy of 
that city possesses several pictures by him. 

LANDING, Jacopo, called Jacopo di Casbntino, 
was a member of the family of Cristoforo Landino, 
J of Prato Vecchio, whence he is sometimes known 
i as 'Jacopo da Prato Veccliio.' He was bom in 
W the first years of the 14th century, at Arezzo, and 
was the pupil of Taddeff Gaddi, whom he followed 
to Florence, where he founded in 1349 the Company 
of Painters under the patronage of the Virgin and 
SS. John the Baptist, Zenobio, Reparata, and Luke. 
He appears to have remained at Florence until 
1354, and then returned to Arezzo, where he super- 
intended the rebuilding of the waterworks of the 
Fonte de' Guinizzelli. He is recorded as having 
executed a large number of frescoes in that city, the 
greater portion of which have now disappeared. 
Portions of the Duomo Veccliio, the Vescovado, 
and the church of San Bartolommeo, at Arezzo, 
were decorated by Casentino ; the last-named 
building still contains a fresco by him of the 
'Dead Christ bewailed by the Virgin and St. 
John the Evangelist.' He was the master of Agnolo 
Gaddi and Spinello Aretino. Little now remains 
of this artist's work, although it is known that he 
executed very many frescoes, both in Florence and 
in Arezzo. According to Vasari his death occurred 
at Prato Vecchio at the age of eighty, and he was 
buried in the Camaldolese church of Sant' Agnolo. 
The following are some of his paintings: 

Florence. Vffizi. Coronation of the Virgin. 

„ „ Predella with scenes from the 

life of St. Peter and eight 

Saints. 
London. Nat. Gallery. St. John the Evangelist lifted 

up into Heaven. 
LANDOLT, Salomon, a German battle, land- 
scape, and sporting painter, was bom at Zurich in 
1741. He entered the military profession, and 
studied painting in Paris with Le Paon. In 1776 
he went to Berlin and raised for Frederick II. a 



corps of Swiss troops. In 1784 he went to Eglisen 
on the banks of the Rhine in command of a body 
of volunteers, and in 1799 he was fighting with 
the Archduke Charles. In 1803 he returned to 
Zurich, and was made a member of the Council. 
He died at Andelfingen in 1818. 

LANDON, Chaeles Paul, a French liistorical 
painter, was bom at Nonant (Orne) in 1760. He 
was a pupil of Vincent and of Regnault, and 
obtained the ' grand prix ' in 1792. In 1816 he 
was appointed Curator of the Louvre Gallery, and 
also became a corresponding member of the Insti- 
tute. He died in Paris in 1826. Amongst his 
chief pictures are : 

Dsedalus and Icarus. 1799. 
Leda. 1806. (^Louvre.) 
Venus and Gupid. 1810. 
Paul and Virginia. 1812. 

He is, however, better known as a writer on art : 
his contributions to literature amounting to more 
than a hundred volumes. His chief works are : 

' Annales du Muste,' 42 vols. 1800—22. 

' Vies et OEuvres des Peintres les plus cSlebres,' 25 vols. 

1803—17. 
' Galerie Historique des Hommes les plus cSlebres,' 13 

vols. 1805—11. 
' Grandes Vues pittoresques de la Grece, et -de la Sicile, 

et des Sepb CoUines de Rome.' 1813. 
' Numismatiqae du Voyage du jeune Anaoharsis.' 1818. 
' Choir de Tableaux et Statues des plus celebres Mus&s 

et Cabinets strangers,' 2 vols. 1819 — 21. 

LANDRIANI, Paolo, born at Milan in 1737, 
was a painter and architect, who studied imder 
Gonzaga. He was employed at the Soala theatre, 
and became reputed as a decorator. He followed 
especially the principles of Bibiena, Bernardin, and 
Galleavi. Perego and Sanquirioo were his pupils. 
He died at Milan in 1839. 

LANDRIANI, Paolo Camillo, called Duchino, 
was bom at Milan about 1570. He was a scholar 
of Ottavio Semini, and painted history with con- 
siderable success. There are several altar-pieces 
by him in the churches at Milan, of which that 
of 'The Passion' is dated in 1602. One of his 
best performances is his picture of ' The Nativity,' 
in the church of Sant' Ambrogio. He died at Milan 
in 1619. 

LANDRY, PlEEKE, a French engraver, was born 
in Paris about the year 1630, and died there in 
1701. He was much employed by the booksellers, 
and engraved a variety of frontispieces, portraits, 
and other subjects. His best prints are his por- 
traits, some of which possess considerable merit. 
Among other plates, the following are by him : 

poeteaits. 

Louis XrV. of France ; after J. Frangois. 

Lonis de Bourbon, Prmce of Conti ; after Gribelin. 

Charles de Bourbon, Bishop of Soissons. 1660. 

Abel Brunier, Physician to the Duke of Orleans. 1661. 

Charles Brulart, Marquis of Genlis. 

Bustache de La Salle ; after C. Le Felre. 

Antoine Godeau, an ecclesiastic ; after Ardissm. 

Francois Lescuyer. 

SUBJECTS. 
St. Jerome. 
The Virgin and Child. 

Christ and the Woman of Samaria ; after Alhani. 
The Head of St. John the Bapt.st; after Annibale 
^ Carracd. 

LANDSEER, Chaeles, a subject painter, was 
bom in 1799. He received his early instruction 
from his father, John Landseer, the engraver, and 

11 



Laudseer 



A BIOGBAPHICAL DICTIONARY OF 



Landeeer 



from Haydon. In 1816 he entered the schools of 
the Royal Academy, where he first exhibited in 
1828. He went to Portugal with Lord Stuart de 
Rothesay, and also to Rio de Janeiro, where he 
made a large number of sketches. He was elected 
an Associate of the Academy in 1837, and an 
academician in 1846. Prom 1851 to 1874 he 
conducted the instruction in the antique school of 
the Academy, as Keeper. He died in London 
in 1879, leaving £10,000 to the Royal Academy 
for the foundation of ' Landseer Scholarships.' 
Amongst his chief works are : 

London. Nat. Gallery. Clarissa Harlowe in the Spong- 
ing House. 1833. 

„ „ The Sacking of Basing House. 

1836. (Lent to the Corporation 
0/ Sheffield.) 

, „ Bloodhound Bitch and Pups. 

1839. (Lent to the Walker 
Art Gallery, Liverpool.) 

„ „ The Pillaging of a Jew's House. 

1839. {Lent to the Corporation 
of Ihindee.) 

„ South Kensinflon \ The Temptation of Andrew 
Museum. j Marvell. 1841. 

„ „ Sterne's ' Maria.' 

„ „ The Hermit. 1841. 

LANDSEER, Sir Edwin Henby, the eminent 
animal painter, was the youngest son of John 
Landseer, A.R.A., and was born at 83, Queen Anne 
Street East, London, on the 7th of March, 1802. 
His artistic education was begun by his father at a 
very early age, but not before his innate genius 
had shown itself in sketching and drawing, and the 
boy was sent into the fields to sketch from nature 
sheep, goats, and donkeys. ^ In the South Kensing- 
ton Museum are nine drawings, executed at a very 
early period of his life, some of them having been 
made when he was but five years old. He also 
produced several etchings. His first appearance in 
public occurred in 1815, when on the walls of the 
Royal Academy Exhibition appeared a ' Portrait 
of a Mule,' and ' Portraits of a Pointer Bitch and 
Puppy.' In the same year he was advised by 
Haydon to study the Elgin Marbles, and to dissect 
animals, though he does not seem to have studied 
under him, as did his brothers Thomas and Charles. 
In 1817 he exhibited the portrait of 'Brutua,' 
having in the preceding year entered the Royal 
Academy as a student. In 1818 he exhibited 
' Fighting Dogs getting Wind,' at the Exhibition of 
the Society of Painters in Oil and Water-Colours ; 
and at the Academy a 'Portrait of a Donkey.' 
In 1819, at the British Institution was 'The Cat 
disturbed ; ' in 1820, ' Alpine Mastiffs reanimating a 
distressed Traveller ; ' and in 1821, ' The Seizure of 
a, Boar,' and 'Pointers To-ho.' In 1822 he re- 
ceived a premium of £150 from the directors of 
the British Institution for 'The Larder invaded.' 
In 1824 he exhibited the ' Cat's Paw,' and in the 
same year he paid his first visit to the Highlands 
in company with Leslie. They visited Glasgow, 
Loch Lomond, Loch Katrine, and Loch Earn, and 
paid a visit to Sir Walter Scott at Abbotsford. In 
1826 ' Taking a Buck,' and ' The Widow,' were his 
contributions to the Academy, and ' The Poacher ' 
to the British Institution. In 1826 appeared 'The 
Dog and the Shadow ; ' and in the same year he 
became an Associate of the Royal Academy, being 
then twenty-four, the earliest age at which the 
laws of that institution admitted of his election. 
In 1827 were exhibited ' The Chief's Return from 
Deer-stalking,' 'The Monkey who had seen the 
12 



World,' now the property of Lord Northbrook, and 
'Chevy Chase.' In 1829 he produced 'The High- 
land Whiskey-Still,' the property of the Duke 
of Wellington, and 'A Fireside-Party.' In 1831 
he was elected a Royal Academician, and in the 
same year he exhibited at the British Institution 
' High Life ' and ' Low Life,' of which latter Ruskin 
says, "it is the intensest rendering of vulgarity 
absolute and utter with which I am acquainted.'' 
In this year appeared also ' Poachers deer-stalking ; ' 
and ' Too Hot.' In 1832 was exhibited ' Spaniels 
of King Charies's Breed,' or ' The Cavalier's Pets,' 
and in 1833 ' The Harvest in the Highlands,' and 
'Jack iu Ofiace.' In 1834 appeared 'Suspense,' 
'The Highland Shepherd Dog rescuing a Sheep 
from a Snow-drift ; ' ' Bolton Abbey in the Olden 
Time,' the property of the Duke of Devortshire, 
and 'Highland Breakfast.' In 1835 came 'The 
Highland Drovers' Departure,' 'A Sleeping 
Bloodhound,' and 'Comical Dogs.' 'The Sports- 
man's Annual' was published in 1836, with illus- 
trations by Edwin Landseer, A. Cooper, and C. 
Hancock. In 1837 came ' The Highland Shep- 
herd's Chief Mourner,' which Ruskin in his 
'Modern Painters' praises so highly, and 'The 
Shepherd's Grave.' The portraits of the Mar- 
quis of Stafford and Lady Evelyn Gower, one 
of Landseer's best portrait pictures, appeared in 
1838, together with ' There's Life in the old Dog 
yet,' and ' A distinguished Member of the Humane 
Society.' 'Dignity and Impudence,' with the title 
' Dogs,' was first shown at the British Institution 
in 1839, in which year was exhibited also 'Van 
Amburgh and his Animals,' now in the Royal 
Collection at Osborne House. In 1840 ' The Lion 
Dog from Malta,' 'Laying down the Law,' and 
' Roebuck and Rough Hounds,' appeared at the 
Academy. 'Otter and Salmon,' in 1842, was the 
fruit of one of those visits to the Highlaada 
which had become annual. In' the same year 
were exhibited the ' Highland Shepherd's Home ; ' 
' Pair of Brazilian Monkeys ; ' ' Breeze,' a re- 
triever; 'Bos,' a greyhound belonging to Prince 
Albert; and 'The Sanctuary.' In 1844 he ex- 
hibited ' The Otter speared,' ' Coming Events cast 
their' Shadows before,' sometimes called 'The 
Challenge,' and 'Shoeing.' 'Peace' and 'War' 
appeared in 1846, as did also 'The Stag at Bay.' 
' The Drive,' produced in 1847, was a hunting- 
piece, representing the shooting of deer in a pass 
of Glenorchy Forest. The pictures of 1848 were 
' A Random Shot,' one of the most pathetic of 
Landseer's works ; ' The old Cover Hack ; ' Alex- 
ander and Diogenes ; and the 'Sketch of my Father.' 
These were accompanied by a series of etchings by 
C. G. Lewis, styled ' The Mothers,' from drawings 
made by Landseer in 1837. In this year also he 
received a commission to paint three subjects con- 
nected with the chase for the Peers' Refreshment 
Room in the new Houses of Parliament, but the 
matter came to nothing, as the House of Commons 
refused to vote the money. In 1849 Landseer paid 
his first visit to Belgium to collect materials for 
the ' Dialogue at Waterloo,' which appeared in 
1850, in which year he was knighted. ' The Mon- 
arch of the Glen,' ' The Last Run of the Season,' 
and ' Titania and Bottom,' were the chief pictures 
of 1851. To 1853 belong ' The Combat,' ' Night and 
Morning,' and ' Children of the Mist.' In 1856 he 
contributed ' Saved ' to the Academy Exhibition. In 
1857 came 'Scene in Braemar,' a magnificent stag ; 
' Rough and Ready,' a portrait of a favourite mare ; 



Xandseer 



PAINTERS AND ENGRAVERS. 



Iiandseer 



and ' Uncle Tom and his Wife for Bale.' In 1868 
appeared ' The Maid and the Magpie ; ' and ' Deer 
browsing,' an immense cartoon in coloured chalks. 
In the British Institution of the same year were 
'Twa Dogs,' and a portrait of Sir Walter Scott. 
The year 1 860 produced ' A Flood in the Highlands ; ' 
1861, ' The Taming of the Shrew ; ' and 1864, ' Man 
proposes, God disposes,' an Arctic incident, sug- 
gested by the finding of the relics of Sir John 
Franklin. In 1865 was exhibited ' The Connoisseurs ' 
(his own portrait) ; in 1867, ' Her Majesty at 
Osborne ; ' and in 1869 his last great picture, ' The 
Swannery invaded by Sea BagTes.' In 1869 the 
Lions at the four corners of the Nelson Monument 
were uncovered. On the death of Sir Charles 
Eastlake Landseer declined the Presidency of the 
Royal Academy, and in 1865 he received the large 
gold medal at the Paris Universal Exhibition. His 
later years were clouded by fits of depression, and 
he died at St. John's Wood, London, on the 1st 
of October, 1873, and was buried in St. Paul's 
Cathedral. The Winter Exhibition of the Royal 
Academy in 1874 was entirely devoted to his 
works, when 461 pictures, drawings, and sketches 
were exhibited, besides many touched proofs of 
engravings after his works. A complete catalogue 
of Landseer's works and of the engravings after 
them has been compiled by Algernon Graves. 
Chief among the engravers are his brother Thomas 
Landseer, Charles George Lewis, Charles Heath, 
Robert Graves, John Burnet, William Finden, 
Samuel Cousins, Francis Holl, James Stephenson, 
John Outrim, and Thomas L. Atkinson. A uniform 
series of small engravings in mezzotint has been 
in course of publication since 1880 by Messrs. 
Henry Graves and Co. 

The following are the principal pictures by him 
in public and private collections : 

Cbatsworth. House. Bolton Abbey in tie Olden 

Time. 
„ „ Laying down the Law. 1840. 

Edinburgh. Nat. Gallery. Rent Day in tbe Wilderness. 
London. Nat. Gallery. Low Life— High Life. 1831. 
„ „ Highland Music. 1830. 

„ „ The Hunted Stag. 1833. 

„ „ Peace. 1846. 

,. „ War. 1846. 

%., „ „ Spaniels of King Charles's 

Breed. 
„ „ The Sleeping Bloodhound. 

„ „ Dignity and Impudence. 

„ „ The Defeat of Comus. {Sketch.) 

„ „ Shoeing. 

„ „ Highland Dogs. 

.,» ,, Alexander and Diogenes. 

„ „ The Maid and the Magpie. 

■t „ A Dialogue at Waterloo. {Lent 

to the National Gallery, 
Duhlin.) 

" ''""''ii^fl^HighlandBreatfast. 
„ „ The Highland Drovers' De- 

parture. 
„ „ The Dog and the Shadow. 

„ „ A Fireside Party. 

„ „ There's no place like Home. 

„ „ The Twa Dogs. 

„ „ A Jack in Office. 

„ „ The Old Shepherd's Chief 

Mourner. 
„ „ Tethered Bams. 

„ „ Sancho Panza and Dapple. 

„ „ The Angler's Guard. 

A Naughty Child. 
„ „ Suspense. 

„ „ Comical Dogs. 

„ „ The Eagle's Nest. 



London. Sovth Kensing- \ Young Boebuck and Bough 
ton Museum. J Hounds. 
„ National Portrait ) „. ,„ ,, „ j.j. 
Gallery, j Sir Walter Scott. 

„ „ John Allen, M.D. 

„ Buckingham Palace. The Defeat of Comus, (Fresco.) 

„ Apsley House. The Highland Whiskey-Still. 

„ „ Van Amburgh and his Animals. 

Osborne. House. Van Amburgh and his Animals, 

Windsor. Castle. Bos. 

„ „ The Sanctuary. 

,, „ Dash, Hector, Nero, and Lorie. 

LANDSEER, Gkoeqe, the only son of Thomas 
Landseer, was born about 1834. When about 
twenty years of age he went to India, and whilst 
there he painted a great many portraits of 
Rajahs and other distinguished natives, and also 
made a large series of water-colour drawings of 
views in Cashmere and the hill country, which he 
brought hack with him on his return to England 
about 1870, after which date he was an invalid and 
did little or no work. He died in London in 1878. 

LANDSEER, Henry, a landscape painter, was a 
brother of John Landseer, and a frequent contributor 
to the Exhibitions, especially to that of the Society 
of British Artists. His name appears at the British 
Institution Exhibitions of 1821, 1822, and 1823. 

LANDSEER, Jessica, a daughter of John Land- 
seer, who died at Folkestone in 1880, also used 
the painter's brush and the etching-needle. She 
etched a few designs after her brother Edwin. 

LANDSEER, John, a line-engraver, was born 
at Lincoln in 1769. He was the son of a jeweller, 
and was apprenticed to William Byrne, the land- 
scape engraver. The earliest works on which he was 
engaged were the illustrations afterDeLoutherbourg 
for Macklin's Bible, and Bowyer's ' History of 
England.' These were followed in 1795 by Moore's 
' Twenty-five Views in the Southern Part of Scot- 
land.' He devoted considerable attention to a 
series of engravings of animals after the great 
masters, which were afterwards published in a 
collected form. In 1806 he delivered a course of 
lectures on engraving at the Royal Institution, 
and in 1802 he was elected an Associate Engraver 
of the Royal Academy. He had previously 
attacked the Academy on account of the total 
exclusion of engravers from its honours, and his 
election did not prevent his continuing to urge 
their claims to full membership. Antiquarian 
pursuits had a great attraction for him, and he 
published ' Observations on the Engraved Gems 
from Babylon' (1817), and ' Sabsean Researches' 
(1833). He continued to exhibit at the Academy up 
to 1861. He died in London in 1852, and was buried 
at-Highgate Cemetery. Two of his sons, Edwin and 
Charles, became Royal Academicians, and a third, 
Thomas Landseer, followed in his father's foot- 
steps, and became an eminent engraver. 

LANDSEER, Thomas, the eldest son of John 
Landseer, was born in London in 1795, and was 
brought up by his father to the profession of an 
engraver ; he also studied, with his brother Charles, 
under Haydon, by whose instruction he made chalk 
drawings from the cartoons of Raphael. His first 
engraving on copper was, it is said, a ' Study of 
the Head of a Sibyl,' after Haydon, which ap- 
peared in 1816; and from that time he continued 
to engrave diligently through a long life, the labours 
of which were somewhat tardily recognized by the 
Royal Academy in 1868, when he was elected an 
Associate Engraver. He died in London in 1880. 
Thomas Landseer's engravings are for the most 

13 



Iiandtslieer 



A BIOGRAPHICAL DICTIONARY OF 



Iianffanco 



part from the works of Ms brother Edwin, and it 
is no disparagement to the latter to say that his 
pictures owe much of their popularity and' public 
appreciation to the faithful and sympathetic ren- 
dering which they have received at the hands of 
the engraver. The following are after Sir Edwin 
Landseer: 

A Bull ; an etching. 1811. 

To-Ho ; an etching. 1823. 

Ratcatchers. 1823. 

Brutus. 1824. 

Neptune. 1824. 

Intruding Puppies. 1827. 

The Sleeping Bloodhound. 1837. 

Odio {the head only engraved). 1839. 

A Forest Joust (o portion of the picture 'None but the 

Brave deserve the Fair'). 1839. 
A Distinguished Member of the Eoyal Humane Society. 

1839. 
Dignity and Impudence. 1841. 
Eos. 1843. 

Lion Dog from Malta. 1843. 
Laying down the Law. 1843. 
Not caught yet. 1845. 
The Combat ; an etching. 1845. 
The Stag at Bay. 1848. 
Alexander and Diogenes. 1852. 
The Monarch of the Glen. 1852. 
Dear Puss. 1854. 
Children of the Mist. 1856. 
Doubtful Crumbs. 1862. 
Man proposes, God disposes. 1867. 
The Sanctuary. 1869. 
The Challenge. 1872. 
Deer Family. 1873. 
Indian Tent, Mare and Foal. 1875. 
The Font. 1875. 

Besides these must be mentioned his engraving 
of the ' Horse Fair,' after Rosa Bonheur ; ' Ten 
Etchings illustrative of Coleridge's ' Devil's Walk,' 
1831 ; ' Monkeyana,' 1827 ; and ' Characteristic 
Sketches of Animals,' 1832. 

LANDTSHEER, Jan de, a Flemish painter, born 
at Baesrode in 1760, was a pupil of the Antwerp 
Academy in 1779. He painted portraits, and his- 
torical and genre subjects. At Brussels is a picture 
of ' Venus clipping the Wings of Love ; ' and at 
Haarlem 'Two Cliildren seated.' He died in 1828. 

LANDULFO, Pompbo, a Neapolitan painter, 
was born about the year 1515. According to 
Dominici, he was of ancient family, and showing 
an early disposition for art, was placed under 
the care of Gian Bernardo Lama, where he dis- 
covered a superior genius, and whilst he was yet 
very young', painted an altar-piece for the church 
of San Matteo, at Naples, representing the ' Virgin 
with the Infant Jesus in the clouds, surrounded by 
angels.' He afterwards painted a fine picture for 
the church of La Pieta, of the ' Holy Family, with 
St. Francis, St. Catharine, and St. Lucia.' He died 
at Naples in 1590. 

LANE, John Bryant, an historical painter, was 
born in Cornwall towards the end of the 18th 
century. Originally intended for the medical pro- 
fession, he was enabled to study art through the 
patronage of Lord de Dunstanville. He exhibited 
some pretentious works at the Royal Academy from 
1808 to 1813, and then went to Rome, where during 
the next fifteen years he was chiefly employed on 
an ambitious picture, ' The Vision of Joseph,' which 
proved a failure. He last exhibited at the Academy 
from 1831 to 1884. 

LANE, Richard James, an engraver, was born 
in 1800. His mother was a niece of Gainsborough, 
and his father a prebendary of Hereford. At the 

14 



age of sixteen he was apprenticed to Charles 
Heath, under whom he made good progress, but 
owing to the decadence of line engraving, he 
devoted himself to lithography, which he practised 
with much success. Among his works were a 
series of sketches by Gainsborough, followed by 
•' Imitations of British Artists,' and ' Sketches by 
Sir Thomas Lawrence.' He was appointed litho- 
grapher to the Queen, for whom he executed many 
portraits after Winterhalter and Chalon. In 1827 
he was elected an Associate Engraver of the Royal 
Academy. He died at Kensington in 1872. 

LANE, Samuel, a portrait painter, was bom at 
King's Lynn in 1780. From his childhood he was 
deaf and almost dumb. His instructors in art were 
Parington and Sir Thomas Lawrence. The fidelity 
of his likenesses procured him a large practice, and he 
contributed many portraits to the Royal Academy 
from 1804 to 1857. He retired in 1853 to Ipswich, 
where he died in 1859. Amongst his works are : 
G. Crompe. 1813. (Cloth-ioorkers' Hall, London.) 
Thomas Claxkson. ( Wisbeach Town Hall.) 
Lord De Saumarez. 1838. {United Service Club, 

London.) 
John Kaye, Bishop of Lincoln. (EiseKohne Palace.) 
Lord George Bentinck. {King's Lynn Town Hall.) 

LANE, Solomon de. See Db Lane. 

LANE, Theodore, a, subject painter, was born 
at Isleworth in 1800. He originally studied en- 
graving, which he early quitted for portrait paint- 
ing, exhibiting at the Royal Academy from 1816. 
His forte, however, was in humorous subjects, and 
he was attaining some position when his death 
occurred in 1828 through falling through a skylight 
in Gray's Inn Road, London. His best works are : 

The Christmas Present. 182T. 

The Gouty Angler. 1828. {National Gallery ; but lent 

to the Corporation of Stockport.) 
Disturbed by the Nightmare. (1828.) 

LANE, William, a portrait painter, was born 
in 1746. He for some years practised as a 
gem engraver, but afterwards devoted himself 
to portraits in crayons. He had a large circle of 
sitters, and exhibited at the Royal Academy from 
1785 to 1815. He died at Hammersmith in 1819. 

LANEN, Van dee. See Van deb Lanen. 

LANET'TI, Antonio, a painter, was a native of 
Bugnatt). He was a pupil of Gaudenzio, and had 
a reputation in Ferrara. He died about 1530. 

LANEDVILLE, Jean Louis, a French portrait 
painter, was a native of Paris, and a pupil of 
David. He exhibited at the ' Exposition de la 
Jeunesse ' in 1783 and 1789, and at the Salon from 
1791 to 1817. He died in 1826. 

LANFRANCO, Giovanni, called Cavalieke " 
Giovanni di Stefano, was born at Parma, on the 
same day with Domenichino, in 1581. His parents 
placed him, when a boy, as page to the Count 
Scotti at Piacenza. While in the service of that 
nobleman he was perceived drawing with a piece of 
charcoal the frieze of one of the apartments ; and 
the Count, desirous of encouraging his apparent 
disposition for art. introduced him to Agostino 
Carracoi, who was at that time employed by the 
Duke Ranuccio at Ferrara. The young pupil 
made rapid progress under so able an instructor, 
and before he was sixteen he painted a picture of 
the 'Virgin and several Saints,' which was deemed 
worthy of being placed in the church of Sant' 
Agostino at Piacenza. By the advice of Agostino 
Carracci, he studied with particular attention the 
works of Correggio ; but though he attained to 



Ijanfranco 



PAINTERS AND ENaRAVERS. 



Lang: 



some approach to his model in the grandeur of 
his conceptions and the bold variety of his fore- 
shortening, he could not imitate the tender beauty 
of his expression and the graceful turn of his 
forms, the peculiar characteristics of the works of 
Correggio. Lanfranco was twenty years old when 
death deprived him of the lessons of Agostino. 
He then went to Rome, and became a student under 
Annibale Carracoi, who employed him in the Far-' 
nese Gallery, and in the church of St. Giacomo, 
where he executed some frescoes from Annibale's 
designs. The works of Raphael were also the 
objects of his attentive admiration. In conjunc- 
tion with his compatriot and fellow-student, Sisto 
Badalocohio, he etched the history of the Bible, 
from Raphael's Loggie in the Vatican, which they 
dedicated to Annibale. After the death of that 
master, Lanfranco was employed by Cardinal 
Sannese in some works, which first brought him 
into public notice at Rome, and he increased his 
reputation by his fresco paintings in the chapel of 
Buon Giovanni in the church of Sant' Agostino, 
the principal picture representing the ' Assumption 
of the Virgin.' He was taken under the protection 
of Paul v., who employed him in his chapel in 
Santa Maria Maggiore, and in the great saloon at 
the Quirinal, where he painted 'Moses striking 
the Rock,' 'Abraham sacrificing Isaac,' and 'The 
Flight into Egypt.' It was about this time that, 
by the death of Cardinal Montalto, the patron of 
Doraenichino, he procured, through intrigue, the 
commission to paint the cupola of Sant' Andrea 
della Valle, which had been promised to Domeni- 
chino, who had previously painted the four angles. 
However one may lament that the work was not 
coiapleted by that master, it is but justice to 
acknowledge that on this occasion Lanfranco sur- 
passed himself. In wrestling with so formidable 
an antagonist, he assembled and put forth all his 
powers. This celebrated work represents the 
' Virgin seated in the Clouds, contemplating the 
figure of our Saviour,' which is in the upper part of 
the composition ; on one side are St. Peter and St. 
Gaetan ; and on the other, St. Andrew and other 
Saints, the principal light emanates from a lumin- 
ous glory surrounding the body of Christ, and 
spreads itself in tender and harmonious sufEusion 
over the whole composition. The grandeur of the 
arrangement, the boldness of the design, the 
admirable disposition of the groupsj. and the 
intrepid daring of the ' di sotto in su,' rank this 
performance among the most extraordinary 
achievements of the art of that description, after 
Correggio's cupola at Parma. The increasing fame 
of Lanfranco spread to Naples, whither he was 
invited, in 1646, to paint the cupola of San Gen- 
naro, which occupied him a year and a; half; he 
there depicted the 'Ascension of the Virgin,' with 
a countless host of Saints. This great work has 
been destroyed by an earthquake, except the 
angles; which remain. In the church of San 
Martino also he decorated the cupola with ' The 
Ascension,' the Apostles, and the Miracles of 
Christ. Lanfranco was at Naples when Domem- 
chino was engaged to paint the cupola of the 
Treasury, in which he had made considerable pro- 
gress when the cabals of Lanfranco and some of 
the Neapolitan artists occasioned the work to be 
suspended. After the death of Domenichino, Lan- 
franco was employed to finish it: he destroyed 
all that had been done except the angles, which 
are still the admiration of the intelligent observer, 



Amsterdam. 

Berlin. 

Brunswick. 

Dresden. 



Flotence. 



Jliuseum. 
Gallery. 
Gallery. 



London. 
Madrid. 



Munich. 



Naples. 



Jf^at. Gallery. 
Gallery. 



and loudly proclaim the transcendent superiority 
of their author over his malevolent competitor. 
The troubles which soon after took place at Naples 
occasioned Lanfranco to return to Rome during the 
pontificate of Urban VIII., who employed him to 
paint a picture for the basilica of St. Peter, repre- 
senting that apostle walking on the sea, which has 
been engraved by Gerard Audran ; and in a series 
of pictures of the 'Passion of Christ,' for the 
chapel of the Crucifix. These productions were so 
much to the satisfaction of the Pope that he con- 
ferred on the painter the order of knighthood. The 
last works of Lanfranco were his pictures in the 
tribune of San Carlo ai Catinari, and they are the 
feeblest of his performances. He died at Rome in 
1647. The following are some of his principal 
pictures : 

St. John the Baptist. 
Mary Magdalene. 
The Finding of Moses. 
Head of a young Man. 
Gallery. The Repentance of St. Peter. 
„ „ Four old Magicians. 

Edinburgh. Sat. Gallery. St. Christopher. 
Uffizi. The Magdalene. 
., His own Portrait. 
FUti Palace. The Martyrdom of St. Margaret 
of Cortona. 
Head of Saint. 
St. Peter and St. Jude. 
The Burial of Julius Csesar. 
Banquet of the Patricians. 
„ A Eomau Sea-Fight. 

„ Consulting the Auspices. 

„ Roman Soldiers receiving 

Wreaths. 
Gallery. The Angel visiting Hagar. 
„ Mater Dolorosa. 

Christ on the Mount of Olives. 

Frescoes in the cupola. 

The Pool of Bethesda. (Fresco.) 

Frescoes. 

Virgin glorified, rescuing a 

Child. 
Hermiuia with the Shepherds. 
Crucifixion. 

The Glory of the Blessed. 
{Fresco.) 
Louvre. Hagar in the Desert. 
„ St. Peter. 

„ The Separation of St. Peter 

and St. Paul by the Soldiers. 
Christ surrounded by Saints. 
Death of St. Alexis. 

[ Fresooesi 

Frescoes. 

History of Moses. 
The Last Supper. 
St. Peter succouring St. Agnes. 
The Deliverance of St. Peter. 
St. Peter. 

Virgin and Child appearing to 

St. Paul and Si. Anthony. 

There are several etchings by this master, which 

are executed in a slight, spirited manner. The 

following are by him, and they are variously signed, 

L. F., Gio L., Gio Lafo, Giovanni la, etc. : 

Twenty-eight plates of Biblical subjects ; after Raphael. 

The Messengers of Moses returning from the Land of 

Canaan. 
An Emperor haranguing his Soldiers. 
Part of the plates engraved conjointly with Sisto 
Badalocchio, from Raphael's Paintings in the Vatican. 
LANG, Gboro Jakob, a painter of Nuremberg, 
was born about 1680. He painted historical sub- 
jects, and landscapes with animals. He became 
director of the Art Academy of Nuremberg, and 
died in 1740. 

15 



Paris. 



Parma, 

Piacenza. 

Rome. 



Gesii. 

Apostoli. 

S. Martino. 



S. Chidra. 
Cathedral, 



Ognhsanti. 
Cathedral. 
S. Andrea della ] 
Valle. 
S. Agostino. 



„ Corsini Palace. 

„ ColonTia Palace. 

Stockholm. (rallery. 

Vienna. 



Lang 



A BIOGRAPHICAL DICTIONARY OF 



Langep 



LANG, MORITZ, a German engraver, flourished 
about 1670. He chiefly resided at Vienna, and 
Was much employed by the booksellers, for whom 
he engraved a number of frontispieces, book- 
plates, and portraits, of which the last were the 
best. He worked with the graver, and executed 
several of the plates for Priorato's ' History of the 
Emperor Leopold.' 

LANGE, Angb Louis Janet. See Janet 
Lange. 

L'ANGE, FRANgois, who -was bom at Anneoy 
in Savoy, in 1676, was a pupil of Andr6 Cheville 
at Turin, where he was much patronized. He also 
painted with much success at Bologna, where he 
joined the Society of St. Philip Neri in 1735, and 
died in 1756. His* chief merit, as an artist, was 
in small Scriptural pieces, which Lanzi saw at 
Vercelli, and of which he speaks in terms of 
commendation. 

LANGE, Ekiedrich, a German painter of Scrip- 
tural subjects, was born at Plau, in Mecklenburg, 
in 1834, and painted under the influence of 
Cornelius. His ' Christ on the Cross ' and ' Faith, 
Love, and Hope ' are in the Schwerin Gallery. Hs 
died at Strassburg in 1875. 

LANGE, Jan Hendrik, was a Flemish historical 
painter, who was a pupil of Van Dyck, and died at 
Brussels in 1671. 

LANGE, Joseph, an Austrian painter, was born 
at Wurzburg in 1751. On the death of his father 
he went to Vienna in 1767,. and attended the Art 
School. He was better known as an actor, and 
painted several portraits of dramatic celebrities. 
He died at Vienna in 1831. 

LANGE, Julius, was bom at Darmstadt in 
1817. He was instructed in the rudiments of art 
by Miiller, the Inspector of the Gallery, and at the 
age of fifteen he made designs for a work of his 
brother Ludwig, entitled ' Views of the Chief 
Towns in Germany,' which was published at 
Darmstadt in 1834. In this year he went to 
Munich, and studied historical painting at the 
Academy. In 1835 he went to Diisseldorf, and 
visited Switzerland with J. W. Schirmer. In 
1840 Rottmann persuaded him to return to Mnnich, 
where he became highly esteemed for his mountain 
landscapes. In 1854 he visited Upper Italy, wliere 
he made a number of sketches for the Academy of 
Venice, of which he was made a member. In 

1857 he was appointed drawing-master to the 
Archduchess Charlotte, Empress of Mexico. In 

1858 he entered the service of King Maximilian of 
Bavaria, and in 1867 was appointed court painter 
to Louis II. He was a famous draughtsman in 
crayons. He died at Munich in 1878. Some of 
his principal works are : 

Landscape in Upper Italy. 

Two Views of the Gossau Lake. {Neie Pinakoihek, 

Munich.) 
View near Partenkirchen. (The same.) 
The Goll. 
TVatzmaun in the Tyrol. 

LANGE, LiiDWiQ, born at Darmstadt in 1808, 
was an architect and painter. He studied land- 
scape painting under Rottmann, with whom he 
visited Greece, where he stayed three years as 
master of design at Athens. He executed a series 
of Greek landscapes which are of considerable 
merit. He died at Munich in 1868. 

LANGE, S0REN L/ESS0E, a Danish painter, was 
born at Faaborg, in the island of Funen, in 1760. 
He entered the Academy at Copenhagen in 1781, 

16 



and his merit was deservedly rewarded with several 
medals of the Academy, and the gold medal of 
the court. His landscapes and portraits are dis- 
tinguished for their beauty. He also etched on. 
copper. He died in 1828. 

LANGE JAN. See Bockhorst, Johann von. 

LANGE PEER. See Aartsen. 

LANGENDYK, Dirk, born at Rotterdam in 
1748, was a scholar of D. A. Bisschop. He 
designed and painted combats and battles, in the 
composition of which he showed extraordinary 
skill. He depicted the passions with great truth, 
and gave to the smallest details of his subject the 
highest degree of finish. His drawings are par- 
ticularly admired, and some of his landscapes with 
cows and horses have been engraved. His paint- 
ings in oil are not numerous ; they are, like his 
drawings, skirmishes and battles, by sea and land. 
In the Rotterdam Museum are pictures of 'A 
Camp,' ' A Cavalry Charge,' and ' A Wounded 
General,' and twenty-one etchings. He died at 
Rotterdam in 1805. 

LANGENDYK, Jan Antonie, son of Dirk 
Langendyk, was born at Rotterdam in 1780. He 
went a voyage to St. Domingo, but afterwards 
returned to his own country, where he lived suc- 
cessively at Rotterdam, The Hague, Brussels, and 
Amsterdam, at which latter place he died in 1818. 
He painted in the style of his father, and has left 
some good engravings. 

LANGENHOPFEL, Johann Joseph, was born 
at Diisseldorf in 1750. After receiving his educa- 
tion in his native city, he made several etchings 
after the Italian masters, in which he displayed 
great proficiency. He became court painter at 
Mannheim, and afterwards director of the Gallery 
at Vienna, where he died in 1807. Among his 
historical paintings and portraits are: 

The Rape of the Sabines. 
Venus binding Cupid apprentice to Eiou. 
Portrait of the Emperor Leopold II. 
Portrait of Augusta Wilbelmina, Queen of Bavaria. 
His etchings are entitled : 
' Eecueil des Dessins graves d'apres les fameux Maitres 
k Diisseldorf,' 1780. 

LANGER, Johann Peter von, was born at 
Caloum, near Diisseldorf, in 1766. He studied at 
the Diisseldorf Academy under Krahe, and became 
professor in 1784, and director in 1789 ; as well as 
director of the Gallery. He visited Holland and 
Paris, and was afterwards appointed director of 
the Academy, which was founded at that time at 
Munich. He died at Munich in 1824. He was 
the follower of a stifE classicism, and though his 
religious and historical subjects are of excellent 
colouring, his compositions are cold and too 
studied. Many of his works are in the Gallery at 
Schleissheim. Among his best paintings are : 

Six subjects from the fable of Psyche. (A Saloon at 
Barmen.) 

'Let the Little Children come unto Me.' (School-Chapel 
at Munich.) 

Portrait of Queen Theresa of Bavaria. 

There are fifty-six etchings by him, of which the 
most important are : 

Mercury cutting off the Head of Argus ; afier Annihale 
Carracci. 

The Saviour with the Apostles ; after Marc-Antonio. 

The same subject ; after his own design, 

LANGER, Robert von, a German historical 
painter, born at Diisseldorf in 1783, was instructed 
by his father Johann Peter von Langer, whom he 



Langer 



PAINTERS AND ENGRAVERS. 



Lauglois 



accompanied to Paris, from whence he went 
afterwards to Italy, arid stayed there one year. 
On liis return to Munich he became professor of 
the Academy in 1806 ; in 1827, director of the 
Royal Cabinet of Design ; and in 1841, director 
of the Central Gallery. He executed a series of 
pen and ink drawings for Dante's ' Divina 
Coramedia.' He died at Haidhausen in 1846. 
Among his paintings are : 
Haidhausen. Duke Mao:- 1 ^^^^^^^_ 

tmiUans. ) 
Munich. Ducal Palace. Frescoes. 

„ Frauenkinhe. The Descent from the Cross. 

""X^rlst-FrancisofAssisi. 

„ Hospital Church. The Seven Works of Mercy. 

Schleissheim. Gallery. The Education of Bacchus. 

„ „ The Entombment. 

„ „ The Adoration of the Kings. 

„ „ Madonna, St. Gordianas and 

Epimachus. 

Stuttgart. Gallery. Virgil leading Dante into Hell . 

Among his best etchings is that of ' St. Jerome,' 
after Correggio. 

LANGER, Sebastian, an Austrian engraver, was 
born at Troppau in 1772, and was educated in the 
Academy of Vienna. The year of his death is not 
known. He worked chiefly for the booksellers, 
though he also executed some plates, among which 
were : 

The Eeturn of the Prodigal ; after Batoni. 

The Quack ; after G. Dou. 

The Old Jew ; after Hoogstraeten. 

St. Francis ; after Garracci. 

The Prophet Isaiah ; after Raphael.. 

The Dentist ; after I, van Ostade. 

LANGETTI, Giovanni Battista, was born at 
Genoa in 1635. He was first a scholar of Pietro 
da Cortona, but afterwards studied under Giovanni 
Francesco Cassana. Although celebrated by the 
,poet Boschini, his powers appear to have been 
chiefly confined to heads and busts of old men, 
of which there are many in private collections in 
the Venetian States,' and in Lombardy. Lanzi 
notices a picture by him of ' The Crucifixion,' in 
the church of Santa Teresa at Genoa. In the 
Dresden Gallery is a picture of ' The Punishment 
of Marsyas,' and in the Brunswick Gallery is one 
of 'Archimedes.' He died at Venice in 1676. 

LANGEVELT, Rutgee van, was born at Nym- 
wegen in 1635, and was a pupil of the Academy of 
that town. Frederick William, Elector of Branden- 
burg, sent for him to Berlin, where he appointed 
him painter, architect, and mathematician to the 
court, and director of the Academy. In the Court 
House at Nymwegen is a historical picture by this 
artist. He died at Berlin in 1695. He had a son 
Wilhelm, who was a portrait painter at Berlin. 

LANGJAN, Rbmigius, a painter of the 17th 
century, was one of the best pupils of Van Dyck. 
In the Vienna Gallery is a picture by him of ' Herse 
going with her sisters to the Temple of Minerva.' 
He died in 1670, or 1671. 

LANGLACB, Jean Baptistb Gabriel, a French 
landscape painter, was bom in Paris in 1786. He 
exhibited at the Salon from 1817 to 1845, and also 
painted upon porcelain at the manufactory at 
Sevres. He died at Versailles in 1864. 

LANGLEY, Thomas, a brother of Batty Langley 
the architect, resided in London during the first 
part of the last century. There are some plates of 
antiquities by him, and he published, in conjunc- 
tion with his brother, several works on Gothic 

VOL. 11. 



architecture, with the plates designed and engraved 
by himself. He died in 1751. 

LAN6L0IS, Charles, a battle and panorama 
painter, was born at Beaumont, Calvados, in 1789. 
He first attended the Polytechnic School, and after- 
wards studied under Girodet, Gros, and Horace 
Vemet. He travelled in Algeria and the Crimea, 
and died in Paris in 1870. At Versailles are pictures 
of the ' Battles of Castella,' ' Smolensk,' ' Polotsk,' 
and ' Borodino,' and 'The Taking of Morea.' His 
best panoramas were the ' Battle of Eylau,' the 
' Battle of the Pyramids,' the ' Battle of Solferino,' 
and the ' Burning of Moscow.' 

LANGLOIS, Claude Louis, called Langlois de 
Sezanne, a French portrait painter, was born at 
Sezanne in 1757. He was instructed by Beaufort, 
and painted the portraits of several famous French 
generals, many of which were engraved by Voissart 
for difEerent publications. He was director of the 
Drawing School at Sens till 1830, when he removed 
to Paris. He died in 1845. 

LANGLOIS, EusTACHB Htacinthe, a French 
landscape painter, draughtsman, and engraver, was 
born at Pont-de-l'Arche in 1777. His art training 
was due to Lemonnier and David. During the 
Revolution he was imprisoned, and was also drawn 
for military service, but owed his escape to the 
Empress Josephine. He afterwards settled 'at 
Rouen, where he taught in the Academy. He 
devoted great attention to archeology, and pub- 
lished many works in connection with it, which he 
illustrated himself. He died at Rouen in 1837. 
His chief publications were : 

' Description historique des Maisons de Rouen.' 1821. 

' Essai sur la Peinture sur verre.' 1832. 

' Essai sur I'Abbaye de Fontenelle.' 1834. 

' Stalles de la OathSdrale de Rouen.' 1838. 

'Essai sur la Calligraphie des Manuscrits du Moyen,. 

Age.' 1841. 
' Essai historique sur les Danses des Morts.' 1851. 

LANGLOIS, Franqois, called Ciartees, was a 
French engraver and printseller, who died in Paris 
in 1748. He has left the ' History of Psyche,' a 
series of thirteen plates after Raphael, and the 
'Theological and Cardinal Virtues,' after the pic- 
tures at Fontainebleau. 

L'ANGLOIS, GuiLLERMO, a French artist, with 
whom Alexander Gonzalez Velazquez painted from 
the designs of Mengs a ceiling in the Palace at 
Madrid about 1750. 

LANGLOIS, Jean, a French engraver, was born 
in Paris in 1649. After learning the rudiments 
of design in his native city under Vien, he went 
to Rome, and became a member of the French 
Academy there. He died about 1712. He engraved 
several plates from the antique statues, and some 
architectural subjects from Andrea Palladio. There 
are also by him a few portraits, and other prints, 
among which are the following : 

portraits. 

Gruillaume Bruuetiere, Bishop of Saintonge ; after 

Bon de Boidlongne. 
Pierre Loisel, Doctor of the Sorbonne. 
Julien Gardeau, Cur6 of St. Etienne-du-Mont ; after 

Lombard. 
John Law, of Lauriston ; after J. Hubert. 

SUBJECTS. 

St. Luke painting the Virgin ; after Raphael. 
The Stoning of Stephen ; after Pietro da Cortona. 
Tobit and the Angel ; after Annihale Carracci. 
The Martyrdom of St. Paul ; after L. de Boullongne. 
Christ curing the Paralytic ; after Bon de Boullongne. 

17 



Zianglois 



A BIOGRAPHICAL DICTIONARY OF 



Iiankrink 



LANGLOIS, J£r6mb Martin, a French historical 
and portrait painter, was born in Paris in 1779. He 
studied under David, whom he assisted in many of 
his works, and obtained the second prize in 1805, 
and the grand prix ' in 1809. After his period of 
study at Rome, he returned to France in 1815, 
and in 1824 went to Brussels to paint the portrait 
of his exiled master, David, to whose principles 
he was ever faithful. He died in Paris in 1838, 
having in the same year been elected a member of 
the Institute. Amongst his works are : 

Bordeaux. Cathedral. St. Hilary. 

Marseilles. Museum. Portrait of M. de Belzunce, 
Bishop of Marseilles. 

Paris. Louvre. Cassandra imploring the ven- 

geance of Minerva against 
Ajax. 1817. 
„ „ Diana and Endymion. 1822. 

Toulouse. Museum. Alexander ceding Campaspe to 

Apelles. 1819. 

Versailles. Gallery. Several portraits. 

LANGLOIS, Nicolas, a French engraver, who 
flourished in the second part of the 17th century, 
was the son of Francois Langlois, called Ciartres, 
whose business as a printseller he continued to 
carry on. The following plates are by him : 

The Holy Family ; after Raphael. 

St. Paul and Barnabas ; aftffr the same. 

St. Paul ; after Le Pautre. 

The Repentance of St. Peter ; after the same. 

LANGLOIS^ PiEBEE Gabriel, a French engraver, 
was born in Paris in 1754. He was a pupil of 
Simonet. and worked on the ' Galerie de Florence,' 
the ' Mus6e des Monuments Pranyais,' by Lenoir, 
and on the edition of Voltaire's works published 
by Beaumarchais. He died about 1810. He re- 
produced several pictures of the Italian and Dutch 
schools, among which may be named : 

Silence ; after A . Carracci. 

The Alchemist ; after Tenters. 

The Virgin and Child ; after .Titian. 

Boman Charity ; after Fellearini. 

The Denial of St. Peter ; after Teniers. 

The Violin Lesson ; after Netscher. 

LANGLOIS, Vincent Marie, a French engraver, 
was born in Paris in 1756, and was instructed by 
his brother Pierre Gabriel Langlois. He engraved 
several vignettes after Moreau, Lebardier, and 
others. The date of his death is unrecorded. 
Among his plates are : 

Portrait of Andrea del Sarto ; after himself. 

The Holy Family ; after Subens. 

Venus in the Forge of Vulcan ; after Van Dyck. 

Virgin and Child ; after L. Carracci. 

The Muses ; after Le Sueur. 

The Four Evangelists ; after Valentin. 

The Garden Concert; after Lawrence. 

LANGLOIS DE CHEVREVILLE, Lucien Tni- 
OPHILB Ange Sosthene, wag born at Mortain 
(Manche), in 1803. He studied under Gros, and 
stayed afterwards for a considerable time at Rome, 
Pompeii, and Geneva. Subsequently he returned 
to France, and settled at Rouen, where he founded 
a studio for painting and perspective. Later on 
he went to Cherbourg as conservator of the 
Museum, and to Paris as professor of design at 
the College. He died in Paris in 1845. He was 
an excellent copyist and painter of portraits. Of 
his large historical subjects mention may be made 
of: 
An Angel overthrowing a Demon. {St. Pierre, Rouen.) 
An Apparition of the Virgin. (St. Patrice, Rouen.) 
18 



LANGOT, FBANgois, a French engraver, was 
chiefly employed in copying the prints of other 
masters, particularly Cornelis Bloemaert and Huret. 

LANGREMUS, M. F., an engraver, execuled 
several book-plates, frontispieces, portraits, &c. 
He lived about the year 1649. 

LANGUASCO, Teresa Maria, a barefooted 
monk, was born at San Rerao in 1651, and died in 
1698. He studied under Giovanni Battista Carlone. 
In St. Niccol6 at Tolentiuo are some saints of his 
order painted by him. 

LANIERB, Niccol6, or Nicholas, who was a 
native of Italy, bom apparently in 1568, lived in 
England during at any rate the latter portion of 
his life. He possessed various talents, which were 
all suited to the taste of Charles I., being a 
musician, a painter, an engraver, and a connoisseur; 
and he had a great share in the purchases, made 
for the royal collection. As a painter, he drew a 
' Holy Family ' for the king ; and his own portrait, 
by himself, with a pallet and pencil in his hand, 
and a scrip of paper, with musical notes, is in the 
music-school at Oxford. He possessed a con- 
siderable collection of drawings, several of which 
he caused to be engraved, and etched some of 
them himself ; on one of them is the inscription in 
Italian, ' Prove prima fatte a I'acqua forte da N. 
Laniere a I'eta sua giovanile di settanta otto anni 
1636.' He died in London in 1646. 

LANINI, Bernardino, was bom at Veroelli 
about the year 1520, and was a disciple of Gauden- 
zio Ferrari, whose style he imitated with such pre- 
cision, that a picture he painted for the church of 
San Giuliano, at Milan, representing a 'Pietk,' 
might be taken for a work of that master, had he 
not signed it with his name, and the date 1547. 
At a later period of his life, he worked with more 
freedom, and painted an altar-piece of St. 
Catharine, for the church dedicated to that saint 
near San Celso, which is highly commended by 
Lomazzo. He was much employed at Milan, and 
in the State, and particularly at Novara, where he 
painted, in the cathedral, the ' Eternal Father,' the 
Sibyls, and some subjects from the life of the Virgin. 
In some of his works he aimed at the impressive 
style of Leonardo da Vinci, particularly in a 
picture in Sunt' Ambrogio, of ' Our Saviour after 
the Scourging, between two Angels ; ' a production 
so full of pious and beautiful expression, and of 
such admirable relief, that it is esteemed one of 
the finest works of art in that basilica. He died 
about the year 1578. In addition to the above 
paintings, he has left : 

Berlin. Gallery. Madonna and Saints. 

London. A'at. Gallery. Holy Family. 1543. 
Milan. Brera. Three Angels playing. 

„ „ St. Martha. 

„ „ Virgin and Child, with %ints. 

LANINI, Gaudbnzio, and Giuolamo, were the 
brothers of Bernardino Lanini, and followed his 
style at a humble distance. By the former, Lanzi 
mentions a picture in the sacristy of the Barnabites, 
representing the ' Virgin and Infant, with several 
Saints ' ; and by the latter, a ' Deposition from the 
Cross,' in a private collection at Vercelli. 

LANKRINK, Prosper Henrious, was born at 
Antwerp in 1628. His father, a soldier of fortune, 
had come to that city from Germany, and there he 
obtained a coloners commission, and died. The 
young Lankrink received a good education, and 
was intended by his mother for a monk, but dis- 
covering an inclination for painting, he was 



Xianoue 



PAINTERS AND ENGRAVERS. 



Lapis 



jjermitted to attend the Academy, where his pro- 
gress was considerable, and was promoted by his 
having access to study the best pictures in one of 
the finest collections at Antwerp. Lankrink went 
afterwards to Italy and especially studied the works 
of Salvator Rosa. On the death of his mother he 
came to England, in the reign of Charles II., and 
was patronized by Sir Edward Spragge, and more 
particularly by Sir William Williams, for whom 
he painted a great number of landscapes, which 
were destroyed when that gentleman's mansion 
was burned down. His pictures were in consider- 
able estimation, and he was occasionally employed 
by Sir Peter Lely to paint his backgrounds. The 
scenery in his landscapes is wild and romantic, 
with rocks and broken grounds, in the style of 
Salvator Rosa. In later life he degenerated into 
an idle and dissolute character. He died in 
London in 1692. 

LANOUE, F&ix HiPPOLYTB, a French land- 
scape painter, was born at Versailles in 1812, and 
studied under Victor Berlin and Horace Vernet. 
After having obtained the first prize at the Eoole 
des Beaux-Arts in 1842, with ' Apollo tending 
Sheep,' he visited Rome, Holland, and Russia. He 
.died at Versailles in 1872. His chief merit consists 
.in representing Italian scenes, especially those of 
the Campagna. Among his best landscapes are : 

The Tiber at Acqua Acetosa. 1864. 

View in the Island of Capri. 1848. (Lisieux Museum.) 

View of the Eoman Aqueduct over the Gard. 1850. 
{Aviynon Museum,) 

The Bock of the Nasos, in the Eoman Campagna. 
1866. (The same.) 

St. Benedict in the Solitudes of Subiaoo. 1853. (St. 
Eiienne'du- Mont, FaHs.) 

LANSCROON, , a native of Flanders, came 

over to England and assisted Verrio and Laguerre. 
He died in 1737, leaving a son who followed the 
same profession. 

LANSE, Michel, a French painter of flowers 
and birds, was bom at Rouen in 1613. He became 
a member of the Paris Academy in 1660, and died 
in 1661. 

LANT, Thomas, who was born about 1556, was 
in the service of Sir Philip Sidney, whose funeral 
procession he drew and published in 1587. He 
was created Windsor Herald in 1697, and died in 
1600. 

LANTARA, Simon Mathukin, was born at Oncy 
(Seine-et-Oise), in 1729. His father was a weaver, 
and at the age of eight he commenced life as a 
herdsman. The chalk sketches which. he made 
on walls, rocks, &c., caused his talent to be 
appreciated by the son of his master, who took 
him to Paris, and placed him in a studio at 
Versailles. He made rapid progress, and entered 
the service of an artist in Paris, who paid his 
wages in painting lessons. There is little else 
known of Lantara ; he lived a careless life from 
hand to mouth, working when he wanted food, 
never profiting from the success which his works 
enjoyed. He executed many drawings, landscapes, 
and marine views, in which Bernard, Joseph Ver- 
net, Casanova, Berr^, and Taunay, often inserted 
the figures. He died in extreme poverty in the 
H6pital de la Charity, Paris, in 1778. Many of his 
works have been engraved by Dnret, Lebas, 
■Mouchy, Nde, Beaugeon, and Couch6. Among his 
principal works are the following : 

Landscape : Morning Effect. 1761. (Louvre.) 

Horning. (Besanqon Museum.) 



View on the Banks of the Loiug. (aidteauroux 

Musntm.) 
Moonlight Scene. (Nantes Museum.) 

LANZANI, Andrea, was born at Milan about 
the year 1645. After receiving some lessons from 
Luigi Soaramuccia, a scholar of Guido, then resi- 
dent at Milan, he went to Rome, where he entered 
the school of Carlo Maratti. His genius, however, 
led him to something less placid; and he par- 
ticularly devoted himself to the study of the ener- 
getic productions of Lanfranoo. His best pictures 
were those he painted immediately on his return 
to Milan, whilst his mind was impressed with the 
great principles of the Roman school. Such are 
his picture of ' St. Charles in Glory ; ' and a subject 
from the life of Cardinal Federigo, in the Ambro- 
sian Library at Vienna. He also painted at the 
court at Vienna, and was there knighted. He died 
at Milan in 1712. 

LANZANI, PoLiDORo, called Polidoeo Venbzi- 
ANO, was born at Venice in 1615, and was one of 
the numerous scholars of Titian. He has left 
pictures of Madonnas and Saints in the church of 
the Servi, and in other public buildings at Venice, 
and a ' Madonna ' and a ' Marriage of St. Catharine ' 
are to be seen at Dresden. He died in 1665. 

LANZENI, GiovANUi Battista, a painter and 
etcher, was born at Verona in 1659. His masters 
were Voltolino and F. Barbieri. He painted at 
Verona in oil and fresco for churches and private 
houses. In San Proclo he painted thirty-six 
Bishops of Verona, the ' Four Doctors of the 
Church,' and ' The Last Supper.' ' The date of his 
death is unknown. He had a son, Angelo Maeia, 
who was also a painter. 

LANZILAGO, an Italian historical and portrait 
painter, was a native of Padua, who flourished 
towards the close of the 16th century. He went to 
Rome and was an imitator of Bartolommeo della 
Gatta. 

LAODICIA, was a painter of the Milanese school, 
and contemporary of Andrino di Edesia, who lived 
at Pavia in the first half of the 14th century. She 
was probably a Greek by birth. 

LAP, Jan, a Dutch artist, flourished about the 
middle of the 17th century, and drew and painted 
landscapes with ruins and numerous figures, in the 
manner of Jan Both. 

LA PEIGNE, Hyaointhe de. See De la 
Peignb. 

LA PESA, De. See De la Pena. 

LA PENAI, , was a French portrait painter, 

of the 16th century, and a pupil of Rigaud. 

LAPI, Giovanni, an Italian engraver, flourished 
about 1750, and executed some of the plates for 
the ' Museo Etrusco.' There were other engravers 
of the name of Lapi. 

LAPI, NICCOLO, an Italian painter, was born in 
1661, and died in 1732. He was a scholar of Luca 
Giordano. ' At Florence is a ' Transfiguration ' by 
himi 

LAPIS, Gabtano, was bom at Cagli in the 
Roman State, in 1704, and studied at Rome under 
Sebastiano Conca. He was a paniter of an original 
taste, possessing great fire, yet correct in his de- 
sign. In the Palazzo Borghese at Rome, he painted 
a ceiling representing the 'Birth of Venus.' He 
died at Rome in 1776. 

LAPIS, GlEOLAMO, an historical, portrait, and 
landscape painter, who flourished in the 18th 
century, was a native of Venice. He settled in 
•" 19 



liapito 



A BIOGRAPHICAL DICTIONARY OF 



Largillieit) 



Holland, and was living at the Hague in 1785. 
H. Lapis, the miniature painter, was probably his 
son. 

LAPITO, Louis Augcjste, a French landscape 
painter, was born at Joinville-le-Pont (Seine) in 
1803. He studied under Heim and Watelet, whose 
style, though difiering in colouring, he followed. 
He died at Boulogne-sur-Seine in 1874. His best 
landscapes are : 

Bordeaux. Museum. Ijandscape. 

Cambrai. Museum. View from above the Lake of 

Brienz. 1833. 
Paris. Loiovre. View of Oorte. 

Stuttgart. Bosenstein. The Island of Capri. 

LAPO, Stbfano di, an historical painter, was 
born at Florence in 1301. He is supposed to 
have been grandson and pupil of Giotto. He 
painted at Pisa, Florence, Milan, Rome, Assisi, 
Perugia, and several other towns in Italy. lie 
died in 1350. 

LAPO, ToMMASo DI, called Giottino, son of 
Stefano di Lapo, was born at Florence in 1324. 
He painted a picture of Gauthier de Brienne, who 
was driven from Florence in 1343. At Naples is 
a ' Virgin and Angels,' and some other works are 
at Florence. He died in 1356. 

LA POINTE, F. DE. See De la Pointe. 

LAPORTE, George Henry, an animal painter, 
was an exhibitor at the Society of British Artists 
from 1826, and at the Royal Academy from 1827. 
He was a member and constant exhibitor at the 
Institute of Painters in Water-Colours, his subjects 
being animals and figures, military and Arab groups, 
and hunting-scenes. He was. animal painter to 
the Duke of Cumberland. He died in 1873. 

LA POBTE, Henri Horace Holland de. See 
Holland de la Porte. 

LAPORTE, John, an English landscape painter, 
chiefly in water-colours, was born in 1761. He 
exhibited at the Royal Academy from 1785, and 
taught drawing at the Military School at Addis- 
combe. He published 'Sketches of Trees' (1798- 
1801); 'Drawing Book' (1800); 'Progressive 
Lessons sketched from Nature' (1804) ; and 'The 
Progress of Water-Colour Drawing.' He died in 
London in 1839. The following drawings by him 
are in the South Kensington Museum : 



Conway Castle. 

Buttermere. 

Forest Scene with Cattle. 



1790. 



LAPPIOOLA, Niccol6, a painter, was born at 
Crotona in 1730, and took lessons at Rome from 
Francesco Mancini. He supplied the designs for 
the mosaics for one of the chapels of St. Peter and 
in other parts. He died at Rome in 1790. 

LAPPOLI, Giovanni Antonio, tlie son of Mntteo 
Lappoli, was born, according to Vasari, at Arezzo 
in 1492, and was first a disciple of Donienico 
Pecori, but afterwards studied under Jacopo 
Caruzzi, called Pontormo. He went early in his 
life to Rome, where he formed an intimacy 
with Perino del Vaga and II Rosso, and was 
favoured with the protection of Clement VII., 
who employed him in some public works , but the 
completion of them was interrupted by the sack- 
ing of Rome in 1527, when he was obliged to flee. 
He retired to his native city, where he painted 
several pictures for the churches and private col- 
lections. He died in 1552. 

LAPPOLI, Matteo, was born at Arezzo about 
1450, and diefl in 1504. He studied under Don 

20 



Bartolorameo. The greater part of his paintings 
have perished. There are still at Arezzo, in the 
refectory of the Bernardines, a 'St. Bernard,' and 
in Santa Maria a ' St. Sebastian.' 

LAPOTER, AdjJlaide Isabelle Antonine, 
whose maiden name was Cherbau, was born at 
Les Riceys (Aube) in 1814. She was a pupil of 
Antoine Chazal and of Madame de Mirbel, and 
became well-known for her portraits in miniature. 
She died in 1880. 

LA QUEWELLERIE, Guillaume de. See De 

LA QUEWELLEKIE. 

LAQUY, Gdilladme Joseph, born at Bruel in 
1738, studied in the school of Jan Eemmers with 
Wybrand Hendriks, in whose landscapes he painted 
the figures. He was patronized by the celebrated 
amateur Braamcamp, and made copies of the works 
of Gerard Dou, Metsu, De Hooch, Paulus Potter, 
and other eminent masters in that fine collection. 
He also painted original pictures of cabinet size. 
He died at Cleves in 1798. 

LARCHER, Antoinette, was born in Paris in 
1685, and flourished about the year 1725. She en- 
graved some plates of historical subjects, among 
which is ' Judith with the Head of Holofernes,' after 
Raphael. She signed her name ToiTiette Larcher. 

LAREDO, Juan Fernandez de. See Fernandez. 

LARGILLlllRE, Niuolas de, a French portrait 
painter, was born in Paris in October, 1656. When 
three years old, he was taken to Antwerp,, where 
his father had settled as a merchant. This was 
not his only youthful experience of travel. At 
the age of nine he paid a visit to England, which 
lasted twenty months. On his return to Antwerp 
he became a pupil of Antoon Goubau, whom he 
assisted by painting the still-life accessories in his 
pictures. About 1675, he paid a second visit to 
England, and found work in the Royal palaces,' 
under Sir Peter Lely. This brought him to the 
notice of Charles II., whose portrait he painted,' 
together with those of several of the nobility. 
After a stay of four years in this country, he. 
settled in Paris, and at once obtained a large 
practice amongst the bourgeoisie and professional 
classes. He was fortunate enough to become inti- 
mate with Van der Meulen and Le Brun, the latter 
of whom proved himself a great friend. During 
the reign of James II. he paid another short visit 
to England, and painted the king's portrait, as 
well as those of Mary of Modena and the infant 
Prince of Wales. In 1686 he was received into the 
Fi'ench Academy as an historical painter, on his 
portrait of his friend Le Brun. It is curious to note, 
that though Largilliere is now only remembered 
as a portrait painter, and as such has been styled 
the French Van Dyck, yet in his own day he had 
a great reputation as an historical painter. After 
the deaths of Le Brun and Mignard, he occupied 
the foremost position in the French school in this 
branch of art, although he did not court royal and 
aristocratic patronage. He filled successively all 
the offices of honour in the Academy, and died in 
Paris of paralysis on the 20th March, 1746. The 
chief name amongst his pupils is that of Oudryi 
the animal painter, in whom he took great interest 
The French provincial Museums contain many 
specimens of Largilliere's art, which it is not pos- 
sible to particularize. Mention should, however, 
be made of the following works by him : 

Dresden. Galler;/. Portrait of a Man in armour. 

Florence. Vffi'zi. Portrait of himself. 

17 „ Portrait of J. B. Rousseau. 



Jiarive-Godefroy 



PAINTERS AND ENGRAVERS. 



Laroon 



London. 



Paris. 



Louvre. 



St. Genevieve. 



Stockholm. Nat. Gallery. 
Versailles. Galle^^y. 



^ " GaUerv^' \ ^"""^ Charles Edward Stuart. 
Henry Stuart, Cardinal York. 
Portrait of Charles Le Brun. 
Portrait of the Count de La 

Chatre. 
Elevation of the Cross. 
The Provost, of the Merchants 
and the Echevins of Paris. 
{Sketch for the large picture 
painted in 1687, on the occa- 
sion of the convalescence of 
Louis XIV., for the Hotel de 
Ville, PariSy and destroyed 
during the Eevolution.) 
Petersburg. Hermitage. Preparation for a F6te at the 
Hotel de Ville, Paris. 
Portrait of Louis XV. 
Portrait of himself. 
The Artist and his Family. 
„ „ Nicolas Couston, sculptor. 

„ „ Thomas Morant, Councillor of 

State. 
„ „ Jean Thierry, sculptor. 

O.J.D. 

LARIVE-GODEFROY, Pierre Louis de, was 
liorn at Geneva in 1753, and studied under Fassin 
at Rome. He worked for some time at Munich, 
Dresden, and' Mannheim, and at last he settled at 
Persingue near Geneva. The expression in his 
works is most pleasing, and the arrangement is 
full of spirit, but he is too mannered. His etchings 
are also most spiritedly executed. He died at 
Persingue in 1814. Among his paintings there 
are : 

Scenes of the Golden Age. 
View of Persingue. 
View of Mont Blanc, 

LARIVI'^RE, Charles Philippe Auguste de, a 
French historical and portrait painter, was born in 
Paris in 1798. He entered the Ecole des Beaux- 
Arts in 1813, and studied under Girodet and Gros. 
In 1819 he obtained the second prize, and in 1824 
the 'grand prix,' which enabled him to pursue his 
studies at Rome. Specimens of his work as a 
decorative artist are to be seen in the Cathedral 
at Dreux. He died in Paris in 1876. Amongst 
the pictures which he produced are : 

I Bordeaux. Museum. Christ in the Garden of 

Olives. 
Versailles. Gallery. The Taking of Brescia. 

„ „ Many Portraits. 

LARMESSIN, Nicolas de, the elder, a French 
engraver, was born about 1636, and died in Paris 
in 1694. , He had a younger brother, also named 
Nicolas, to whom are usually ascribed all the plates 
of the period which bear this name, but M. Didot 
is of opinion that the greater number of them are 
in reality the work of the elder of the two brothers, 
and draws attention to the finished style of the 
portrait of Archbishop Adh^mar de Monteil, which 
bears the date 16S8, at which time the younger 
Larmessin would be but eighteen years of age. 

LARMESSIN, Nicolas de, the younger, a 
brother of Nicolas de Larmessin, the elder, was 
born in Paris about the year 1640, and died there 
in 1725. There are by this artist several portraits, 
executed entirely with the graver, and possessing 
considerable merit. He sometimes marked his 
plates with the initials N. L., and sometimes 

with the cipher J^^L* The following portraits 

are by him ; 



Philip de Bourbon. Duke of Orleans, brother to Louis 

XIV. 
Henrietta, Duchess of Orleans. 
Henri Jules de Bourbon, Duke d'Enghien. 
Charles XL, King of Sweden. 
Claudia Pelicita of Austria, Empress of Leopold I. 
Maximilian Henry, Archbishop of Cologne. 
Godefroi, Count d'Bstrades, Marshal of France. 
Gabriel Nicolas de la Eeynie, Lieutenant of Police. 
Louise Fran(joise, Duchesse de La Valliere, in the habit 

of a Nun. 
Balthasar Moretus. 

Paolo Manuzio, Librarian of the Vatican. 
Laurens Coster. 
Johann Gutenberg. 

LARMESSIN, Nicolas de, the son of Nicolas 
de Larmessin, the younger, was born in Paris in 
1684, and was instructed in engraving by his 
father. He acquired considerable celebrity by 
some prints he engraved for the Crozat Collection, 
became a member of the French Academy in 1730, 
and engraver to the king. He died in Paris in 1755. 
There are by him a, great number of portraits, and 
historical and other subjects, engraved in a neat, 
finished style, in which he united the point with 
the graver. There is a want of correctness in the 
drawing of his figures, and his prints are without 
much efEect. The following are his principal 
works : 

portraits. 

James II., King of England. 

Mary of Modena, Queen of James II. 

William III. and Mary II. 

Louis XV., on horseback ; after J. B. van Loo. 

Marie, Queen of Louis XV. ; after the same. 

Louis XV. , on foot ; after the same. 

Marie, Dauphiness of France ; after the same. 

Charles Henry of Lorraine ; after Banc. 

Woldemar de Loewendahl, Marshal of France ; after 

Boucher. 
Guillaume Coustou, sculptor ; after De Lien ; engraved 

for his reception into the Academy. 1730. 
Claude Hall6, painter ; after Le Gros ; also engraved 

for his reception into the Academy. 1730. 
Philip Vleughel, painter ; after P. de Ohampaigne. 

PORTRAITS FOR THE CROZAT COLLECTION. 

Eaphael and Jacopo da Pontormo ; half-lengths ; after 

Raphael. 
Federigo Oarondeletto, Archdeacon of Bitonto ; after 

the same. ^ 

Cardinal Pole ; after Raphael or S. del Piambo. 

SUBJECTS FOR THE CROZAT COLLECTION. 

St. Michael vanquishing Satan ; after Raphael. 
St. George and the Dragon ; after the same. 
St. John the Evangelist ; after the same. 
The Holy Family ; after the same. 
The Virgin and Infant Jesus ; after the same. 
The Vision of Ezekiel ; a/to' the same. 
Christ bearing His Cross ; after the same. 

VARIOUS SUBJECTS AFTER FRENCH MASTERS. 

The Four Seasons ; after Lancret. 

The Four Ages of Man ; after the same. 

A set of four Prints from the Fables of La Fontaine ; 

after Boucher, 
The Ambrous Savoyard ; after Pierre. 
The Savoyard Family ; after the same. 

LAROON, Marcellds, called ' Old Laroon,' was 
born at the Hague in 1653, and learned the rudi- 
ments of painting from his father, with whom he 
came when young to England. Here he was placed 
with La Zoon, an obscure portrait painter, and 
vsras afterwards some time with B. Plechiere. He, 
however, studied chiefly by himself. He lived in 
Yorkshire for some years, and then came to London, 

21 



Laroon 



A BIOGRAPHICAL DICTIONARY OF 



Lassus 



where Sir Godfrey Kneller employed him to paint 
his draperies, in which branch he was eminent. 
He possessed the talent of imitating the different 
styles of the great masters with uncommon success ; 
and painted historical subjects, portraits, and con- 
versations. From 1680 he lived in Bow Street, 
but he died at Richmond of consumption in 1702. 
There are by this artist some slight spirited etchings 
of ' Dutch Boors regaling,' and similar subjects, in 
a style resembling that of Ostade, but very inferior. 
He also drew and engraved ' The Coronation Proces- 
sion of William and Mary,' and Tempest's ' Cryes 
of the City of London,' 1688. He sometimes 
marked his plates with the cipher J^^. 

LAROON, MAHCELLtrs, an English subject 
painter and draughtsman, was born in London, 
in 1679. He was the son of "Old Laroon." In 
early life he accompanied embassies to Ryswyok 
and Venice. Then quarrelling with his father, he 
became an actor. Finally, in 1707, he obtained a 
commission in the army, and served in the cam- 
paigns in Flanders, in Spain, and in the Jacobite 
Rebellion of 1715. He retired from the service in 
1734. He had great power as a draughtsman, and 
excelled in his groups of figures. He died in 1772. 

LA ROSE, Jean Baptiste de. See De t,a Rose. 

LA KODLLIERE, , is mentioned by Papillon 

as an engraver on wood of some merit, who flour- 
ished about the year 1700. 

LA ROUSSIBRE, Franqois de. See De la 

ROUSSIERE. 

LARRAGA, Apolinaeio, was a native of Va- 
lencia, and has been erroneously stated to have 
been a scholar of Pedro Orrente, who most prob- 
ably died before he was born, as Larraga outlived 
him upwards of eighty years. He is said, how- 
ever, to have made Orrente's works the model for 
his imitation, and painted several pictures in his 
style in the convent of San Domingo, and in the 
churches of his native city. He died in 1728. His 
daughter, JosBEA Maeia Lareaga, an historical and 
miniature painter, was a pupil of her father. 

LARSEN, Cael Febdeeik Emanuel, a Danish 
marine painter, was born in 1823, and died in 1859. 
At Copenhagen are pictures of the ' Harbour of 
Nieuwe Diep,' 'The Coast at Marseilles,' and 
' Morning on the Sand.' 

LA HUB, Philibeet BbnoIt de. See De la 
Rue. 

LA RUELLE, Claude de. See De la Ruelle. 

LAS CUEVAS, Db. See De las Cuevas. 

LAS MARINAS, Heneique db. See De las 
Maeinas. 

LAS ROELAS, Juan de. .See Db las Roelas. 

LASINIO, Conte Caelo, an Italian engraver, 
was born atTreviso about 1757, but worked chiefly 
at Florence. He was conservator of the Gallery 
at Pisa, where he died in 1839. He is known by 
several works illustrative of the older painters, 
including the following : 

Forty plates of Frescoes and Oil Paintings at Florenne. 
1789. 

Forty plates of Frescoes in the Campo Santo at Pisa. 
1810. 

Thirty-two plates of Frescoes of the Fourteenth and 
Fifteenth Centuries. 

He was* the instructor of his son, Giovanni 
Paolo Lasinio, who was born in 1796, and who 
together with Rossi engraved forty-four plates of 
the Campo Santo at Pisa (1832), and took part 
in the decorations of the Galleries at Florence and 

22 



Turin. He executed also the plates for Rosellini'8 
'Monumenti dell' Egitto e de la Nubia,' 1833-44. 
His signature was L. F. scul. He died in 1855. 

LASINSKY, JoHANN Adolf, was born at Sim- 
mem, near Coblentz, in 1808. and entered the 
Academy at Dusseldorf in 1827. Along with 
Lessing and J. W. Sohirmer he was one of the 
first who cultivated landscape painting inde- 
pendently. In 1837 he painted for the Emperor 
Alexander at Coblentz. He went afterwards to 
Cologne, but returned to Dusseldorf in 1850, where 
he died in 1871. Among his landscapes may be 
mentioned : 

Castle Elz on the Moselle. 1831. 
An Old Watch-Tower by moonlight. 1835. 
The Waterfall at Pyrmont. 1835. 
The Narrow Pass at Dusk. 
Panorama of Cologne. 

A series of Landscapes of HohenzoUem, for the Duke 
of HohenzoUem. 

L'ASNE, Michel, was one of the first of the 
French engravers who distinguished himself by a 
free and dexterous management of the graver. 
He was born at Caen in Normandy in 1596, and 
appears to have imitated the style of Cornells 
Bloemaert and F. Villamena. He died in Paris in 
1667. He was extremely laborious, and has left a 
great number of prints, consisting of portraits, and 
historical and other subjects. When he did not 
sign his plates with his name, he generally used 

the cipher "lYT^. The following are his principal 

prints : 

POETEAITS. 

Louis XIIL, on horseback (the background, representing 
a battle, was engraved by Callot); signed Michael 
Asinus, sculptor Regius. 

Bernard, Duke de J/a Talette (the background, with 
the town of Metz, was engraved by Callot). 

Anne of Austria, Queen of France. 

Armand, Cardinal de Richelieu. 

Jules, Cardinal Mazarin. 

Charles de Crequi, Marshal of France. 

Franqois de Bassompierre, Marshal of France. 

Pierre Siguier, Chancellor. 

Nicolas de Bailleul, President of the Parliament. 

Francisco Fernandez, Franciscan. 

Father Joseph, celebrated Capuchin. 

Jean Fran(jois Niceron, monk, and famous mathema- 
tician. 

Giulio Strozzi, Venetian poet ; a/ter <S I'lmet. 1627. 

Fran9ois Quesnel, painter to Henry HI. ; from a picture 
liy himself. 

Father Nicolas Caussin ; engraved in the manner of 
Mellan. 

SUBJECTS AFTER VARIOUS MASTERS. 

The Holy Family ; after Huberts. 

St. Francis receiving the Infant Jesus from the Virgin ; 

after the same. 
St. Francis of Paloa ; after the same. 
Susannah ; after the same. 

The Visitation of the Virgin ; after L. Carracci, 
The Virgin, with the Infant sleeping, and St. John, 

called ' The Silence ' ; aftet^ Annibale Carracci. 
The Dead Christ, with Mary Magdalene ; from his own. 

design. 
Bece Homo ; after Titian. 
Jesus Christ in glory, with St. Peter and St. Paul ; after 

Faolo Veronese. 
The Virgin, as Queen of Heaven ; after Alhani; oval. 

LASSUS, Alexandee Victor db, was bom at 
Toulouse in 1781. He was a pupil of David, and 
painted historical scenes, like his master. 'There 
is a large picture of ' BarbaTossa ' by him in the 
Museum of Angers. 



Lastman 



PAINTERS AND ENGRAVERS. 



IiEudati 



LASTMAN, NiCOLAES, the son of Pieter Last- 
man, was born at Haarlem about 1590 or 1595. 
After learning the principles of design from Jan 
Pinas, he was instructed in engraving by Joannes 
Saenredam. His plates are neatly executed, but 
without much taste. The following among others 
are by him : 

Portrait of Karel van Mander ; copied after J. Saenredam. 
Christ praying in the Garden ; after Pieter Lastman. 
St. Peter delivered from Prison ; after J. Pinas, 
The Martyrdom of St. Peter ; after Guido. 
The Good Samaritan, in a landscape; after his own 



LASTMAN, PlETBE, was probably born at 
Amsterdam in 1562, and was a disciple of Grerrit 
Pieterszen. Afterwards he visited Italy, where 
he was influenced by Elsheimer. He painted his- 
torical subjects, generally composed of a great 
number of figures, in which it appears that his 

i'ourney to Italy had not contributed to render 
lis design either graceful or correct. There is, 
however, a broad difference between his works 
.at different periods, and four distinct styles are 
recognisable : first, the spirited style up to 1608 
(as those below at Berlin) ; second, the clumsy and 
mannered style, 1609-19 (as those at Brunswick 
and Copenhagen) ; third, the style of Caravaggio, 
1620 to about 1630 (as those at the Hague and 
Rotterdam) ; fourth, a transparent style like Rem- 
brandt's, after 1630 (as those at Haarlem and 
Utrecht). He was for a time the instructor of 
the last-mentioned painter, and also of Jan Lievens. 
He is supposed to have died at Haarlem in 1649. 
The following are examples of his works, which 
are signed P. Lastm, P. as., or with a monogram. 



Berlin. 


Gallery. 


The Repose in Egypt. 


»> 


„ 


Baptism of the Eunuch. 


Brunswick. 


Gallery. 


Ulysses and Nausicaa. 1609. 
{The same at Augsburg.') 


»» 


» 


David in the Temple. 1613. 


j> 


ft 


The Murder of the Innocents. 


Copenhagen 


Moltke Col. 


Tobias. 1618. 


Haarlem. 


Museum. 


Adoration of the Shepherds. 


Hague, 


Museum. 


The Angel appearing to 

Manoah'. 
Christ on the Cross. 1625. 


a 


)j 


Rotterdam. 


Museum. 


The Flight into Egypt. 


Utrecht. 


JS. Kramm. 


The Raising of Lazarus. 1632. 



Three etchings have been ascribed to him, but 
they are doubtful ; two of them are : 

Judah and Tamar, in a landscape. 
A Female seated before an arch, her head covered with 
a veil, with her hands before her. 

LATHAM, James, an Irish portrait painter, was 
born in Tipperary about the beginning of the 18th 
century. He studied at Antwerp, and became a 
master in the Guild of St. Luke in 1724-5. He 
afterwards lived in London and Ireland, where he 
had a good practice, and died at Dublin about 1760. 
There is a portrait by him of Peg Woffipgton at 
the Royal Dublin Society. 

LATILLA, Eugenic, a subject painter, whose 
father was Italian and mother English, exhibited 
at the Society of British Artists, of which he was 
a member from 1838 to 1861. He afterwards 
emigrated to America, and passed several years 
in and near New York, where his sister married 
the American painter James E. Ereeman, who now 
resides in Rome. Latilla died at Chataqua, West- 
chester county, in the State of New York, about 
the year 1860. 



_ LA TOMBE, NicoLAAs, caned Stoppertje, from 
his addiction to smoking, was born at Amsterdam 
in 1616. After learning the rudiments of the art 
in his native city, he travelled when quite young 
to Italy, and resided some years at Rome, where 
he was chiefly employed in painting small land- 
scapes and architectural subjects, which he decor- 
ated with figures in the Italian costume. He 
sometimes painted views of the vestiges of 
ancient buildings and monuments in the vicinity 
of Rome, with landscapes in the backgrounds, in 
which he appears to have imitated the style of 
Cornelis Poelenborch. He also occasionally painted 
small portraits, especially after his return from 
Italy. He died at Amsterdam in 1676. 

LA TOUR, Elisabeth M. db. See De La Touk. 

LATOUR, Jan, an historical and portrait painter, 
was born at Liege in 1719. He was a pupil of 
Jan Baptist Coders, and afterwards went to Rome, 
where he frequented the atelier of Giaquinto 
Corrado. He then went to Naples, but afterwards 
returned to Li6ge, where he executed several pic- 
tures. He visited London and Paris, and died in 
Picardy in 1782. 

LATOUR, Joseph, a French landscape painter, 
was born at Toulouse in 1817, and died in 1863. 

LA TOUR, Maurice Quentin de la. See Db La 

TCUR. 

LA TRAVERSE, Charles Eranqois db. See 
De La Traverse. 

LATTANZIO da Rimini, an Italian artist, is 
registered in 1495 as one of the decorators in the 
Hall of Great Council at Venice. With Mansueti 
he worked at the church of the Crocif eri, or Gesuati, 
at Venice, in competition with Cima. 

LATTANZIO di Cremona, an Italian historical 
painter, flourished at Cremona in 1520. He studied 
in the school of the Milanese at Venice. 

LAUB, TcBiAs, a German portrait painter and 
engraver in mezzotint, who flourished at Augsburg, 
was a pupil of Isaak Fisches, the elder. His name 
is affixed to a portrait of J. J. Soheuchzer, after 
J. H. Heidegger. He died in 1761, at the age of 76. 

LAUBREIS, Vbit Carl, was born at Wiirz- 
burg in 1769. He was instructed by A. H. Kohler, 
and afterwards went to the Academy at Mannheim, 
where in 1790 he gained the prize medal. He 
painted portraits and historical pieces, and exe- 
cuted anatomical drawings for works of medicine 
and surgery. He died about 1806. 

LAUCH, Christoph, born in 1647, was gallery 
inspector and painter to the Empress Eleanor. 
In conjunction with J. Mannl he published thirty 
volumes of the collections in the gallery. His 
portraits of the Empress Eleanor and of the 
Empress Maria have been engraved by Boner and 
Kusel. The portrait of the Emperor Leopold 1. 
is in possession of the magistracy of Vienna. He 
died at Vienna in 1780. 

LAUCHERT, Richard, a portrait painter, was 
born at Sigmaringen in 1823. He studied at 
Munich in 1839, went for improvement to Paris in 
1845, and settled at Berlin in 1860. He was mostly 
employed by the courts of Germany, England, and 
Russia, and painted portraits with great taste and 
ability, but many of his earlier productions are 
inferior to those of his later period. He died at 
Berlin in 1868. 

LAUDATI, Giuseppe, was born at Perugia in 
1672, and studied under P. Montanini in that town, 
and under Carlo Maratti at Rome. He helped to 
raise the art of painting at Perugia from its decline. 

23 



Lauder 



A BIOGEAPHICAL DICTIONARY OF 



Iiaug^er 



J. H. Frezza etched after his works. He died after 
1718. 

LAUDER, James Eckford, a Scottish subject 
painter, was born at Silvermills, near Edinburgh, 
in 1812. He was the younger brother of Robert 
Scott Lauder, under whose guidance his early love 
of art was rapidly developed. After studying at 
the Trustees' Academy, he in 1834 joined his 
brother in Italy, and remained there nearly four 
years. On his return to Edinburgh he became an 
annual contributor to the exhibition of the Royal 
Scottish Academy, and he exhibited occasionally 
at the Royal Academy in London, where his works 
attracted much attention. In 1839 he was elected 
an associate of the Royal Scottish Academy, and 
in 1846 he became an academician. In 1847 he 
sent to the competition in Westminster Hall the 
' Parable of Forgiveness,' for which he was awarded 
a premium of two hundred pounds. One of his 
most successful works, ' The Wise and Foolish 
Virgins,' was engraved by Lumb Stocks for the 
Association for the Promotion of the Fine Arts in 
Scotland. Lauder died at Edinburgh in 1869. 
Among his principal pictures are : 



{National Gallery of Scotland.) 
The Unjust Steward. 
The Wise and Foolish Virgins. 
Scene from the ' Two Gentlemen of Verona.' 1841. 
Cherries. 1842. 
Hop-Scotch. 1843. 
Night and Day. 1845. 

LAUDER, Robert Scott, a Scottish subject 
and portrait painter, was born at Silvermills, near 
Edinburgh, in 1802, and at the age of fifteen he 
was admitted to the Trustees' Academy. He 
subsequently came to London, hut returned to 
Edinburgh about 1826, and was elected one of the 
original members of the Royal Scottish Academy 
in 1830. He went abroad in 1833, and studied for 
some years in Rome, Florence, Bologna, Venice, 
and Munich. On his return in 1838, he lived 
chiefly in London, and exhibited at the Royal 
Academy. He competed in the Westminster Hall 
competition of 1847, sending his ' Christ walking 
on the Sea,' which was suhsequently purchased by 
Lady Burdett-Coutts. His later years were passed 
in his native country, but owing to a paralytic stroke 
he did not practise after 1861. He died at Edin- 
burgh in 1869. The following are amongst his 
best works : 

Scene from the ' Bride of Lammermoor.' (Bridgewuter 

Gallery, London.) 1839. 
The Trial of Effie Deans. 1840. 
Meg Merrilies. 1842. 
Hannah presenting Samuel to Eli. 1845, 
Mother and Child. 1848. 
Portrait of John Gibson Lockhart. 
Portrait of Rev. John Thomson of 'I 

PoS of Wimam Simson, E.S.A. ^ (^^Zllanlf'' 
Sentmels. •' ' 

Christ teaoheth Humility. J 

LAUDIN FAMILY. The members of this 
family of enamel painters of Limoges are very 
difficult to distinguish, owing to the frequent re- 
petition of the Christian names, and to the identity 
of the initials in those cases in which the Christian 
names differ. The following genealogical table 
will serve to explain as nearly as possible the re- 
lationship between those members of the family of 
Laudiu of whom further details are given below. 

24 



VaUrie (?) 
(1022—1882.) 



Nop! Laudin. 
(1686—1681.) 

Jacques I. 
(1627—1696.) 

Noel II. 
(1657-1727.) 



Nicolas T, 
(1628—1698.) 

Jacques II. 
(1603— 1729) 



Joseph (?) 
(d. 1727.) 



Nicolas II. 
(1689—1749.) 



Nicolas III, 
(d. 1737.) 



LAUDIN, Jacques, the elder, was born about 

1627, and died in 1695, at the age of 68. He was 
the elder son of Noel Laudin, and had his atelier 
in the faubourg Manigne at Limoges. He painted 
a great number of enamels in ' grisaille,' re- 
sembling those of the sixteenth century. Among 
them is a series of medallions of the twelve 
Caesars, which may be seen in the Louvre and in 
several other collections. 

LAUDIN, Jacques, the younger, was bom about 
1663, and died in 1729, at the age of 66. He was 
the son of Nicolas Laudin the elder, and carried on 
his business at Limoges in the faubourg Manigne. 
He painted enamels in grisaille, and also in colours 
upon a white or black ground. Many of his works 
are in the Louvre. 

LAUDIN, Jean, is named by M, Ardant as an 
enamel painter of Limoges, but his existence has 
not been established. He is said to have been born 
in 1616, and to have died iil 1688, The works 
ascribed to him are probably by Jacques Laudin 
the elder. 

LAUDIN, Joseph, who died in 1727, was per- 
haps a son of Noel Laudin the younger. Like him 
he worked at Limoges in the faubourg Boucherie, 
but no enamel bearing his signature is known, 

LAUDIN, Nicolas, the elder, was born about 

1628, and died in 1698, at the age of 70. He was 
the younger son of Noel Laudin, and practised his 
art ' pres les J^suites ' at Limoges, executing chiefly 
enamels in colours. 

LAUDIN, Nicolas, the younger, born in 1689, 
was the son of Noel Laudin the younger. He died 
in 1749, and with him expired the art of enamel 
painting, 

LAUDIN, Noel, the founder of the family of 
enamel painters of this name, was the son of Pierre 
Laudin, an armourer. He was born about 1586, 
and died in 1681, at the age of 95. He resided in 
the faubourg Manigne at Limoges, but does not 
appear to have signed his works. This fact, com- 
bined with the great age to which he lived, has 
rendered it extremely difiBcult to assign to their 
respective artists many of the enamels painted by 
the Laudins, Two plaques in the Louvre, repre- 
senting ladies in the costume of the reign of Louis 
XIII,, are ascribed to him, 

LAUDIN, Noel, the younger, was born about 
1657, and died in 1727, at the age of 70, He was 
the son of Jacques Laudin the elder, and had his 
establishment in the faubourg Boucherie at 
Limoges, His enamels are executed in colours 
on a white ground. 

LAUDIN, ValiSrie, who was bom in 1622, and 
died in 1682, was probably the daughter of Noel 
Laudin, She possibly worked with one of her 
brothers, as no enamel bearing her signature is 
known. 

LAUGIER, Jean Nicolas, a French engraver, 
was born at Toulon in 1786. He studied under 
Girodet and at the lilcole des Beaux-Arts, which 



Xiaune 



PAINTERS AND ENGRAVEES. 



Lauri 



he entered in 1813, and died at Argenteuil in >875. 
Amongst his best plates are : 

Leonidas at Thermopylse ; after David. 

Delille dictating his History to his Landlady ; after P. 
Davlcmx. 

Portrait of Ch^teanbriand ; after Girodet. 

The Virgin with the Rabbit ; after Titian. 

La Belle Jardiniere ; after Raphael. 

The Plague at Jaflfa ; after Gros. 

Napoleon I. ; after David. 

The Holy Family ; after Leonardo da Vina. 

Zephyr ; after Prud'hon. 

Portrait of "Washington ; after Cogniet. 

Portrait of Madame de Stael ; after Girard. 

LAUNE, :^TiENNE DE. See Dblaune. 

LAURATI, Pietro. See Lorenzetti. 

LAUEE, Jean Franqois Hyaointhe Jules, a 
French painter, was born at Grenoble in 1806. He 
was a pupil of Hersent, and painted genre and 
historical subjects. He died in Paris in 1861. 

LADREANO, Juan, was an artist residing at 
Seville, who executed a good engraving of ' St. 
Ferdinand ' in 1677. He was afterwards appointed 
chief goldsmith to the cathedral. 

LAURENT, Andr6. See Lawrence. 

LAURENT, Jean Antoine, a French historical 
and portrait painter, was born at Baccarat 
(Meurthe) in 1763. He studied under J. Durand, 
and became curator of the Museum of the Vosges at 
Epinal. He" published a work on linear drawing, 
and died at Epinal in 1832. Among his pictures are: 

The Youth of Duguesolin. 

Clotilde de Surville. 

Charibert and Theodegilda. {Aiich. Museum.) 

LAURENT, Marie Pauline, a French painter 
on porcelain, whose maiden name was Jullien, 
was born in Paris in 1805. She studied under 
Alaux, and from 1836 was employed at the Sfevres 
manufactory. She died in Paris in 1860. 

LAURENT, Pierre, a French engraver, was 
born at Marseilles in 1739. He studied a short 
time under Balechou, and afterwards from the 
works of Berohem, De Loutherbourg, and Poussin. 
He established himself in Paris, where he engraved 
several plates with considerable success, particu- 
larly landscapes. He published in 1803-11, in con- 
junction with Eobillard-P^ronville, the beautiful 
collection entitled ' Musee Frangais.' He died in 
Paris in 1809. Among others, the following prints 
are by him : 

The Water-MiU ; after Btmcher. 

The Washer-woman ; after the same. 

Saying Grace ; after Greuze. 

A Caravan ; after Van der Does. 

The Passage of the Ferry-boat ; after Berchem. 

The Shepherdess ; after the same. 

The Fortune-Teller ; after the same. 

Two Landscapes, with figures and animals ; after 
Dietrich. 

An Italian Landscape, with figures and cattle ; after 
H. Eoos. 

Shepherds rejoicing ; after De Loutherlourg. 

A View of Mondragou, in Dauphin^ ; after the same. 

A Sear-port, with architecture ; after the same. • 

The Death of the Chevalier d'Assas; after Casanova. 

LAURENT, Pierre Louis Henri, the son of 
Pierre Laurent, was born in Paris in 1779. He 
engraved twenty-two plates, of subjects from the 
life of St. Bruno, after Le Sueur ; the ' Death 
of the Virgin,' after Caravaggio ;■ the ' Martyrdom 
of St. Peter Martyr,' after Titian ; and several 
landscapes after Potter, the whole of which form 
part of- the ' Musde Franqais : ' also, the ' Rape of 
the Sabines,' and the ' Finding of Moses,' after 
Poussin ; the ' Communion of St. Jerome,' after 



Domenichino; and many others after the great 
masters. He published in 1816-22 the collection 
of engravings of the ' Mus^e Royal,' which forms 
a continuation of the ' Musde Frangais,' published 
by his father. He died in Paris in 1844. 

LAURENTINI, Giovanni, called Abragoni, a 
native of Rimini about the year 1600, was one of 
the best disciples of Federigo Barooci. He mostly 
executed compositions of a large size. His best 
works are at Rimini, and include ' The Martyrdom 
of St. John ' at the Augustines, and ' St. John ' 
and ' St. Paul ' in the churches dedicated to these 
two saints. 

LAURENTIO, C, is mentioned by Strutt as the 
engraver of some of the portraits in Priorata's 
' History of the Emperor Leopold,' 1660. 

LAURETI, Tommaso, called Tommaso Siciliano, 
who flourished throughout the latter half of the 
16th century, was a native of Palermo, and a 
disciple of Sebastiano del Piombo. At an early 
period of his life he established himself at Bologna, 
where he painted several pictures for the churches. 
The principal are the ' Martyrdom of SS. Vitale 
and Agricola,' in the church dedicated to those 
saints ; in San Giacomo Maggiore, the ' Resurrec- 
tion of Christ,' and the ' Burial of St. Augustine,' 
the latter a grand and copious composition ; in San 
Mattia, the ' Coronation of the Virgin ; ' and in the 
house of Signer F. Bolognetti, ' Venus embraced 
by Cupid.' He was invited to Rome by Gregory 
XIII., to finish the ceiling of the Sala di Constan- 
tino, left imperfect at the death of Clement VII. 
He was no less patronised by Sixtus V. and 
Clement VIII. By the latter, he was engaged to 
ornament one of the saloons in the Campidoglio, 
where he painted in fresco scenes from Roman 
history, one of his most considerable works. He 
was the second president of the Academy of St. 
Luke after its foundation, and flourished at Rome 
in great esteem until his death at about eighty 
years of age. 

LAUREUS, Alexander, (or Laur-EUS,) a 
Swedish genre and landscape painter, was born at 
Abo in 1783. He visited Italy, after which he 
abandoned painting Swedish scenes and took to 
Italian subjects. He died at Rome in 1823. 

LAURI, Baltassare, was born at Antwerp 
about the year 1570. He went to Rome when he 
was young, and became a scholar of his country- 
man, Paulus Bril, under whom he proved a skilful 
landscape painter. He died at Rome in 1642. 

LAURI, FiLiPPO, the younger son of Baltassare 
Lauri, was bom at Rome in 1623. He was first 
instructed by his brother, Francesco Lauri, and on 
the death of that promising artist, became a 
scholar of Angelo Caroselli. The progress of 
Filippo was extraordinary, and he soon surpassed 
his instructor. He had a turn for poetry, was well 
acquainted with history and mythology, and was a 
master of perspective. He succeeded better in 
easel pictures than in life-size figures, though he 
painted some altar-pieces for the churches at Rome, 
particularly his picture of 'Adam and Eve' in La 
Pace. His best works are his bacchanals, and 
subjects of fable. He imitated Albani in a very 
pleasing manner, and was often employed to paint 
the figures in the pictures of Claude Lorrain. He 
died at Rome in 1694. His works have been 
favourites with engravers, and have employed the 
talents of Woollett, Byrne, Walker, Bragg, Major, 
Caroline Watson, Wright, Mason, Ravenet, and 
others. Among his paintings are : 

25 



Lauri 



A BIOGRAPHICAL DICTIONARY OF 



Lautensack 



Aix-la-OhapeUe. Sue^^^ } The Glorification of Hunting. 

Augsburg. Gallery. Jason and the Dragon. 

Hague. Gallay. Landscape with Figures. 

Hampton Court. Palace. Holy Family. 
London. Sridgeioater ) Virgin surrounded by An- 

House. J gels. 
,, „ Bacchus and Satyrs. 

Paris. Louvre. St. Francis of Assisi in 

Ecstasy. 
„ ,, Sacrifice to Pan. 

,, „ The Punishment of Marsya^. 

Petersburg. Bermitage. St. Anne teaching the Virgin 
to read. 
„ „ The Magdalene meeting 

Christ in the Garden. 
Rome. Doria Palace. Venus and the Seasons. 

Vienna. Academy. Diana and Endymion. 

„ „ Venus and Adonis. 

„ „ The Chaste Susannah. 

„ „ The Eape of Europa. 

„ „ Alpheus and Arethusa. 

„ „ Thetis and Polyphemus. 

„ Gallery. The Flight into Egypt. 

LAURI, rEANCESco, the elder son of Baltassare 
Lauri, was born at Rome in 1610. Having shown 
an early disposition for historical painting, his 
father placed him under the care of Andrea Sacchi. 
On leaving that master, he travelled through Italy, 
France, and Germany, and returned to Rome, where 
the expectations of his friends were destroyed by 
his premature death in 1635, at the age of 25. 
The only work mentioned as by him is a ceiling in 
the Palazzo Crescenzi at Rome, representing ' Three 
Goddesses.' 

LAURI, GiACOMO, an Italian engraver, a native 
of Rome, iiourished about the year 1610. He 
published, in 1612, a set of one hundred and sixty- 
six prints, entitled, 'Antiquae Urbis Splendor,' 
consisting of views, executed with the graver, of 
the ancient buildings of Rome. 

LAURI, PiETRO, (or Laueibr,) who flourished 
about 1650, was a native of France, though he 
resided the gi-eater part of his life at Bologna^ 
where he was brought up in the school of Guido. 
He painted several pictures for the churches at 
Bologna ; some of which have the appearance of 
having been retouched by Guido. At the Cap- 
puccini is a fine picture of the ' Virgin presenting 
the Infant Jesus to St. Felix' ; and in La Madonna 
della Liberta, ' St. Anthony of Padua.' 

LAURIE, RoBEET, (or Laweie, or Lowet,) 
an engraver in mezzotint, who was also a 
printseller, was born in London about the year 
1740. In 1771, and again five years later, he 
received premiums from the Society of Arts, the 
second for an invention in aid of the printing 
of colours in mezzotint. He died about 1804. 
There are by this artist some portraits, and various 
subjects, which possess considerable merit ; among 
others, the following : 

POETEAITS. 
George III. ; after Zoffany. 1772. 
Queen Charlotte ; after the same. 1772. 
The Prince of Wales and Duke of York. 1772. 
Elizabeth, Duchess of Hamilton ; after G. Bead. 
Etienne Fran9ois, Duke de Choiseul ; after Van Loo. 
David Garrick ; after Sir Joshua Reynolds. 1779. 
The same, led off the Stage by Time towards the Temple 

of Fame ; after T. Parkinson. 1779. 
The same, with Mrs. Bellamy, as Eomeo and Juliet ; 

after B. Wilson. 

SUBJECTS AFl'EE VAEIOUS MASTEBS. 
The Nativity ; after Rubens. 

The Holy Family returning from Egypt ; after the same. 
The Crucifixion ; after the same. 

26 



The same subject ; afier Van Dyck. 

The Incredulity of St. Thomas ; after Rembrandt. 

The Adoration of the Magi , after A. Casali. 

Sun-rise, a landscape ; after G. Barret. 

A hard Gale ; after Joseph Vernet. 

A Squall ; after the same. 

The Quack Doctor ; after Dietrich. 

LAURIN, Heinrich Fribdeich, a German en- 
graver, was born at Dresden in 1756. He was a 
pupil of Adrian Zingg, and has engraved some 
landscapes in a neat and spirited style. Some of 
his first essays were after Salvator Rosa, Kobell, 
&c. He died in 1830. The following also are by 
him : 

Two Landscapes ; after Kleughel. 

A pair, the Fishermen, and the Waterfall of Liebethal ; 

after Zingg. 
Two large Views of Fano ; after Theil. 
A Landscape and Cattle; after A. van de Velde. 

LAURO, GiAcoMO, called Giacomo di Teeviso, 
was bom at Venice in 1550. He was a pupil of 
Paolo Veronese. In the church of the Dominicans 
is a fine picture by him of ' St. Roch interceding for 
the persons afflicted with the Plague.' He resided 
in Treviso, where he died in 1605. 

LAUTENSACK, Hans Sebald, a German painter 
and etcher, was a son of Paul Lautensack, a 
painter of Bamberg, where he was born in 1524. 
Whilst he was yet a child his parents settled in 
Nuremberg, and there he lived during the greater 
portion of his life. In 1556 he was working in 
Vienna, where he died between 1560 and 166.8. 
There are by this artist several landscapes, etched 
in a dark, unpleasant style ; and also some por- 
traits, etched and finished with the graver, which 
possess considerable merit. His engravings, which 
follow the style of Altdorfer, are generally marked 
with a monogram composed of the letters H. S. L. 

on a tablet, with the date, thus : |3Ki| The 

' ' |/S5/.| 

following are his principal works : 

POKTEAITS. 

Paul Lautensack, painter of Nuremberg. 1552. 

Hans Sebald Lautensack. 1554. 

Hieronymns Schurstab, half-length; on one side his 

arms, and on the other a \Tllage with a church. 

1554. 
Georg Boggenbach. 1554. 
The half-length of a Nobleman, with a beard ; on one 

side his arms, and on the other a fortified castle. 

1554. 

SUBJECTS AND LANDSCAPES. 

A Landscape, -with David and Goliath. 1551. 

Christ curing the Blind at Jericho. 1559. 

A Mountainous Landscape, with the History of Balaam 

and his Ass. 1559. 
Villagers occupied in the Vintage. 1559. 
A Landscape, with a Farm-Yard. 1551. 
Two Landscapes ; dated 1553 and 1555. 
The Tournament at the Marriage of the Emperor 

Ferdinand ; very scarce. 1560. 
A representation of Public Games; very scarce. 1560. 
A large View of Nuremberg, from the west ; in three 

sheets. 1552. 
A similar View of Nuremberg, from the east ; in three 

sheets. 1655. 

WOODCUTS. 

Portrait of Johannes Aventinns. 
A Standard-Bearer. 

LAUTENSACK, Heinrich, a painter and gold- 
smith, was born at Bamberg in 1522. He was 
a son of Paul Lautensack, with whom he went 
to Nuremberg whilst young. In 1550 he went to 



Lautensack 



PAINTERS AND ENGRAVERS. 



Iiawleas 



Frankfort, Where he established the first collection 
of paintings, and in 1553 published a treatise on 
'Perspective.' He died at Frankfort in 1590. 
Some plates are attributed to him, but on very 
insufScient grounds ; they are in the style of Hans 
Sebald Behara, though much inferior. 

LAUTENSACK, Paul, a German painter and 
organist, was born at Bamberg in 1478, but in 
1525, on account of his having embraced the 
reformed religion, he left that city and settled in 
Nuremberg, where he painted many subjects from 
the Apocalypse, and also wrote some treatises upon 
it, which were collected and published at Frank- 
fort in 1619. He, however, became so troublesome 
by reason of his fanaticism, that he was in 1542 
expelled from the city, but after a time he was 
allowed to return, and is believed to have died 
there in 1558. There are still in Bamberg some of 
his paintings, chiefly copies of the prints of 
Martin Sohongauer and the woodcuts of Albrecht 
Diirer. His portrait, dated 1529, is in the Germanic 
Museum at Nuremberg. 

LAUTERER, Adam, was born at Vienna in 1700. 
He studied under Joseph Orient, and painted 
animals in the style of Berchem and Poelenborch. 
He died at Vienna in 1733. There is a piu ure 
by him in the Vienna Gallery, and others are at 
Augsburg and at Prague. 

LAUTERS, Paul, a Belgian painter, etcher, and 
lithographer, was born at Brussels in 1806. He 
studied under Malaise, and at the school of en- 
gravers at Brussels, of which he became a pro- 
fessor in 1836. He died at Brussels in 1875. 
Among his paintings are : 

View in the Pyrenees. 
Valley of the Heuss, Switzerland. 
A Hollow Way. {Brussels Gallery.) 
View in the Forest of Mariemont. 

Among his plates are a series of twelve, repre- 
senting Brussels and its environs ; a series of 
twenty-six, representing the banks of the Saone ; 
fifty plates for the ' Views of Java, Sumatra, &c., ' 
by C. W. M. van de Velde, and the ' Entrance into 
the Forest,' for which he obtained the prize at the 
Ghent Academy in 1852. 

LAUVERGNE, BAKTHiLEMT, a French marine 
painter, was bom at Toulon in 1805, and died in 
Paris in 1875. 

LADW, PiBTEB. See Louw. 

LAUWERS, CoENEAED, the younger brother of 
Nicolaes Lauwers, was born at Leuze, about the 
commencement of the 17th century. He learned 
engraving at Antwerp, and executed several plates 
after the Flemish masters, and others, with the 
graver, in the style of his brother, though inferior 
to him. He was living in 1660-61. The following 
are by him : 

POETEAITS. 

Aertns Quellinus, architect ; after J. De Duyts. 

Pieter Verbruggen ; after E. Quelh'rms. 

Marius Ambrosias Capello, Bishcp of Antwerp; after 

Diepenbeeck. 
Aatoine Vigier, Jesuit ; after J. Cossiers. 

SUBJECTS AFTEE VAEI0U3 MASTERS. 

Elijah in the Desert, with an Angel bringing him food ; 

after Rubens. 
Christ bearing His Cros? ; after the same. 
The Penitence of St. Peter ; after Cossiers. 
The Crucifixion ; after the same. 
The Virgin, with the InPant Jesus, St. Elizabeth, and 

St. John, in a landscape ; after ischiavone. 



LAUWERS, Jakob Jan, was born at Bruges in 
1754. After studying at the Academy of hia 
native city, he went to Italy, where he only 
remained a short time. He then went to Paris, 
where he met wilh a rich Dutchman, who placed 
him at Amsterdam. He at first painted landscapes, 
and afterwards interiors. There is an interior by 
this artist in the Amsterdam Museum. He died at 
Amsterdam in 1800. 

LAUWERS, Nicolaes, a Flemish engraver, was 
born at Leuze, near Tournay, towards the close of 
the 16th century. He studied at Antwerp, under 
the celebrated engravers af te"r Rubens, and attached 
himself pnrticularly to the style of Paulus Pontius, 
which he imitated with success. He was already 
a master in the Guild of St. Luke at Antwerp in 
1620, and became dean in 1635-36. He died at 
Antwerp in 1652. There are several prints by him 
from various masters, but his best plates are thosj 
he engraved after Rubens. The following are hia 
principal works : 

POETEAITS. 

Isabella, Infanta of Spain, with two Children, one hold- 
ing a crown, the other her arms ; after Sniens. 

Pra Lelio Blancatcio, commander of Malta ; after Van 
Dyck. 

SUBJECTS AFTEE VABIOUS MASTEES. 

The Adoration of the Magi ; after Rubens. 

Christ before Pilate ; after the same. In the later im- 
pressions of this print, the name of Bolswert is sub- 
stituted for that of Lauwers. 

The Descent from the Cross ; after the same. 

The Dead Christ on the knees of the Virgin, with Mary 
Magdalene ; after the same. 

The Triumph of the New Law ; in two sheets ; after 
the same. 

St. Cecilia, with Angels ; after Gerard Seghers. 

Gamesters and Smokers in a Tavern ; after the same. 

Jupiter and Mercury, with Baucis and Philemon ; after 
J. Jordaens, 

The Virgin appearing to a Carmelite ; after Diepenbeeck. 

St. Agabus before the Virgin ; after the same. 

LAVAL, PiEEEE Louis de, a French historical 
painter, was born in Paris in 1790. He was a 
pupil of Forestier and of Girodet, and exhibited at 
the Salon from 1810 to 1865. There htp Pcripiural 
subjects by him in some of the churches of Paris, 
and ' Psyche abandoned by Cupid ' is in the 
Museum at Grenoble. He died in Paris in 1870. 

LAVALLEE-POUSSIN, Etienne de. See De 

LA VALL^E. 

LAVAUDEN, AltHonse, a French historical 
and portrait painter, was born at Lyons in 1796. 
He studied under Revoil and Gros, and painted the 
' Battle of Beaug6 ' and two portraits for the 
Versailles Galleries. He died in Paris in 1857. 

LA VEEQ, Jakob. See Levecq. 

LA VILLA-AMIL, Geronimo Peeez de. See 
Perez de la Villa- Amil. 

LAVILLE - LEROUX, Maeie Guilhelmine. 
See Benoits. 

LAVIT, Jean Baftiste Omee, a French land- 
scape painter, who was a pupil of Duval, was born 
in Paris in 1771, and died in 1836. 

LAVREINCE, Nicolaus. See Lafrensen. 

LAWLESS, Matthew James, a subject painter, 
was born in 1836. He was a student of the Lang- 
ham school, and a pupil of Gary and Leigh. He 
executed the drawings for many of the wood-cuts 
in ' Good Words ' and ' Once a Week,' and was 
a member of the Etching Club. Among his 
pictures exhibited at the Royal Academy may be 
mentioned, 'The King's Quarters at Woodstock,' 

27 



Lawranson 



A BIOGRAPHICAL DICTIONARY OF 



liawrencff 



exhibited in 1861, and ' A Sick Call,' in 1863, whioli 
was his last contribution, as he died at Bayswater 
in 1864. Some of his earlier works were rather 
vulgar in subject and treatment, but those of a 
later date showed more refinement. 

LAWRANSON, Thomas, an Irish portrait painter, 
who practised in London, was a member of the 
Incorporated Society of Artists, where he ex- 
hibited from 1764 to 1773. In the National Por- 
trait Gallery is a portrait by him of O'KeafEe. 

LAWRANSON, William, was a portrait and 
subject painter, who practised in London in the 
latter half of the 18th century. He was the son of 
Thomas Lawranson, and like him a member of the 
Incorporated Society of Artists, where he exhibited 
from 1765 to 1770. He also exhibited at the Royal 
Academy from 1774 to 1780. Amongst his works 
were : 

Nan Oatley, as Eiiphrosyne. 
Palamon and Laviuia. 
Ro-salind and Gelia. 
Cymon and Iphigenia. 
Lady haymaking. 

LAWRENCE, Andrew, (known in Paris as 
Ande£ Laurent,) an engraver, was born at West- 
minster in 1708, and was taught drawing by M. 
Regnier, who was then residing in Soho. He also 
worked in crayons and in oil, but devoted himself 
likewise to other accomplishments, being skilled in 
languages and in music. Unfortunately he gave 
his mind also to alchemy, and by its means got 
through the fortune left him by his father, and had 
to leave the country. After proceeding to Bologna 
he came to Paris, where he worked at etching for 
very slender daily wages under Philippe Le Bas, 
and then under A. Pond. He died in Paris in 
1747. He engraved the plates of the great gal- 
lery at Versailles, after the drawings of Cochin. 
There are also by him some plates after De Louther- 
bourg, and the following : 

Saul consulting the "Witch of Endor ; after Salvator 

JRosa. 
A Conversation ; after Tenters. 
The Hay Harvest, and its companion; after Womoer- 

man. 
Halt of Officers ; after the same. 
Le Soir ; after Berchem. 

LAWRENCE, Mary, (afterwards Kearsb,) was 
a flower painter, who exhibited at the Royal 
Academy under her maiden name from 1794 to 
1813, and under her married name of Kearse 
from 1814 to 1830. She drew and engraved the 
illustrations for her ' Various Kinds of Roses in 
England,' published in 1797. 

LAWRENCE, Samuel, a portrait painter, was 
born in 1811. His first appearance in London was 
at the Exhibition of the Society of British Artists 
in 1834, when he contributed two portraits. In 
1836 he sent to the Royal Academy portraits of 
Matthew Gisborne, Mrs. Somerville, and another. 
He died in 1884. His portraits are mostly in 
crayons, and among them may be named : 

Eight Honourable J. Erskine. 
Charles Dickens (' Boz '). 1838. 
Thomas Carlyle. 1841. 
Sir Frederick Pollock. 
John HuUah. 
Professor Sedgwick. 
Lord Ashburton. 
Eev. Frederick Denison Maurice, 
Sir Henry Taylor. 
Dr. "Whewell. 
Leigh Hunt. 
George Grote. 
28 



James Spedding. , „ , . ^ 77 

Charles Babbage. (^National Portrait Gallery.) 
Captain Bourchier. (The same.) 
Professor "Wheatstone. (The same.) 
"William Makepeace Thackeray. (JThe same.) 
Robert Browning. 

LAWRENCE, Sir Thomas, was bom at Bristol, 
on the 4th of May, 1769. Soon after his birth, his 
father, who had been a solicitor, and afterwards a 
supervisor of excise, took the White Hart Inn at 
Bristol, but not prospering there he went to 
Devizes, where at ' The Black Bear ' young Tommy 
used to recite before the customers, and draw their 
portraits. From Devizes they went to Oxford, 
and from Oxford to Bath, at each of which places 
young Lawrence was fully occupied in draw- 
ing in chalks pastel portraits. In 1787 he first 
visited London, where he received much valuable 
advice from Sir Joshua Reynolds, who was then 
near the end of his career. In his first years in 
London he attempted classical art, but this proving 
a failure, he devoted himself to portrait painting, 
induced thereto by his portrait of Miss Farren, 
afterwards Countess of Derby, painted in or about 
1790. After this he soon began to make his way. 
The King had already patronized him, and indeed 
went so far as to insist upon Lawrence being made 
an extra Associate of the Royal Academy, when 
he was only twenty-one. In 1792, on the death 
of Sir Joshua Reynolds, he was appointed to the 
office of painter in ordinary to His Majesty, as also 
to that of painter to the Dilettanti Society. In the 
same year he was commissioned to paint the por- 
traits of the King and Queen as a present for the 
Emperor of China. In 1792 also he exhibited ten 
portraits, one of which was that of the King. 
In 1794 he was made an Academician, his pre- 
sentation picture being ' A Gipsy Girl.' In this 
year also Lawrence removed from Old Bond Street 
to Piccadilly, from whence in 1797 he removed to 
Greek Street, Soho. From 1798 to 1813 he exhibited 
ninety portraits at the Royal Academy. In 1813 
he removed to 65, Russell Square, where he spent 
the remaining years of his life, and amassed 
a matchless collection of drawings by the old 
masters, of which those by Raphael and Michel- 
angelo are nowinthe University Galleries at Oxford. 
In 1814 Lawrence paid his first visit to the 
Continent, but he was recalled from Paris by 
comm and of the Prince Regent to paint the portraits 
of the allied Sovereigns, their statesmen and 
generals, which formed the commencement of the 
Waterloo Gallery at Windsor Castle. In the 
following year he was knighted by the Prince 
Regent. During the Congress that met at Aix-la- 
Chapelle in 1816, Lawrence was commissioned by 
the Prince Regent to paint its chief members for 
the Gallery. From Aix-la-Chapelle he went to 
Vienna, and from "Vienna to Rome, where he 
painted the portraits of the Pope (Pius VII.), 
Cardinal Gonsalvi, and Canova. Leaving Rome 
in December 1819, he returned in the following 
year to London to find himself the elected President 
of the Royal Academy. Between 1825 and the 
year of his death, some of the finest of his works 
were painted and exhibi|;ed, and none more beauti- 
ful than his groups of mothers and children, in 
portraying whose beauty and vivacity no Eng- 
^ lish portrait painter except Reynolds has been 
'happier. In 1829 he received the freedom, of 
his native city, Bristol. To the exhibition of 
this year— the one destined to be his last— he 
contributed eight paintings, and on the morning of 



Xawrenoe 



PAINTERS AND ENGRAVERS. 



January 7th, 1830, he expired suddenly from ossi- 
fication of the heart. He was interred with nauoh 
pomp in St. Paul's Cathedral, wtere he rests by the 
side of his predecessor. Sir Joshua Reynolds. 
Among the honours conferred on him in his life- 
time were : — Member of the American Academy of 
the Fine Arts, 1818 ; of the Academy of St. Luke, 
1816; of the Academy of Vienna, 1820; of the 
Academies of Florence, Venice, and Copenhagen, 
1823 ; and of that of Bologna, 1824. The King 
of France in 1825 sent him the Cross of the Legion 
of Honour, and a set of Sevres china. The 
following are some of his principal pictures : 

Bristol. Corporation. .William, third Duke of Port- 

land. 
Dulwich. CoUec/e. William Linley. 

Hampton Court. JPalace. Baron Geatz. 
London. St. Sartholomcw's I t i „ ai, ™ n. 
Hospital. I ^"^""^^^"^^^^y- 
„ Duke of Wellington \ q -pr 

{Apsley House). J ^^°''S^ ^ ^ • 
„ „ „ Marchioness of Worcester. 

„ „ „ Thomas Graham, Lord Lyne- 

dooh. 
„ „ „ Arthur, Duke of Wellington. 

„ „ „ Duchess of WelMugton. 

1814. 
„ „ „ Henry William, Marquis of 

Anglesey. 
„ „ „ Marchioness Wellesley. 

„ „ „ Henry, third Earl Bathurst. 

„ Sir R. Feel. Lady Peel. 

" ''''ltS!''-^lM''t'l^-BaiUie,M.D. 

„ Dilettanti Society. Richard Payne Knight. 

„ „ Sir H. Englefield. 

„ „ Thomas, first Lord Dundas. 

„ Soyal Academy. A Gipsy Girl. 

„ „ His own Portrait. 

„ Em/al Society. Sir Humphrey Davy. 

„ United Service Club. Lord Saltoun. 

" "'"^^^-r"-^} Sir Astley Cooper. 

„ Nat. Portrait Gall. George IV. 

„ „ Queen Caroline. 

„ „ Thomas Campbell. 

„ „ Elizabeth Carter. 

„ „ Earl of Bldon. 

„ „ Warren Hastings. 

„ „ His own Porbrait. 

„ „ Sir James Mackintosh. 

„ „ Samuel Rogers. 

„ „ William Wilberforce. 

„ „ Et. Hon. W. Windham. 

„ Rolls Court. Sir William Grant. 

„ „ John Kemble, as Hamlet. 

„ „ Mrs. Siddons. 

„ • ,, John Fawcett, comedian. 

„ National Gallery. John Julius Angerstein. 

„ „ Mrs. Robertson. 

„ Benjamin West, P.R A. 

„ „ Countess of Darnley. (Lent 

to the Walker Art Gallery, 
Liverpool. ) 

„ „ Mrs. Siddons. 

„ A Child with a Kid. (Lady 
Georgiana Fane.) 

„ British Museum. Sir Joseph Banks. 
„ South ICennngton | q^^^^ Caroline. 

Museum, j ^ 

„ „ SirCodringtonE.Cairington. 

,, „ Lady Carrington. 

Liverpool. Corporation, Rt. Hon. G. Canning; 

Oxford. Christ Church. Wm., first Lord Auckland. 

„ University College. Et. Hon. W. Windham. 

Paris. Louvre. Lord Whitworth. 

Windsor. Castle. Getrge IV. 

„ „ Prince Metternich. 

„ „ General TchernichefE, 

„ „ General Overoff. 

„ Earl Bathurst. 



Lawson 

Windsor. Castte. Prince Blucher. 

" „ Cardinal Gonsalvi. 

,) Duke of Wellington. 

.. „ Pope Pius VII. 

" „ The Hetmaun Platoff. 

j» „ Earl of Liverpool. 

j> I, Baron Hardenburg. 

" „ Count Capo d'lstria. 

>' „ Count Nesselrode. 

i> „ Marquis of Londonderry. 

!, Frederick William III., King 
of Prussia. 

>• !> Francis II., Emperor of 

Austria. 

" ,! Charles X., King of France. 

!> . „ Archduke Charles. 

», „ Alexander, Emperor of 

Russia. 

» „ Donna Maria da Gloria, 

Queen of Portugal. 

» ,1 Sir Thomas Lawrence, P.R. A. 

» ,. Prince George of Cumber- 

land, afterwards King of 
Hanover. 

.. „ Sir Jeffry Wyattville, R.A. 

>> „ Duke of Cambridge. 

>^ „ Duke of York. 

» ,) Prince Schwarzeuberg. 

» „ Et. Hon, George Canning. 

>i „ Princess Amelia. 

!; „ Sir Walter Scott. 

i> „ George III. 

I, „ William IV. 

t» I, Princess Charlotte. 

,) „ Earl of Eldou. 

LAWRIE, Robert. See Laukib. 

LAWSON, Cecil Goedon, was born at Welling- 
ton in Shropshire in 1851. His father, William 
Lawson, is a portrait painter, from whom he learnt 
the elements of painting. He was always inclined 
to art, and from fourteen years of age till he was 
seventeen he employed himself in making careful 
studies of fruit and flowers, bits of landscape, and 
special clouds, or blossoms, or grasses. In 1866 
he took his first sketching tour through Kent, 
Sussex, and Surrey. His first appearance in public 
was at the New British Institution in Bond Street, 
where he exhibited a grey landscape called ' Ice 
on the River.' In 1870 he took to drawing on 
wood for the engravers, and made his first appear- 
ance at the Academy with ' Cheyne Walk, Chelsea.' 
In the Royal Academy of 1871 he exhibited ' The 
River in Rain ' and ' Summer Evening in Cheyne 
Walk.' In 1873 he made ii tour in Ireland, and 
in 1874 he went to Holland, Belgium, and Paris. 
In the same year he settled down at Wrothara, 
and there commenced his picture of the ' Hop 
Gardens of England,' which was in the Academy 
of 1876. In 1878 'The Minister's Garden,' in the 
Grosvenor Gallery, excited much attention. In 
1879 he married, and went to live at Haslemere, 
where in 1880 he painted 'The August Moon,' 
which was presented by his widow to the National 
Gallery. His health, however, began to fail, and 
though he was in the Riviera in the winter of 1881, 
he returned too soon, and died at Chelsea in 1882. 
Besides those already mentioned he painted the 
following pictures: 

A Lament. 1872. 

A Pastoral in the Vale of Miefod, North Wales. 1873. 

The Voice of the Cuckoo. 1880. 

Wharfedale, Yorkshire. 1881. 

The Storm-Cloud, West Lynn, North Devon. 1882. 

The Wet Moon, Old Battersea. 1882. 

An Autumn Sunrise. 

Sundown. 

Strayed ; a Pastoral. 

On the Road to Monaco. 

29 



Lazinsky 



A BIOGRAPHICAL DICTIONARY OP 



Le Bag 



LAZINSKY, GuSTAV, an historical painter, was 
born at Coblenoe in 1811. He was a brother of 
Johann Adolf Lazinsky, and with him went to 
Diisseldorf in 1829. He died at Mayence in 1870. 
Among his pictures are : 

Death of Tell. 

The Cross-Bearer. 

Departure of Gustavus Adolphus. 

Death of Prince Ludwig. 

LAZZARI, DoNATO, commonly known as Bea- 
■ MAN'J'E, the ai'chitect of the basilica of St. Peter 
at Rome, and whose name has now been proved to 
have been Donato Bramantb, was born at Castle 
Durante, now Urbania, near Urbino, in 1444. Of his 
early life little is known ; but he i.s recorded to have 
been from about 1472 to 1499 in Milan, where he 
executed numerous architectural works of note. 
Of his paintings, some damaged frescoes in the 
Casa Prinetti (formerly Pauigarola), Milan, are 
all that remain ; though he is recorded to have 
decorated the facades of houses in that city, where 
for a long time the ' Four Evangelists ' were pre- 
served in a church as specimens of his bold fore- 
shortening. Bramante was also an engraver ; there 
exist three impressions of a plate by him, represent- 
ing persons standing and kneeling around an altar 
in a chapel ; it has been engraved in outline in 
Roeini's ' Storia della Pittura Italiana.' One of 
these is in the British Museum. Bramante died at 
Rome in 1514, and was buried in the crypt of St. 
Peter's. 

LAZZARINI, Giovanni Andeea, a painter, poet, 
and art- writer, was born at Pesaro in 1710. He 
was instructed in painting by Francesco Mancino, 
and studied at Rome under Fantuzzi from 17.^4 to 
1749, and subsequently at Venice and Forli after 
Gignani. He distinguished himself as a fresco- 
painter : his design is correct and his compositions 
are excellent. He was, however, a better teacher 
than artist. His chief works are to be met with 
at Gualdo, near Riiuini, at Osimo, Foligno, Ancona, 
and Pesaro. He died at Pesaro in 1801. 

LAZZARINI, Greqobio, was born at Villanuova 
in 1657. He was a pupil of Francesco Rosa, a 
Genoese painter, who resided some time at Venice, 
but he soon abandoned the dark and gloomy style of 
his instructor, and aimed at the higher excellences 
of the simple and natural. On viewing the works 
of Lazzarini, one would suppose him to have been 
educated in the Bolognese, or rather in the Roman 
school. Lanzi, however, asserts that he never 
quitted Venice, and that by the impulse of his 
genius alone he conciliated the esteem of the most 
distinguished professors of his time, particularly 
Carlo Maratti, who was not much accustomed to 
over-rate the talents of his contemporaries. When 
the Venetian ambassador, then resident at Rome, 
proposed a commission to the Roman artists to 
paint a picture for the Sal a dello Sorutinio, at 
Venice, Carlo Maratti had the generosity to refuse 
the offer, expressing his surprise that the ambas- 
sador should apply to the painters of Rome while 
Venice possessed such an artist as Lazzarini. Of the 
justice of Maratti's appreciation of his talents, Laz- 
zarini has given proof in the picture he painted on 
that occasion, representing the triumphal memorial 
of the Morosini. He distinguished himself still more 
in his picture of ' St. Lorenzo Giustiniani,' at the 
Patriarcale, which is esteemed by Lanzi the finest 
oil painting of the Venetian school of the period in 
which he lived, whether in regard to the grandeur 
of the composition, the elegance of the contours, 

30 



or the variety in the heads and attitudes. In the 
Academy at Venice there are four paintings by 
him. Tiepolo was one of his pupils. Lazzarini 
died at Venice in 1735. 

LEADER, William, was a mezzotint engraver, 
by whom there are a few prints after the old 
masters ; among others, a small upright plate, 
representing 'Samson,' after Rembrandt. He 
was working in London about the middle of the 
18th century. 

LEAHY, Edward Daniel, a portrait and subject 
painter, was bom in London in 1797. He exhibited 
at the Royal Academy portraits and subject pic- 
tures from 1820 to 1853. He died at Brighton in 
1875. In the National Portrait Gallery is a 
portrait by him of Father Mathew, the Apostle of 
Temperance in Ireland. 

LEAKE, Henry, an English portrait painter, 
flourished in the latter half of the 18th century. 
He studied under William Hoare, and practised in 
London about 1764-6. He then went to the Bast 
Indies, where he died. 

LEAKEY, James, a portrait and landscape 
painter, was born at Exeter in 1773. He was about 
to enter the studio of Sir Joshua Reynolds, but was 
unfortunately prevented by that artist's death. He 
painted also a good many miniatures, and was 
much patronized in the West of England. From 
time to time he exhibited pictures at the Royal 
Academy, amongst others ' The Fortune Teller,' 
and ' The Marvellous Tale.' His style was much 
after the manner of the Dutch School, and he 
was called on one occasion by Sir Thomas Lawrence 
the ' English Wouverman.' He died at Exeter in 
1865, after having for many years been obliged to 
give up the practice of his art. 
LEAL, Juan de Valdes. See Valdes Leal. 
LEAL, Simon de Legit. See Leon Leal. 
LEANDER. See Redbe. 
LEBARBIER, Jean Jacques FaANgois, called 
Lebarbier l'aIn:!^, a French historical painter, was 
born at Rouen in 1738. After gaining prizes in 
his native city, he studied painting under Pierre, 
first painter to the king. He next made drawings 
in Switzerland for Zurlauben's 'Tableau topo- 
graphique de la Suisse,' and afterwards went to 
Rome. On his return he was elected an acade- 
mician in 1785, on which occasion he painted 
' Jupiter asleep on Mount Ida,' now in the 
magazines of the Louvre. His works prepared 
the way for the revolution begun by Vien and 
carried out by David. He made designs for the 
illustration of editions of Ovid, Racine, Rousseau, 
and Delille, and also published some works on art. 
The Louvre contains his ' Courage of the Spartan 
Women,' dated 1787. He died in Paris in 1826. 

LE BAS, Jacques Philippe, a French engraver, 
was born in Paris in 1707. He was instructed in 
the art of engraving by H4risset and N. Tardieu, 
and was one of the best artists of his time. He 
excelled in landscapes and small figures, which 
he touched with infinite spirit and neatness. _ He 
availed himself much of the freedom and facility 
of etching, which he harmonized in an admirable 
manner with the graver and dry point. The popu- 
larity of his works procured him a number of 
scholars, whose talents were employed in advanc- 
ing the plates which he afterwards finished and 
published with his name. He became an acade- 
mician in 1743, his reception work being a ' Con- 
versation galante,' after Lanoret, He died in 
Paris in 1783. The number of his plates is very 



Xiebas 



PAINTERS AND ENGKAVERS. 



Le Blond 



large ; but the following are his most esteemed 
works : 

Portrait of Eobert Le Lorrain, sculptor ; after JJrouais, 
1741. 

Portrait of P. J. Gazes, painter ; after Aved. 1741. 

The Four Times of the Day ; after Berchem. 

The Embarkation ; after the same. 

Environs of Groningen ; after Sttisdael. 

Environs of Guelders ; after the same. 

Daviii Teniers and his Family ; after Tenters. 

The Works of Mercy ; after the same. 

The Prodigal Son ; after the same. 

A Flemish Festival, with Teniers and his Family ; after 
Teniers. 

The lafit four prints are of a superior execution, and 
are among his best works. His plates after Teniers are 
more than a hundred in number, and he appears to have 
copied that master with great success.) 

The Italian Chase ; after Wonwerman. 
The Milk-pot ; after the same. 
The Boar-hunt ; after the same. 
Four large Hunting Scenes ; after Van Valens. 
The Port of Messina ; after Claude Lorrain. 
An Italian Landscape ; after the same. 
An Itahau Sea-port ; after Joseph Vemet. 
Fishermen going out ; after the same, 
Tliirteen of the Ports of France ; after Joseph Vemet, 
etched by Cochin. 

LEBAS, Michel Oliviee, was born in Paris in 
1783. He was a pupil of Regnault and of Langlois, 
and distinguished himself especially by his en- 
graving in mezzotint. He died in 1843. He en- 
graved for Landon's ' Annales du MusSe.' One of 
his best plates is ' The Bull,' after Paulus Potter, 
in the Le Brun Gallery. 

LE BEAU, Pierre Adrien, a French engraver, 
was born in Paris in 1744. He has engraved 
several portraits, and other subjects, after different 
masters, among which are : 

Louis XVI., King of France ; six different portraits, 
after Binet^ and others. 

Marie Antoinette, Queen of France ; ten different por- 
traits, after Le Clerc, Binet, and others. 

Louis Philippe, Duke of Orleans. ' 

Hyder Ali ; after J. Year. 

Mile. Baucourt, actress. 

Abb6 Terray, comptroller of finance under Louis XV. 

A. E. J. Turgot, comptroller under Louis XVI. ; after 
De Troy. 

Jacques Necker, director of finances under Louis XVI. ; 
aj ter Le Clerc. 

LEBEDEV, Mikhail, a Russian landscape 
painter, was bom in 1812. He studied at the 
Academy of St. Petersburg, and afterwards 
travelled iii Italy. He painted several views of 
Rome and Naples, at which latter city he died from 
cholera in 1837. 

LEBEL, Antoine, a French landscape painter, 
was born at Montrot (Haute-Marne) in 1706. He 
was received as an academician in 1746, upon a 
' Sea-piece,' which is now in the Museum at Caen. 
He was the master of Aved, and died in Paris in 
1793. 

LEBEL, Charles Jacques, a French historical 
painter, who was a pupil of David, exhibited at 
the Salon from 1801 to 1827. He produced 
several interesting works relating to the French 
nation : among them, ' Napoleon visiting the Hos- 
pice of Mont St. Bernard;' 'The Reduction of 
the City of Paris by Henry IV. ;' 'A Trait of 
Humanity in a French Grenadier ; ' and others of a 
similar kind. The picture of ' Turenne asleep on 
the field of battle, in winter, and his officers shelter- 
ing him with their cloaks from the inclemency of 



the weather,' was in the collection of the late Baron 
BoUand. Lebel also painted a great number of 
portraits. 

LEBEL, Cli^ment Louis Marie Anne, a French 
subject and animal painter, who was a pupil of 
Lemoine, was born in Paris in 1772, and died in 
1806. Some of his works are in the Museums of 
Orleans and of Caen. 

LE BERT, , a French designer and engraver, 

flourished about 1770. He engraved the following 
portraits after Cochin : 

King Henry IV. 

The Duke of Orleans. 

The Count of Artois. 

King Louis XV. 

The Dauphin, afterwards Louis XVI. 

LEBERT, Heinrich, an Alsatian landscape 
draughtsman and flower painter, was born at Thann 
in 1794, and died at Colmar in 1862. 

LEBLANG, Alexandre, a French landscape 
painter, was born at Ch&teauneuf in 1793, and died 
in 1866. His ' End of the Deluge ' is in the Museum 
at Angers. 

LE BLANC, Horace, a French painter, who 
resided at Lyons in the 17th century, was employed 
by the Duke of Angoul^me in his gallery of Gros 
Bois, near Paris. He was the master of Jacques 
Blanchard. 

LEBLANC, ThjSodore, a French battle painter, 
born at Strassburg in 1800, was a pupil of Charlet. 
He became a captain in the engineers, and died 
from wounds received at the siege of Constantino 
in 1837. Three of his works are at Versailles. 

LE BLOND, Jacob Cheistoph, was born at 
Frankfort in 1670, and was first instructed by C. 
Meyer at Zurich. Prom tliere he went to Italy, 
where he is said to have been a scholar of Carlo 
Maratti. At the solicitation of Bonaventura van 
Overbeck, he accompanied him to Amsterdam, 
where he was employed for some time in painting 
portraits in miniature, which were much esteemed. 
He quitted Holland, and came in 1720 to London, 
where he set on foot a project for printing mezzo- 
tint plates in colour, so as to imitate the pictures 
from which they were engraved. He executed 
some large plates in this way, and disposed of the 
prints by a kind of lottery. In 1730, he published 
a work explanatory of the process, entitled ' 11 
Coloretto, or the Harmony of Colouring in Paint- 
ing, reduced to mechanical Practice, under easy 
Piecepts and infallible Rules.' The book was 
printed in English and in French. He soon after- 
wards projected a plan for copying the cartoons 
of Raphael in tapestry, and he made some fine 
drawings from the originals for that purpose ; 
houses were bought, and great expense incurred, 
but the scheme failed of success, and Le Blond 
left England, and went to Paris in 1732, where he 
was not more successful, and died, it is said, in a 
hospital in 1741. The following are the principal 
prints he published, virhich, independent of the 
novelty of the manner, certainly possess consider- 
able merit : 

POBTBAITS. 

George II. 
Queen Caroline. 
Louis XIV. of France. 
Prince Eugene of Savoy. 
Cardinal de Fleury. 
The Children of Charles I. 
Petrus Paulus Kubens. 
Anthonius van Dyck. 

31 



Le Blond 



A BIOGRAPHICAL DICTIONARY OF 



lie Brun 



VARIOUS SUBJECTS. 

St. Agnes ; after Domenichino. 

St. Cecilia ; after the same. 

The Eepose in Egypt ; after Titian. 

The Entombment of Christ ; after the same. 

Venus ; after the same. 

The Triumph of Galatea ; after C. Maratti, 

Cupid making his Bow ; after Correygio., or Parniiyiano. 

The Chastity of Joseph ; after C. Cignani. 

Christ on. the Mount. 

Mary Magdalene. 

St. Mary of Egypt. 

St. John embracing the Infant Jesus ; after Van Dyck. 

LE BLOND, Jean, a French historical painter 
and printseller, was born in Paris in 1636. He 
was received into the Academy in 1681, his picture 
of reception being ' Jupiter hurling thunderbolts 
at the Giants,' now in the Louvre. He was some- 
times assisted in his works by Willem De Gheyn, 
a Dutch painter. He died in Paris in 1709. 

LE BLOND, Michel, a German engraver, was 
bom at Frankfort in 1587. He chiefly resided at 
Amsterdam, but travelled with Sandrart in Italy, 
and stayed several years in England. He appears 
to have been principally employed at Amsterdam 
on ornaments for the goldsmiths. In 1626, he pub- 
lished a set of ornaments, foliage, fruit, and flowers, 
engraved with great neatness. His prints, which 
are all very small, are executed entirely with the 
graver in the finished manner of Theodoras De Bry. 
He sometimes marked his plates with the accom- 
panying cipher /nX • He died at Amsterdam 

in 1656. The following prints are by him: 

St. Jerome, seated at a desk writing, with an ornamental 
border; a small circular plate, about the size of a 
shilling ; dated 1610. 

Figures dancing, in a small oval, with an ornamental 
border ; signed M. Blomlus, 1612. 

The Representation of a Marriage ; M. Blondus, 1615. 

Two ornaments for goldsmiths ; inscribed Wilhelm van 
Weelichkeit. 

A very small plate of Ornaments with three Goblets. 

Six plates, numbered, of Arabesque Ornaments for 
Knife-handles; Michael Blondus fecit; very highly 
finished. 

The Arms of Albrecht Diirer. 

LEBORNB, LoDls, a French painter and litho- 
grapher, was born at Versailles in 1796. He was 
a pupil of Eegnault, and became in 1843 director 
of the School of Design at Nancy, and in 1848 con- 
servator of the Nancy Museum, where there are 
paintings by him. He died in 1865. 

LE BOSSU, Daniel, a French engraver, flour- 
ished from about. the year 1670 to about 1700. He 
imitated the style of Fran9ois de Poilly, but without 
much success. He is said to have resided some 
time at Rome, where he engraved some plates after 
the Italian painters, among which is 'The Resur- 
rection of Lazarus,' after Giaointo Brandi. 

LE BRUN, Chables, a French historical painter, 
was born in Paris, February 24th, 1619. He re- 
ceived his first instruction in art from his father, 
who was a sculptor, and from an obscure painter 
named Perrier. At the age of eleven he was 
fortunate enough to be noticed by the Chancellor 
Seguier, who placed him in the studio of Vouet, 
and ever proved a constant friend to the rising 
young artist. During the next few years his 
progress and industry were remarkable. He at- 
tracted the notice of Poussin, and in 1642 accom- 
panied him to Italy, whither he was enabled to 
proceed by the generosity of his patron. He was 
received by the Barberini, then pai'amount in Rome, 

32 



and presented to Pope Urban VIII. His stay lasted 
about four years, during which period he painted a 
few works, but chiefly occupied himself in studying 
from the antique. There is still extant a letter 
written by him at this period, which shows how 
greatly he was attracted by the smallest details 
of classical antiquity. During his journey home, he 
made a short sojourn at Lyons, where he executed 
some commissions. Arrived at Paris, where his 
reputation had preceded him, he at once settled 
down to the practice of his profession. Orders 
quickly flowed in upon him. He was one of the 
numerous band of artists who worked for the 
President Lambert de Thorigny on the decoration 
of his h6tel on the tie St. Louis. The magnificent 
Fouquet employed him at his ch&teau at Vaux, 
and gave him a pension of 12,000' livres. For the 
oratory of Anne of Austria, he painted a ' Cruci- 
fixion,' and she presented him with her portrait 
set in diamonds. By Mazarin he was introduced 
to Louis XIV., and through the king's patronage 
became, after the death of Le Sueur, the head of 
the French school, exercising unlimited sway in 
all matters relating to art in France. In 1648, he 
took the principal part in the foundation of the 
Academy, which was always an object of great 
solicitude to him, and in which he filled success- 
ively all the ofSces of honour. This was not the 
only service French art owed to him. He was 
greatly instrumental in the establishment of the 
French school at Rome, and he was the first 
director of the Gobelins manufactory on its found- 
ation by Colbert. During all this time he was 
painting unceasingly for his royal patron. After 
the fire at the Louvre in 1661, the works in the 
Apollo Gallery were entirely confided to him. He 
also found employment at the royal chSleau at 
Sceaux, and at the Pavilions at Marly. But his 
greatest work was at the King's new and costly 
hobby at Versailles. There he designed fountains, 
statues, decorations, (fee, besides painting the 
gigantic series of allegories commemorating his 
royal patron's achievements. On the death of 
Colbert in 1683, his supremacy began to suffer an 
eclipse at the hands of Louvois, who favoured his 
rival Mignard. He gradually withdrew from 
court, and fell into a state of melancholy, which 
continued until his death at the Gobelins in Paris, 
on February 12, 1690. 

The failings of Le Brun's art are neither few nor 
small. His drawing is heavy, and his colour 
unpleasing. Generally speaking, his execution 
fails to reach the standard of his ideas, and his 
efforts after the heroic are frequently overstrained, 
becoming pompous and scenic. Still he was in 
many cases inspired by great conceptions, and his 
fertility was very wonderful. In the history of 
French art he holds an important place from the 
unlimited sway which he exercised, not beneficially 
it must be owned, for so long a period. 

The pictines by him in the French provincial 
galleries are too numerous to mention. The fol- 
lowing is a Tst of his works in some of the chief 
European coUpctions : 

Berlin. Galhry. Family of Eberhard Jabach. 

Dresden. Gallery. Holy Family. 

Dulwich. Gallery. Massacre of the Innocents. 

" „ Horatius Codes. 

Florence. Uffizi. Jephtha and his Daughter. 

. " ,1 His own Portrait. 

Lisbon. Academy. Allegory. 

Modena. Estense Galleij. Moses iu the Land of Midian. 
" 11 Moses and Jethro's Daughter. 



Lebrun 



PAINTERS AND ENGRAVERS. 



Iieclerc 



Munich. Gallery. La Valliere as a Magdalen. 

„ ,, St. John in the Isle of Patmos. 

Paris. Louvre. Series of five pictures illus- 

trating the History of Alex- 
ander. 1661—68. 
„ ,) The Fall of the Angels. 

,, „ The Repentant Magdalen. 

)f „ Christ on the Cross siwrounded 

by Angels. 
„ „ The Elevation of the Cross. 

„ ., The Adoration of the Shep- 

herds. 
Petersburg. Hermitage. The Agony in the Garden. 

„ „ The Crucifixion. 1637. 

Vienna. Gallery. The Ascension, 

OJ.D. 

LEBRUN, Feanqois Jean Baptistb Topino. 
See Topino Lebrun. 

LE BRUN, Gabkiel, the brother and scholar of 
Charles Le Brun, was born in Paris in 1621, and died 
there after 1667. He never arrived at any great 
eminence as a painter, but is somewhat better known 
as an engraver. He executed several plates after 
the designs of his brother, and also after Tintoretto, 
Carracci, and other masters, among which are the 
following : 

Portrait of Charles Fevret de St. Mesmin. 1657. 
Allegory on the Peace of Cardinal Mazarin. 
Frontispiece for the Memoir's of Vittorio Siri. 
The Twelve Apostles ; after Charles Le Brun. 
The Saviour; after tie same; on two sheets. 
St. Martin ; after the same. 
St. Anthony ; after the same. 

A Thesis ; dedicated to the Parliament of Normandy ; 
after the same. 

LE BRUN, Marie Louise Elisabeth, whose 
maiden name was Vig6e, was born in Paris in 
1755. Her father was a portrait painter, but he 
died in 1768. At the age of fifteen she executed a 
portrait of her mother. She received lessons from 
Davesne and Briard, and excellent advice from 
Joseph Vernet. She supported herself and her 
mother with her copies from great masters till her 
mother married an avaricious jeweller, who took 
all her earnings, and refused to supply her with 
even the necessaries of life. Her reputation soon 
began to spread, and in 1779 she painted her first 
portrait of Marie Antoinette, whom she afterwards 
painted no less than twenty-five times, and with 
whom she was on terms of the greatest intimacy. 
In 1776 she married Jean Baptiste Pierre Le Brun, 
a painter and picture-dealer, and the grand-nephew 
of Charles Le Brun. (He was born in Paris in 1748, 
and died there in 1813.) In 1782 she paid a visit 
to Belgium, and on her return Joseph Vernet 
proposed her for the Academy, which Pierre op- 
posed, but she was nevertheless admitted in 1783, 
when she painted for her reception ' Peace bring- 
ing back Plenty.' When the Revolution broke out 
in 1789 she went to Italy and visited Bologna, Rome, 
Naples, and Florence, painting a large number of 
portraits, and was admitted a member of different 
academies. She then went to Vienna, and in 1795 
was at St. Petersburg, where she remained painting 
portraits till 1801. She then returned to France, but 
in 1802 she came to England, where she lived three 
years. In 1808 and 1809 she was in Switzerland, 
and on her return to France, she bought a country 
house near Marly, which in 1814 and 1815 was 
pillaged by the Prussians and the allied armies. 
She then went to live in Paris, where she continued 
painting, and where her salon was Ihe rendezvous 
of the best sooietj- till her death, which took place 
in Paris in 1842. Late in life she published her 
' Souvenirs,' which appeared in Paris in 1837-39. 

VOL. II. D 



She painted a number of very pleasing semi-alle- 
gorical subjects, and many portraits of distinguished 
persons ; among which were Lady Hamilton, in the 
characters of a Sibyl and a Bacchante j Madame de 
Stael, as Oorinna ; Madame Catalani at the piano ; 
La Bruyere ; the Abb6 Fleury ; and several princes 
and royal personages. In some of her pictures 
she imitated the style of Greuze. The Louvre 
possesses by Madame Le Brun two paintings of 
herself and her daughter, the portraits of Hubert 
Robert and Josepli Vernet, the painters, and that 
of Giovanni Paisiello, the composer. 

LE BRUN, Nicolas, a French painter, the brother 
of Charles Le Brun, was, according to Guillet de 
St. Georges, the author of the landscape in Le 
Sueur's ' Plan de I'ancienne Chartreuse de Paris, 
port^ par deux Anges,' now in the Louvre. It 
gives a view of the Tuilleries, the Louvre, the 
Seine with the Pont-Neuf, and a part of the quay 
opposite the Louvre. 

LEBSCH^E, Carl August, a painter, etcher, 
and lithographer, was born at Schmiegel, Poland, 
in 1800. He studied at Munich, where his parents 
settled in 1807. He painted landscapes and archi- 
tecture in oil and water-colours, and designed 
in the style of different masters. His etchings 
are executed with great spirit, and he signed 
with the initials G. L., or a monogram. He died 
at Munich in 1877. 

LE CAPELAIN, John, a water-colour landscape 
painter, was born in Jersey about 1814. He had 
no regular art instruction, and, unaided, acquired a 
pleasing, though vague, style. He drew the views 
for the Jersey Album presented to Queen Victoria 
after her visit to the island. There is a large 
collection of his works in the Jersey Museum. He 
died in 1848. 

LE CARPENTIBR, Charles Louis Fban(Jois, 
a French painter, born at Pont-Audemer (Eure) in 
1744, was a pupil of Doyen and of J. B. Descamps. 
He was professor at the School of Fine Arts at 
Rouen, and devoted himself chiefly to writing on 
art. He died at Rouen in 1822. 

LE CAVE, P., a water-colour painter, flourished 
in the latter half of the 18th and in the beginning 
of the 19th century. His works are chiefly land- 
scapes with cattle and figures, and are in the tinted 
style. His life was passed in poverty, and the date 
of his death is unknown. There are four specimens 
of his work in the South Kensington Museum, one 
dated as late as 1806. 
LECCIO, Matted da. See Alesio. 
LECKERBET JEN, Vincent, a native of Antwerp, 
who flourished about 1650, was called Manciol, 
because he had lost his right hand. He lived chiefly 
in Rome, where he executed several landscapes 
and battle-pieces. At the castle of Vincennes in 
Prance he painted four frescoes representing 
scenes in the battles of Alexander the Great. 

LECLAIRE, Victor, a French flower painter, 
was born in Paris in 1830. He was a pupil of his 
brother, L6on Louis Leclaire, and died in 1885. 
His 'Fleurs d'automne,' painted in 1879, is in the 
Luxembourg Gallery. 

LECLERC, David, was born at Berne in 1680. 
He was instructed by Werner, and at the age of 
eighteen went to Frankfort. He worked after- 
wards at the courts of Darmstadt and Cassel, and 
then went to Paris and studied under Rigaud. 
He returned to Frankfort, and in 1715 visited 
England, but he eventually settled at Frankfort. 
He painted flowers, historical subjects, and portraits, 

33 



Iisclerc 



A BIOGRAPHICAL DICTIONARY OF 



Lederwascli 



of which latter that of Prince Louie of Hesse is 
in the Darmstadt Gallery. He died at Frankfort 
in 1788. 

LECLERC, Isaac, the brother of David Leolerc, 
was an engraver at the court of Cassel, where he 
succeeded his father. He died in 1746. 

LECLERC, Jacques S:fiBASTiEN, the son of S^bas- 
tien Leolerc the younger, was born in 1734. He 
was appointed assistant-professor of perspective in 
the Academy of Paris in 1778, and died in 1785. 
Some of his works are in the Museum at Caen. 

LE CLERC, Jean, a French painter and etcher, 
born at Nancy in 1587, was a pupil of Carlo Sara- 
ceno. He engraved after Jean Cousin, and died 
at Nancy in 163.3. 

LECLERC, Jean Fr^d^eic, the son of David 
Leclerc, was born in London in 1717. He 
settled at Deux-Ponts, where he devoted himself 
to miniature painting, and was living in 1768. 

LECLERC, S^UASTiEN, the elder, a French en- 
graver, was born at Metz in 1637. He was instructed 
in the elements of drawing by his father, Laurent 
Leclerc, a jeweller, and afterwards went to Paris. 
He applied himself to geometry, physics, and 
perspective, but by the advice of Le Brun he de- 
voted himself entirely to engraving, and became 
very proficient. He became an academician in 
1672, and from that year to 1702 he was Pro- 
fessor of Perspective at the Academy. He was 
appointed engraver to Louis XIV., and a Professor 
at tlie Gobelins. He died in Paris in 1714. He 
produced about 3400 plates, of which a 'Catalogue 
raisonii^ ' was published by C. A. Jombert in 1774. 
Among them the most famous are: 

The Battles of Alexander ; after Le Brun. 

The Council of Nicjea. 

The Apotheosis of Isis. 

The Passion. 

Greek and Eoman Costumes. 

LECLERC, SiSbastien, the younger, a French 
painter, was the eldest son of Sebastien Leolerc, 
the engraver, and was born in Paris in 1676. He 
was a pupil of Bon de BouUongne, and was ad- 
mitted into the Academy in 1704, his reception 
work being ' The Purification of ^Eneas previous to 
his Deification,' now at Versailles. He exhibited 
in the Salons of 1787, 1747, and 1751. He died in 
Paris, at the Gobelins, in 1763. In the Louvre is a 
picture of 'The Death of Sapphira.' 
■^ LECCEUR, Jean Bapiistb, a French historical 
and genre painter, was born at Le Mans in 1795. 
He was a pupil of Regnault, and exhibited at the 
Salon from 1822 to 1837, among his works being 
that of 'Charles VII. and Agnes Sorel,' in the 
Museum at Angers. He died in Paris in 1838. 

LECOMTE, HiPPOLYTE, a French painter, was 
born at Puiseaux in 1781. He was a pupil of 
Mongin and of Regnault, and married Camille, the 
daughter of Carle Vernet. He exhibited at the 
Salon, from 1804 to 1847, historical subjects, land- 
scapes, and battle-pieces. He died in Paris in 
1867. Among his pictures are : 

Joan of Arc. 

Escape of Mary, Queen of Soots, from Loch Leven. 

Battle of Mautern, in Styria. 

Battle of Baab. 

Louis XIII. storming the entrenchments of Pas-de- 
Suze. {Fontainehleau.) 

LECOMTE, Marguerite, a French engraver, 
was born in Paris about 1719. She etched some 
small Italian landscapes, but her name has been 
saved from oblivion less by her merits as an artist 

34 



than by her connection with Watelet, with whom 
in 1764 she visited Rome, where she etched the 
lieads of Pope Clement XIII. and of Cardinal 
Albani. She died at the end of the 18th century, 
LE DAVIS, Edward, a painter and engraver, 
was born in Wales about 1640. He was articled 
as a pupil to Loggan, but not being treated to his 
satisfaction, he fled from his indentures, and went 
to France as a domestic servaat, but was able in 
Paris to resort to his art in both its branches. On 
his return he engraved some portraits and other 
subjects ; among which are the following : 

PORTRAITS. 

Charles II. seated. (The head was afterwards effaced 

and that of William III. substituted for it.) 
Catharine, Queen of England; full-length; after J. JB. 



James, Duke of York. 

William, Prince of Orange; after Sir Peter IMy. 

Mary, Princess of Orange ; after the same. 1678. 

The Duchess of Portsmouth. 

General Monck. 

Charles, Duke of Eichmond, when a boy ; after Wissina. 
1672. " 

Stephen Monteage. 1675. 

Bertram de Ashburnham, engraved for Guillim's ' He- 
raldry.' 

A Merry-Andrew ; after Frans Hals. 

SUBJECTS AFTER VARIOUS MASTERS. 

St. Cecilia, with Angels ; after Van Dyck. 

Ecce Homo ; after Carracci. 

Holy Family ; after a basso-rilievo hy Algardi. 

LEDERER, Hans. To this artist Professor 
Christ attributes some engravings marked with 

the cipher \-\ ,, Brulliot and Nagler mention 

a Hieronymus Lederer, and the former says there 
are four prints by him expressing the tempera- 
ments of men, the ' Sanguine,' the ' Phlegmatic,' 
the ' Choleric,' and the ' Melancholic' The first 
of these has the name h. lederer, and the last a 
mark, which may be taken for /. L. or H. L. 
Malpe, he says, attributes these prints to Hans 
Lederer. 

LEDERER, Johann, a painter, was the youngest 
of three brothers who flourished at Augsburg, 
and painted on glass and in oil. He was court 
painter to the Prince-Bishop of Freising. In the 
cathedral of Augsburg and in other churches are 
altar-pieces by him and in the Franciscan church 
at Freising is an altar-piece representing the 
' Death of St. Francis of Assisi.' He died about 1785. 

LEDERLEIN, Jakob, a German engraver on 
wood, was born at Tubingen about the year 1566. 
He executed a set of portraits of the professors of 
the University in that city, which were published 
by Erhard Zell in 1696. There are other prints 
by this master, some of which are dated 1690, 
He usually marked his works with the monogram 

LEDERWASCH, Christoph, was a German en- 
graver, who flourished at Salzburg from 1668 to 
1687, and there also painted altar-pieces. Among 
his engravings are ' The Virgin presented in the 
Temple,' after RomaneUi, and 'The Heavenly 
Glory,' after himself. 

LEDERWASCH, Gregor, an Austrian painter, 
was born at Salzburg in 1726. He painted many 
altar-pieces, but his monochrome landscapes and 
views were most celebrated. He died at Salzburg 
in 1792. 



Ledesma 



PAINTERS AND ENGRAVERS, 



Leech 



LEDESMA, Blas de, was a Spanish painter of the 
reign of Philip II. (1656—1598). He is mentioned 
by Pacheco as a successful imitator of the frescoes 
of Julio and Alessandro. 

LEDESMA, Josef db, was born at Burgos in 
1630. After acquiring some knowledge of paint- 
ing in his native city, he came to Madrid and 
entered the school of Carreno. His principal 
works were a 'Burial in the Recollet Convent,' and 
pictures of the Trinity and Saints in the Convent 
of the Holy Trinity, which were pleasing in colour. 
He died in 1670. 

LEDOULX, PiETER, was born at Bruges in 
1730. He studied at the Bruges Academy under 
Jan Garemyn, and afterwards under Matthias De 
Visch. He painted views, but his principal work 
was his collection of insects and flowers painted 
in miniature. He collected materials for a 
' History of the Arts and Painters of the 18th and 
19th centuries.' He died in 1807. 

LE DOYEN, , a French engraver, lived at 

Paris about the year 1666, and executed some 
plates for the booksellers, among which are some 
prints of ornaments, and the plates for a book 
entitled 'Figures des diff^rents Habits des Clia- 
noines reguliers en ce sifecle,' published at Paris in 
1666. 

LEDRU, HiLAlEE, a French portrait painter, was 
born at Oppy, near Calais, in 1774. He was self- 
taught, but several of his works were in high 
repute, and gained medals. He died in Paris in 
1840. 

LE DUCQ, Jan, a Dutch painter, was born at 
the Hague in 1636. He learned the principles of 
art under Paulus Potter, and for some time imitated 
the style of that admired painter of animals. He 
afterwards changed his style, and painted corps- 
de-garde, assemblies of oiEcers, and card-players. 
His pictures of this description are more frequently 
met with than his cattle-pieces, which are very 
scarce. He was director of the Academy at the 
Hague in 1671, and had acquired the reputation of 
an able painter, when in 1672 he abandoned art, 
and adopted a raihtary life. He died as a captain 
between 1680 and 1685. Pictures by him are at 
Amsterdam, Copenhagen, Dresden, St. Petersburg, 
Vienna, and several other places. Le Ducq etched 
a few plates from his own designs, among which 
is a set of eight prints of dogs, very neatly and 
spiritedly executed. 

LEE, A., was a portrait painter, who pi'actised in 
the reign of George II. 

LEE, Anna, a native of London, was a pupil of 
Parkinson, who gained a great reputation by her 
paintings and drawings of natural history subjects. 
She died about 1790. 

LEE, Frederick Richard, a landscape painter, 
wag born at Barnstaple in 1798. VS^hen very young 
he served a campaign in the Netherlands in an 
infantry' regiment. He then became a student in 
the schools of the Royal Academy, where he first 
exhibited in 1824. His works also appeared at 
tlie British Institution, from which he received a 
premium of £60 in 1829. The Academy elected 
him an Associate in 1834, and an Academician in 
1838. His works were chiefly inspired by English 
scenery, and the cattle in many of them were 
painted by Sidney Cooper. He ceased to exhibit 
at the Academy after 1870, and spent the remain- 
ing years of his life in yachting and travel. He 
died in Cape Colony in 1879. Amongst his works 
are : 



London. Nat. Gallery. The Cover Side. 1839. {Lent 
to the Corporation of Nottiny- 
ham.) 
>' >! Showery 'Weafcher. 1834. (Lent 

to the Corporation of Glasgow.) 
>• ,> Evening in the Meadows. 1854. 

(Lent to the Walker Art Gal- 
lery., Liverpool.) 
>' I. A River Scene. 1855. 

„ Sotith Kensiiig- 1 ,- t. ji j, 

ton Museum, j Near Eedleaf. 

)' >, Gathering Seaweed. 1836. 

I. I. Distant View of Windsor. 

„ Bridge-water Gall. St. George's Hill, Oatlands 
Park. 1840. 
Woburn. Abbey. Scene in Devonshire. 

)' „ Scene in Woburn Park. 1839. 

LEE, James, a wood-engraver, flourished in the 
latter part of the 18th century, and in early life 
worked for some time in Paris. He engraved the 
illustrations for the 'Cheap Repository,' 1794-98, 
Hansard's ' Typographia,' and for a reading-book, 
' A Wreath for the Brow of Youth,' as well as for 
many other children's books. He died in 1804. 

LEE, Joseph, an enamel painter, was bom in 
1780. He exhibited enamel miniatures at the 
Royal Academy from 1809 to 1853. In 1818 he was 
appointed enamel painter to the Princess Charlotte, 
whose portrait he exhibited in the same year and 
in 1823 ,- and in 1832 enamel painter to the Duke 
of Sussex, whose portrait after Thomas Phillips, 
R.A., he exhibited. He died at Gravesend in 
1859. Therfi is an example of his art at South 
Kensington. 

LEE, William, a water-colour painter, was born 
in 1810. His paintings consist chiefly of English 
rustic and French coast figure-pieces. He was 
elected a member of the Institute of Painters in 
Water-Colours in 1846, and was for many years con- 
nected with the Langham Scliool. Among the later 
pictures painted by him were ' The Long Sermon,' 
' The Rustic Beauty,' and ' The Drinking Fountain.' 
He died in London in 1865. 

LEECH, John, the eminent comic draughtsman, 
was born in London in 1817. His father, John 
Ijeech, was an Irishman, who possessed some 
skill with the pencil, and from him the son in- 
herited the talent. At three years old he was 
discovered by Flaxinan seated on his mother's 
knee drawing, and the great sculptor foretold that 
he would astonish the world. At the age of seven 
he was sent to the Charterhouse, where he formed 
a life-long friendship with Thackeray. At the 
age of sixteen he was placed at St. Bartholomew's 
Hospital to study medicine, but he gradually gave 
up his medical studies and resolved to devote him- 
self to art. He was eighteen years old when he 
published his first work, entitled 'Etchings and 
Sketchings by A. Pen, Esq.,' which consisted of a 
book, quarto size, of four leaves covered with 
sketches. He next turned his attention to litho- 
graphy, and his caricature of Mulready's envelope 
brought him into notice. A great deal of his early 
work may be seen in ' Bell's Life,' and in 1840, in 
conjunction with Peroival Leigh, he published the 
'Comic Latin Grammar' and 'Comic English Gram- 
mar.' In August 1841, in the fourth number of 
'Punch,' appeared Leech's first contribution. To the 
second volume of " Punch ' his contributions did not 
amount to more than half-a-dozen, but after that 
till 1864 his drawings amounted to more than three 
thousand ; and he is said to have received for them 
more than £40,000. In 1840 he assisted Cruik- 
shank with the illustrations to the ' Ingoldsby 

35 



Leemans 



A BIOGRAPHICAL DICTIONARY OF 



LefSvre 



Legends,' and in 1844 he illustrated the 'Christmas 
Carol' of Dickens. In 1847 appeared Gilbert i 
Beckett's ' Comic History of England,' which was 
followed in 1852 by the companion work, 'The 
Comic History of Rome,' both profusely illustrated 
by Leech. In 1853 appeared the series of sporting 
novels entitled 'Mr. Sponge's Sporting Tour,' 
' Handley Cross,' etc. In 1854 appeared the first 
series of his pictures of ' Life and Character ' 
reprinted from 'Punch,' of which A second and a 
third series were published respectively in 1858 
and 1860. In 1858 Leech went a tour in Ire- 
land, the result of which was the publication of a 
book written by Canon Hole, his travelling com- 
panion, and illustrated by himself. Among his 
other etchings may be named those that appeared 
in 'Punch's Pocket-Book,' and the wood-cut illus- 
trations to ' Once a Week ' and the ' Illustrated 
London News.' In 1862 he exhibited in the 
Egyptian Hall his ' Sketches in Oil,' the subjects 
of which were reproduced from the most remark- 
able of his ' Punch ' drawings : this exhibition was 
a great success. In the same year, in company 
with Mark Lemon, he went to Paris, and after- 
wards to Biarritz. In 1864 he went to Hamburg in 
company with Alfred Elmore, and afterwards to 
Schwalbach. On his return to England he went 
to Whitby with his family, but after his return to 
London he succumbed in the same year to the 
malady from which he had long been suffering. 

LEEMANS, A., was a painter of birds and acces- 
sories of hunting scenes, who flourished at the 
Hague about 166'2. 

LEEN, WiLLEM VAN, was born at Dordrecht in 
1753. He was a pupil of Arends, Cuyper, and 
Ponse. At the age of twenty he went to Paris, 
where he remained three years studying flowers. 
He then went to Rotterdam, but in 1787 returned 
to Paris, where he was induced to remain for two 
years. In 1789 the Revolution compelled him to 
quit Paris, and he went to Delfshaven, where he 
died in 1825. 

LEEPE, Jan Antoon van deb. See Van der 
Lekpe. 

LEES, Charles, a Scottish painter, who was 
born in 1800, is chiefly known for his historical 
paintings, such as ' The Murder of Rizzio ' and 
'John Knox during his Confinement.' He also 
executed various landscapes of merit. His paint- 
ings were frequently seen on the walls of the 
Royal Scottish Academy, of which he was a 
member from 1830 until his death in 1880. 

LEEST, ANTONins van, is stated by Papillon to 
have been an engraver on Wood of some talent, 
who executed, among others, four outs of the 
' Four Evangelists.' 

LEEUW, De. See Db Leedw. 

LKKUW, Van dee. See Van der Lebuw. 

LE F|;bRE, Rolland. See Lefbveb. 

LP] FBBRE, Valentin, (or Lefebitee,) a Flemish 
painter and engraver, was born at Bi'ussels in 1642. 
During a long residence in Venice he painted 
portraits and historical pictures in the style of 
Paolo Veronese, and etched numerous plates after 
that master, as well as after Titian and Tintoretto. 
Many of his etchings were published in Venice in 
1682, in a large folio volume, entitled, ' Opera 
se'ectiora quse Titianus Veoellius Cadubriensis, et 
Paulus CiiUiari Veronensis inventernnt et pinxerunt ; 
qufEque Valentinus Le Febre Bruxellensis delineavit 
et eculpsit.' He died at Venice about 1700. 

LE FEBURE, FEANgois. See Le F^vee. 

36 



LEFEBURE, Valentin. .See Le Fbbee. 

LEFEBVRE, Chaeles Victor Eugene, a French 
historical painter, was horn in Paris in 1805. He 
studied under Gros and Abel de Pujol. His first 
contribution to the Salon was 'The Prisoner of 
Chillon,' exhibited in 1827. He died in 1882. 

LE PEBVKE, Claude, a French portrait painter, 
was born at Fontainebleau in 1633. He studied 
after the works of Le Sueur and Le Brun in the 
chfiteau of that town, and became an excellent 
painter of portraits, which resemble in their tone 
the works of Van Dyck. In 1663 he was received 
a member of the Academy, on which occasion he 
painted the portrait of Colbert. After this he 
went to England, and met with great encourage- 
ment at the court of Charles II. He died in Paris 
in 1675. Two of his portraits are in the Louvre, 
and in the National Portrait Gallery is a portrait 
by him of Isaac Barrow. He also etched a few 
portraits. Jacques Lb Fbbveb, his brother, who 
died in 1678, was also an excellent painter of 
portraits. 

LEFEBVRE, Robert. See Lefbvee. 

LEFilVRE, DtisiEE Achille, a French engraver, 
the son and pupil of Sdbastien Lefevre, was born 
in Paris in 1798, and died in the same city in 
1864. There are by him : 

The Annunciation ; after Murillo. 
Tlie Immaculate Conception ; after the same. 
Jeanne d'Aragon ; after Raphael. 
The Triumph of Galatea ; after the same. 
The Sleeping Child (the King of Rome) ; after PrtuThm. 
The Madonna of St. Sebastian ; after Correggio. 
The Nativity, called ' Le Notte ' ; after the same. 
The Sleep of Antiope ; after the same. 
Napoleon I. ; after C. Steuben. 
Amalie, Queen of France ; after Wlnterhalter. 
The Duchess of Orleans, with the Comte de Paris ; 
after the same. 

LE F^feVRE, FRANgois, (or Lb Fbbueb,) was a 
goldsmith and engraver, who worked in Paris 
about 1635. Amongst his known works are six 
engravings of flowers, entitled : ' Livre de fleurs 
et de feuilles pour servir a I'Art d' Orf e vrerie.' 

LE FEVRE, RoBEET, a French historical, por- 
trait, and decorative painter, was born at Bayeux in 
1766. It was intended by his father that he should 
enter the legal profession, but his inclination for 
art was too strong, and at the age of eighteen he 
made the journey to Paris on foot in order to see 
its treasures. He returned to Caen, and at length, 
by the works which he executed in the chS,teau of 
Airel, near St. Lo, he was enabled to raise funds 
to study under Regnault at Paris. He obtained a 
great reputation as a portrait painter, and most 
of the eminent personages of the time sat to 
him. On the Restoration, he was appointed 
principal painter to Louis XVIII. He put an 
end to his life in Paris in 1830, in consequence, 
it is said, of being deprived of his appointments 
by the Revolution of July. Amongst his works 
are: 

Antwerp. Museum. Portrait of Van Dael. 

Caen. Museum. Portrait of the poet Malherbe. 

Compi^gne. Museiim. Phocion. 

Paris. Louvre. Love dit^armed by Venus. 1795. 

Eochelle. Museum. Apotheosis of St. Louis. 

Versailles. Gallery. Portrait of Napoleon I. 

LEFEVRE, Rolland, called Rolland de Venise, 
was born in Anjou in 1608, and spent considerable 
time at Venice and London, in which latter city 
he died in 1677. He painted portraits and his- 
torical subjects of a small size. One of his best 



Le FSvre 



PAINTERS AND ENGRAVEKS. 



Leicester 



portraits is that of Cigala, which has been engraved 
by Picart. He was patronized in England by 
Prince Rupert, but he is more esteemed fur a mode 
of staining which he introduced than for his skill 
as a painter. 

LE FEVRE, Valentin. See Le Febre. 

LEGAT, Francis, an engraver, was born in 
Scotland in 1756, and after receiving instruction 
in art at Edinburgh under Alexander Runoiman, 
he came in 1780 to London, where he found em- 
ployment with Boydell and other publishers. In 
consequence of bis engraving of ' Ophelia before 
the King and Queen,' he was towards the end 
of the century appointed engraver to the Prince 
of Wales. He died in London in 1809. He 
engraved several plates in a very iinished style, in 
which he appears to have imitated the fine manner 
adopted by Sir Robert Strange. Among others 
are the following plates, which were engraved for 
Boydell : 

Mary, Queen of Soots, resigning her Crown ; after Gavin 

Hamilton. 1786. 
The Continence of Scipio ; after N. Poussin. 1784. 
The King, Queen, and Laertes, in ' Hamlet ' ; after West. 
The Children in the Tower, from ' Eichard the Third ' ; 

after Northcote, 
Scene from ' King Lear ' ; after Barry. 

LEGILLON, Jean FEANgois,a Flemish landscape 
painter, was born of French parentage in 1739 
at Bruges, where he was a pupil of M. De Visch. In 
1760 he went to Rouen and studied at the Academy 
under J. B. Descamps, carrying off the silver 
medal in 1762. In 1763 he travelled through 
France and Italy, and returned to Rouen in 1769. 
In 1770 he went to Rome, where he remained for 
two years, and then travelled again through Italy, 
returning to Bruges in 1774. There he established 
a small school, but in 1779 he went to Paris, and 
travelled through Switzerland, returning again to 
Bruges in 1780. In 1782 he removed from Bruges 
and settled in Paris, where he was made a member 
of the Academy and painter to the king in 1789. 
The troubles of the French Revolution compelled 
him to return to Bruges, where he remained. 
In 1797 the wish to see a friend took him again 
to Paris, where he was seized with sudden illness 
and died. 

LEGNANI, Stbfano Maria, called II Legnanino, 
was born at Bologna in 1660. He was called 
' Legnanino ' to distinguish him from his father, 
Ambrogio Legnani, a portrait painter, by whom he 
was instructed in the first rudiments of design. 
He afterwards studied at Bologna under Carlo 
Cignani, and at Rome under Carlo Maratti. He 
distinguished himself as a fresco painter, particu- 
larly in Sant' Angiolo at Milan, where he has 
represented a battle gained under the protection 
of St. James, which is treated with a fire and 
capacity equal to the most difScult subjects in the 
art. Many of his works are at Genoa, at Turin, 
and in Piedmont. The cupola of San Gaudenzio 
at NoVara is esteemed one of his best works. 
He died at Bologna in 1716. He has left some 
etchings, among which are a ' Virgin ' and a 'Holy 
Family.' In the Brera at Milan is a portrait of 
the painter. 

LEGNANO, Francesco da. See Barbibei. 

LEGOTE, Pablo, was a Spanish painter, who 
flourished in the early part of the 17th century. 
Between the years 1629 and 1636 he was engaged 
with Alonzo Cano in painting and gilding in the 
church of Lebrija. The subjects of his pictures 



were the ' Annunciation,' the ' Nativity,' the 
' Epiphany,' and the two St. Johns. In 1647 
Cardinal Spinola, Archbishop of Seville, commis- 
sioned him to execute for the large hall of his 
palace a full-length series of apostles. A similar 
series, which hung in the church of the Hospital of 
Pity, was by some attributed to him, but by others 
to the elder Herrera. He afterwards went to 
Cadiz, where he was employed in 1662 to paint 
banners for the royal fleet. 

LE GOUAZ, Yves Marie, a French engraver, 
was born at Brest in 1742. He went young to 
Paris, where he became a pupil of J. Aliamet, and 
was afterwards instructed by Nicolas Ozanne. He 
died in that city in 1816. There are by him a great 
many plates of views of the sea-ports of France, 
after the designs of Ozanne, and other subjects 
after Hackert, Vernet, &c. ; among them are the 
following : 

Three Views of the Ports of Toulon, Brest, and Eouen ; 

after Ozanne. 
The Port of Antibes ; after the same. 
View of the Port and Gulf of Calvi, in Corsica ; after 

La Croix. 
View of the Port of St. Lawrence ; after the same. 

LE GRAND, Louis, a French engraver, was born 
in Paris about 1730, and died about 1784. He was 
cljiefly employed in vignettes and other illustrations 
of books, many of which were after the designs of 
Gravelot, Eisen, and others. He engraved a set of 
plates for an edition of Ovid's 'Metamorphoses,' 
published at Paris in 1767-71. There are also by 
him some large plates of ruins. 

LEGRU, Angelica. See Perotti. 

LEGUAY, Charles IiItienne, was born at Sevres 
in 1762, and studied design and painting in the 
china manufactory of that town, where he was 
afterwards employed. His chief objects of study 
were Boucher and Van Loo, but he went to Paris 
for improvement, and studied for some time at the 
Academy. He died in 1840. His chief works are 
on porcelain, but he painted also on glass. 

LE HAY, Elisabeth Sophie. See Charon. 

LEHMANN, Charles Ernest Rodolphe Henri 
Salem, a French painter, was born at Kiel, in Hol- 
stein, in 1814. He became a pupil of Ingres, and 
contributed his first picture to the Salon in 1835. 
His first works were Scriptural subjects, but his 
reputation rests chiefly upon his portraits. He 
was also employed in mural decorations, among 
which were the chapels of the church of St. Merry, 
and the gallei'ies of the H6tel de Ville, Paris. In 
1861 he was made head of theAcad^mie des Beaux- 
Arts, and in 1876 professor in the !^cole des Beaux- 
Arts. He died in Paris in 1882. 

LEHNEN, Jakob, was born at Hinterweiler, 
Eifel, in 1803, and studied at the Academy of 
Diisseldorf. He painted fruit, dead game, flowers, 
birds, breakfast-tables, hunting-parties, and land- 
scapes. Three pictures by him are in the National 
Gallery at Berlin. He died at Coblenoe in 1847. 

LEICESTER, Sir John Fleming, Bart., an 
amateur draughtsman, was bom in 1762. He was 
instructed by Vivares and Paul Sandby. He drew 
in Indian-ink and tinted with bistre, and appears 
as an occasional honorary exhibitor at the Royal 
Academy. He was one of the originators of the 
British Institution in 1805, and was distinguished 
for his patronage of English art. He was created 
Baron De Tabley in 1826, and died at Tabley 
House, Cheshire, in 1827. 

37 



Xieicher 



A BIOGRAPHICAL DICTIONARY OF 



Lelio 



LEICHER, FfiLix Ivo, a G-erman painter, was 
born at Wagstadt in Upper Silesia in 1727. He 
was first educated at Freyberg in Moravia, but 
afterwards went to tBe Academy at Vienna, and 
gained great reputation as a painter of altar- 
pieces. He was still living in Vienna in 1811. 

LEICHNER, JoHANN Geobg Heineioh Thbo- 
DOE, was born at Erfurt in 1684. He was at first 
a pupil of Hildebrand, and at the age of sixteen 
he went to Leipsio to study under Lesohner, whose 
daughter he married. He afterwards entered the 
studio of Pahlmann, where he worked for several 
years, copying the works of Van der Werf, Mieris, 
Van iEIuysum, and others. He died at Leipsic in 
1769. 

LEIGBL, Gottfried, a native of Switzerland, 
flourished from the year 1627 to 1660. He en- 
graved a set of woodcuts of figures for the 
Bible, which are marked with a cipher composed 

of his initials Qy^ . 

LEIGH, James Matthews, an historical painter, 
•was born in 1808. He studied under Etty, and oc- 
casionally exhibited at the Royal Academy — chiefly 
sacred subjects— from 1830 to 1849. During one 
part of his career he was much occupied in literary 
pursuits, and in his later years he established an 
art school in Newman Street, which obtained a good 
reputation. He died in London in 1860. 

LEIGH, T., was a portrait painter, who practised 
about the middle of the 17th century, and by 
whom is a portrait of Robert Davis, a distinguished 
Royalist, dated 1643. 

LEINBERGER, Christian, a German painter, 
was born at Erlangen in 1706. He worked in 
Italy, and painted historical and allegorical pictures, 
among which was the 'Stoning of St. Stephen.' 
He died in 1770. His works are signed with the 

initials G.L., or this monogram : ^j , 

LEINBERGER, Geobg Karl, born at Erlangen 
in 1718, visited Italy with his brother Christian 
at the age of thirteen. After having stayed three 
years at Venice, Rome, and Naples, he went by 
way of Vienna to Frankfort, and painted with his 
brother the ceiling in the Imperial Electoral Hall, 
after which they worked in Westphalia and 
Baireuth. Georg Karl went again to Italy, and 
was employed at the court of Turin ; he subse- 
quently visited Lyons, Paris, Holland, and Copen- 
hagen, where he worked some time at the court, 
and afterwards returned to Baireuth. He died 
at Anspach in 1797. 

LEIPOLDT, J. The name of this engraver is 
afiixed to a small oval portrait of Mary, Queen of 
Scots, with a crucifix in her right hand and the 
axe in her left. 

LEISMANN, Johann Anton. See Eismann. 

LEISNIER, Nicolas Auguste, a French engraver, 
■was born in Paris in 1787, and died at Clamart in 
1858. Among his works are portraits of Marc- 
Antonio and La Fornarina, after Raphael, and of 
Cervantes, after Valazquez. 

LEITCH, William Leighton, a Scottish water- 
colour painter, was born at Glasgow in 1804. He 
was educated at a private school, and afterwards 
at the Highland Society School. As a schoolboy 
he showed great liking for drawing, and made the 
acquaintance of Daniel Macnee, afterwards Pre- 
sident of the Scottish Academy, with whom he 
used to study in the evening. He was placed by 
his friends in a lawyer's- office, but he soon left 

38 



that uncongenial labour, and took employment 
with a decorator and sign-painter. He then canie, 
to London and worked as a scene-painter, and here, 
he made the acquaintance of David Roberts and 
Clarkson Stanfield. He then went to Italy, where 
he remained for five years, and on his return to 
London exhibited at the Royal Academy and other 
exhibitions. He was teacher of water-colour 
painting to the Queen, and other members of the 
royal family. He died in London in 1883. 

LEITNER, Johann Sebastian, an engraver, 
was born at Nuremberg in 1715, and died in 1796. 
He engraved for the works of Kuorr and others. 

LEJEUNE, Lonis FEANgois, Baron and general, 
and formerly aide-de-camp to General Berthier, was 
born at Versailles in 1776. He claims a place hero 
as the painter of many of the battles in which he 
was engaged, and in which victory fell to the 
French ; among them are those of Marengo, LodI, 
Aboukir, Mount Tabor, the Pyramids, the Passage 
of the Rhine by Jourdan, the Battle of Moskowa, 
and several others, all sketched at the several 
actions, and afterwards transferred to canvas. He 
died at Toulouse in 1848. Some of his battle- 
pieces have been engraved by Jacques Joseph 
Coiny and Bovinet. 

LE JDGE, G., a French engraver of the 17th 
century, studied probably under Vouet. Among 
his works are : 

A Holy Family ; after his own design. 

A series of thirteen Mythological Subjects ; after Agos- 

tino Carracci, 
The Communion of St. Jerome ; after the same. 

LE KEUX, Henry, a line-engraver, born in 
1787, vpas a younger brother of John Le Keux. 
He was articled to Basire, and was engaged on 
the Oxford Almanacs, and afterwards on the illus- 
trations for the ' Beauties of England and Wales.' 
He assisted his brother in Britten's ' Cathedrals,' 
and with Blore produced the ' Monumental Re- 
mains.' He engraved Claude's 'Embarkation of 
St. Ursula,' as well as plates for the ' Forget-me- 
not,' and other annuals, after Martin and Prout, 
and after Turner for Rogers's ' Poems.' He retired 
from his profession in 1838, and went to reside at 
Booking in Essex, where he engaged in a crape 
manufactory, and died in 1868. 

LE KEUX, John, a line- engraver, was bom in 
London in 1783. At first lio worked with his 
father, a pewter manufacturer, but at the age of 
about seventeen he was apprenticed to Basire, the 
engraver. Architectural and antiquarian subjects 
chiefly engaged his attention, and he worked much 
in conjunction with Britton. He died in 1846. 
Many of his works are to be found in : 

Britton's ' Architectural Antiquities.' 

„ ' Cathedral Antiquities.' 
Beck's ' Annales Furnienses.' 
Neale's ' Memorials of Oxford.' 

„ ' Westminster Abbey.' 
Pugin's ' Architectural Antiquities of Normandy.' 

„ ' Specimens of Gothic Architecture.' 

„ ' Examples of Gothic Architecture.' 
Le Keux's * Memorials of Cambridge. ' 

Amongst bis separate plates are : 

Maecenas' Villa ; after Wilson. 
Basby Abbey ; after Turner. 
Home ; after the same. 

LELIE, De. See De Lelie. 
LELIENBERGH, Coenelis. See Lilienbeegh. 
LELIO DA NOVELLARA. See Orsi. 



lielli 



PAINTERS AND ENGEAVl^RS, 



Le nrire 



LELLI, Ebcole, was born at Bologna in 1702, 
and became a scholar of Giovanni Pietro Zanotti. 
He appears to have applied himself more to the 
Btudy of the anatomy of the human body than to 
painting ; and is more celebrated for his anatomical 
preparations in wax, at the Bolognese Institute, 
than for his works as a painter. The only paint- 
ings by him mentioned are his picture of the Virgin 
and Infant, with St. Anthony of Padua and St. 
Clara, in the church of Sant' Andrea delle Scuole, 
at Bologna ; and a St. Fidele, at the Gappuccini, 
at Piacenza. He was an eminent teacher of de- 
sign, and had many pupils. He afterwards became 
director of the Academy at Bologna, and died 
there in 1766. He has also left some engravings, 
one of the best of which is ' Hagar and Ishmael.' 

LELLI, Giovanni Antonio, was born at Home 
in 1591, and was a disciple of Lodovico Gardi, 
called Cigoli. Although he was more employed in 
easel pictures for private collections, there are 
some of his works in the churches at Rome, which 
entitle him to the rank of a respectable historical 
painter. In San Matteo in Merulano is an admired 
picture by him of the ' Annunciation ' ; and in the 
cloister of La Minerva, his most celebrated work 
of the ' Visitation of the Virgin to St. Elisabeth.' 
He died in 1640. 

LELOIR, Louis, a French water-colour painter, 
was born in Paris in 1843. He was a pupil of his 
father Auguste Leloir, and sent to the Salon of 
1863 'La Massacre des Innocents,' which was 
followed by other excellent works. He died in 
1884. 

LE LOREAIN, Louis Joseph, a French painter 
and engraver, was born in Paris in 1715. He was 
a pupil of Jean Dumont, and visited Rome for 
improvement. After his return he was received a 
member of the Academy. He went to St. Peters- 
burg in 1758, where he chiefly distinguished him- 
self as a painter of theatrical decorations. He 
died in that city in 1760, Two paintings by him 
are mentioned : 

The King of France as Apollo, protecting Fainting and 
Sculpture. 

The Graces ; a ceiling-piece. 

He engraved some prints from his own designs, 
and the following after J. F. de Troy : 

The Judgment of Solomon. 
Solomon sacrificing to Idols. 
Esther before Ahasuerus. 
The Death of Cleopatra. 

LELY, Sir Peter. See Van der Paes. 

LE MAIRE, Pranqois, was bom at Maison Rouge, 
near Pontainebleau, in 1620. He was a portrait 
painter and a good oolourist, and was the master 
of Santerre. He was received into the Academy 
in 1657, upon the portrait of Jacques Sarrazin, and 
died in Paris in 1688. He was the nephew of 
Pierre Le Maire, and to distinguish him from his 
corpulent relative was called ' Le petit Le Maire.' 

LE MAIRE, Pierre, a French painter and 
engraver, was born at Dammartin, near Paris, in 
1597. He was first instructed by Claude Vignon, 
and resided afterwards twenty years at Rome. 
After having returned to Paris in 1637 he went 
again to Rome, where he however did not stay 
long. He was the intimate friend of Poussin, and 
was called ' Le Maire Poussin ; ' and, as he was a 
corpulent man, he was also known as 'Le gros 
Le Maire.' He died at Gaillon in 1659. In the 
Louvre there are by him two views of the ancient 



monuments of Rome. He distinguished himself 
also as an etcher. His plates, executed in the 
style of Vignon, are correctly drawn, and include 
fourteen subjects from the history of Paris, 1637 ; 
and ' David before the Ark,' after Domenichino. 

LBMBKE, JoHANN Philipp, was born at Nurem- 
berg in 1631. He studied for some time under 
Matthaus Weyer and Georg Strauoh, and then 
went, in 1653, to Italy, where the works of Pieter 
van Laer and Jean Courtois had a great influence 
on his style of painting. Lembke went subse- 
quently to the court of Sweden to bo principal 
painter to Charles XII. at Stockholm, where he 
eventually died in poverty in 1713. It is in 
Sweden — more especially in the castle of Drottning- 
holm — that his pictures may be seen. The Vienna 
Gallery has a ' Skirmish ' by Lembke of much 
merit. The favourite subjects of this artist are 
battles, marches, sieges, skirmishes — in fact any- 
tliing with military action. His works are good in 
composition, and equally well drawn and coloured. 
He also etched several plates. 

LEMENS, Balthazar, was born at Antwerp , 
in 1637, and was one of the first artists who visited 
England after the Restoration, which held out a 
prospect of a revival of the encouragement of the 
arts ; but his expectations were disappointed. He 
painted small historical subjects, in which he dis- 
played a fruitful invention, and a neat and ready 
execution. But the fashion of the time was con- 
fined to portrait painting, and he was under the 
necessity of finishing the draperies and backgrounds 
for other artists. He died in London in 1704. 

LE MERCIES, Antoine. There are by this 
artist, who flourished about 1633, some slight but 
spirited etchings of architectural ornaments, &o., 
after the designs of P. Collo. 

LEMKRCIER, Jacques, born at Pontoise about 
1585, was an architect and engraver. In the latter 
capacity he etched with a spirited point the design 
of a model (not executed) by Michelangelo for 
the church of San Giovanni de' Fiorentini at Rome, 
1607 ; the statue of Henry IV., erected in San 
Giovanni in Laterano, in 1608 ; and the catafalque 
at Rome for the obsequies of Henry IV., in 1610. 
He died in Paris in 1654. 

LEMERCIER, Philipp, was born in 1689 at 
Berlin, where he attended the Academy. He after- 
wards visited Italy, France, and Hanover. He 
gained a reputation as a portrait painter, and 
came to England, where he found ample employ- 
ment for some time. After travelling through 
Ireland and Portugal he returned to Berlin, and 
died in 1760. 

LE MERSION, Madeleine, a French lady, 
etched a plate of a ' Landscape and Cattle,' in a 
style resembling that of Danckerts. It was published 
at Paris, without date or the name of the painter. 

LEMETTAY, Pierre Charles, was born at 
Fecamp in 1726. He studied under Boucher, and 
after having obtained the first prize for Rome, he 
went to that city, and afterwards spent two years 
at Turin. On his return to Paris he became a 
member of the Academy, and received the title of 
painter to the king. He died in Paris in 1760. 
His sea-pieces resemble those of Vernet. Leveau 
and Zingg engraved after him. 

LEMIRB, Antoine Sahvagb. See Sauvaqe. 

LE MIRE, Noel, a French draughtsman and 
engraver, bom at Rouen in 1724, was a scholar 
of Le Bas. He made numerous illustrative en- 
gravings for books ; particularly for the ' Contes ' 

39 



Lemoine 

of La Fontaine, 1762; 'Les Metamorphoses 
d'Ovide,' published by him and Basan in 1767-71 ; 
and ten plates after Eisen for an edition of the 
'Temple de Gnide,' published in 1762. Independ- 
ently of these he engraved for other works a great 
number of subjects after Cochin, Eisen, and Moreau. 
' Le Gateau des Rois,' a satirical representation of 
the partition of Poland, by Moreau, was seized and 
the plate destroyed. Le Mire died in Paris m 
1801. The following are among his plates : 

POETEAITS. 
Queen Marie Antoinette, profile. 1775. 
Alexis Piron ; after Lipicie. 
Mademoi.selle Clairon, crowned by Melpomene, with 

four French verses by Garrick ; after Gravelot. 
General 'Washington ; aftei- Le Paon. 
The Marquis de La Fayette ; after the same. 

SDBJEOTS AFTER VARIOUS MASTERS. 

The Virgin and Child, with St. John ; after Farmigiano ; 
for the Dresden Gallery. 

Jupiter and Dauae ; after Annibale Carracci. 

The Death of Lucretia ; after Andrea del Sarto. 

A pair of Views in Flanders, with figures ; after Tenters. 

A View of Mount Vesuvius in 1757 ; after Lacroix. 

The Arch of Titus ; after the same. 

LEMOINE, Pierre Antoine, a French fruit and 
flower painter, was born in Paris in 1605, and died 
in the same city in 1665. 

LEMOINE, SusANNE. See Silvestre. 

LEilONNIER, Anicet Charles Gabriel, was 
born at Ronen in 1743. He was destined for a 
commercial life, but he abandoned it and studied 
in Paris in the school of Vien, with David and 
Vincent as fellow-pupils. In 1772 he carried off 
the 'grand prix' with his picture of 'The Children 
of Niobe killed by Apollo and Diana.' In 1774 he 
went to Rome, and afterwards travelled through 
Italy. In 1786 he was commissioned by the 
Chamber of Commerce of Rouen to paint a picture 
to commemorate the visit to Rouen of Louis XVI., 
which was exhibited in 1789, in which year he was 
made a member of the Academy. In 1810 he was 
appointed Director of the Tapestry Establishment, 
which post he held for six years. He also re- 
organized the Museum at Rouen, where there are 
twelve of his works. He died in Paris in 1824. 
Among his chief works are : 

The Plague at Milan. 1785. (Rouen Museum.) 

The Mission of the Apostles. 1793. {The same.) 

Jesus calling to Him the Little Ones. 1783. (The same.) 

Christ in the Synagogue. 1782. (The same.) 

The Salon of Madame Geoffrin. 1814. (Munich.) 

Francis 1. receiving at Fontaiuebleau Kaphael's ' Holy 
Family.' 1814. (The same.) 

Louis XIV. inaugurating Paget 's statue of Milo of 
Orotona. 1814. (I'he same.) 

LE MO YNE, FRANgois, a French historical painter, 
was born in Paris in 1688. He entered the studio 
of Qalloche, and in 1707 gained a prize for drawing, 
and in 1711 the 'grand prix' with his picture of 
' Boaz and Ruth,' which entitled him to go to Rome, 
but the state of aif airs and the royal finances pre- 
vented his journey. In 1714 he painted a picture 
of ' St. John the Baptist ' for the church of St. 
Eustache in Paris. In 1716 he painted a ' Tempt- 
ation,' which is in the church of Camon, near 
Amiens. In 1718 he became a member of the 
Academy, and his reception picture was ' Hercules 
and Cacus.' In 1719 he painted a picture of ' St. 
Paul before Sergius,' which was destroyed in 1870 
in the siege of Strassburg. In 1722 he painted a 
picture of ' Tancred and Clorinda,' which is now in 
the Museum at Besancon. He then took to deoora- 

40 



A BIOGRAPHICAL DICTIONARY OF 



Lempereur 



tive painting, and his first essay was in 1723, when 
on the ceiling of the Novitiate of the Jacobins, which 
is now the Church of St. Thomas d'Aquin, he 
painted a large representation of the ' Transfigura- 
tion.' In 1724 a patron, M. Berger, took him to 
Italy, where he spent about six months, where he 
seems rather to have studied Pietro da Cortona and 
Carlo Maratti than Michelangelo. On his return 
to Paris he painted ' The Bathers,' and ' Hercules 
and Omphale.' In 1727, with his ' Continence of 
Scipio,' he divided the honours with De Troy for 
a prize offered by Louis XV. In 1730 he painted 
an ' Assumption ' for the cupola of the chapel of 
the Virgin in the church of St. Sulpice. He was 
commissioned to decorate the ceiling of the Grand 
Saloon at Versailles with the ' Apotheosis of Her- 
cules,' an immense composition, which occupied 
him four years. This work procured him in 1736 
the appointment of principal painter to the king, 
which had been vacant since the death of Boul- 
longne in 1733. Notwithstanding this patronage, 
and that of the King of Spain, for whom he was 
commissioned to paint a large picture representing 
' The Defeat of Porus,' owing to the loss of his 
protector, the Duke d'Antin, he fell into a state of 
melancholy. In 1737, when M. Berger visited 
him, he found that his door was closed, and on it 
being opened, it was discovered that Le Moyne 
had stabbed himself in several places. 

Among his principal paintings are the following: 

The Apotheosis of Hercules. 1732-36. (Versailles.) 
Hercules and Cacus. 1718. (Louvre.) 
Hercules and Omphale. 1724. (Louvre.) 
Cupid and Gephalus. 1724. ( Versailles Mairie.) 
Venus and Adonis. 1729. (Stockholm Museum.) 
The Ascension of Mary. (Cupola of St. Sulpice.) 
The Transfiguration. [St. Thomas d'Aquin.) 

LEMOYNE, FRANgois, (or Lemoine,) was a 
French engraver, who flourished in the 17th cen- 
tury, and was concerned with Berain and Chauveau 
in designing and engraving the ornaments of paint- 
ing and sculpture which are in the Gallery of 
Apollo in the Louvre. 

LEMPEREUR, Catherine Elisabeth, whose 
maiden name was Cousinet, the wife of Louis Simon 
Lempereur, was born in Paris in 1726. She was 
instructed in engraving by Laurent Cars and 
Fessard. There are several pleasing prints by 
her, among which are the following : 

Two Architectural Subjects ; after Fannini. 

The Milkmaid ; after Teniers. 

The Dangerous Forest ; after Wouwerman. 

The Rural Labours ; after the same. 

The Departure of Jacob ; after Boucher, 

Six Marine Subjects and Sea-ports ; after Vemet. 

LEMPEREUR, Jean Baptistb Denis, the son 
of Jean Denis Lempereur, was born in Paris about 
1740, and inherited the taste and talent of his 
father. It is probable that he died in 1796. He 
etched several plates after various masters, as well 
as from his own designs, among which are the 
following : 

The Angel announcing to the Shepherds the Nativity 

of Christ ; after Boucher. 
The Murder of the Innocents ; after Fierre. 
Two Landscapes ; after Suisdaei. 

LEMPEREUR, Jean Denis, a French amateur 
engraver, was born in Paris in 1701, but the date 
of his death is not known. He possessed an ex- 
tensive collection of pictures and drawings, and 
etched a variety of plates after Pietro da Cortona, 
Benedetto Castiglione, Van Dyck, and others. 



Lempereur 



PAINTERS AND ENGRAVERS. 



LEilPEREUR, Loms Simon, a French engraver, 
was born in Paris in 1728. He was a pupil of 
Pierre Aveline and Laurent Cai-s, and became a 
member of the Academy in 1776. He afterwards 
came to England, where he met with consider- 
able encouragement, but after a time returned to 
France, and died in Paris in 1807. There are several 
prints by this artist, which prove him to have 
possessed very eminent talents. The following are 
his principal plates : 

PORTRAITS. 

Etienne Jeaurat, Painter to the King ; after SosHn ; 

engraved for his reception into the Academy. 
Pierre Laurent Buyrette de Eelioy, a dramatic poet; 

an emblematical portrait, after Mlain. 1765. 
Philippe Cayeux, sculptor ; after Cochin. 
Claude Henri Watelet ; after the same. 

SUBJECTS AFTER VARIOUS MASTERS. 

The Bathers ; aftej- C. van Loo. 

The Triumph of Silenus ; after tlie same. 

Aurora and Tithouus ; after Fierre. 

A Sacrifice to Pan ; after the same. 

Bacchus and Ariadne ; after tlie sanu. 

The Forge of Vulcan ; after the same. 

The Bape of Europa : after tlie same. 

Pyramus and Thisbe ; after J. B. Cazes. 

The Garden of Love ; after Rubens ; the same subject 

was engraved by Glouet and G. Jegher. 
A Spanish Festival ; after Falamedts. 
Flemish Merry-makings, a pair ; after Tenia-S. 
The Bape of Proserpine ; after La Fosse. 

LEMPUT, Remi tan, was born at Antwerp, 
and arrived at some excellence by copying the 
works of Van Dyck. He came over to England, 
and died in London in 1675. His daughter was 
an artist, and married Thomas Streater. 

LE NAIN, Antoise, Lodis, axd Mathieu, three 
brothers, and the sons of a sergeant, were born at 
Laon in 1588, 1593, and 1607 respectively. After 
learning the elements of painting they together 
went to Paris, where Antoine was received as a 
painter in 1629. L6tofEe was instructed by Antoine 
about 1630, and his paintings, which are inferior 
to those of his master, are generally attributed to 
Louis and Mathieu. The three brothers worked a 
long time together in Paris, and became members 
of the Academy in 1648, but both Antoine and 
Louis died in Paris in May of the same year. 
Mathieu painted historical subjects for churches, 
and portraits, among which were those of Cinq 
Mars, Cardinal Mazarin, and Anne of Austria. 
He died in Paris in 1677. It is probable that 
the very interesting and pleasing subjects known 
as the works of Le Nain were painted by 
Louis and Antoine conjointly. They consist of 
familiar objects and incidents, such as interiors of 
inns, rustic habitations, domestic enjoyments, card- 
players, and village pastimes, and tliey have 
characteristic peculiarities that distinguish them 
from the works of all other masters. They are un- 
equalled for natural expression and an air of truth. 
The pictures by the Le Nains, which are best known, 
are of the cabinet size. There was one of unusually 
large dimensions in Watson Taylor's collection, 
representing the interior of an inn, with a party of 
travellers, an itinerant performer on the hurdy- 
gurdy, and several other figures. Specimens are 
to be found in some of the richest cabinets in Eng- 
land, France, and Germany. The following are 
some of their principal works : 



Lengerich 



Florence. Museum. 

Loudon. fStafford House. 
Luton. Marquis of Bute. 
Museum. 



Nevers. 
Paris. 



Louvre. 



St. Etienne 1 



Adoration of the Shepherds. 

Fife-player. 

The Studio ot Le Kain. 

St. Michael offeriug Alms to 
the Virgiu. 

Procession in a Church. (Doubt- 
ful) 

The Holy Manger. 

The Smithy, 

The Watering Place 

The Village Eepast. 

'du Mo^'.}'^'^^ Nativity of the Virgm. 

„ St. Laurent. The Visitation. 

II Temple. The Presentation. 

Rouen. Museum. Eustio Interior. 

Valenciennes. Museum. Two Men playing at Cards. 

LENDINARA, Lorenzo da. See Canozzi. 

LEXEY, William S., an engraver, was born in 
London, and practised as a stipple engraver to- 
wards the end of the 18th century. He was a 
pupil of Tomkins. He produced a large plate of 
the ' Descent from the Cross,' after Rubens, and 
engraved for the Shakespeare Gallery. He emi- 
grated to America, where he made some money by 
engraving bank-notes, and bought a farm on the 
St. Lawrence, a little belolv Montreal, where he 
was living in 1808. 

LENFANT, Jean, a French engraver, was born 
at Abbeville about 1615, and died in Paris in 1674. 
He was the cousin and pupil of Claude Mellan, and 
followed the first style of that master, in which 
he used tlie cross strokes. The greater part of 
his prints are portraits, which are his best works. 
The following plates are by him : 

PORTRAITS. 

The Count de Brienne ; after Le Brun. 

Jacques de Souvre ; after Mignard. 1667. 

Francois du TiUet ; Lenfant ad vivum faciehat. 1663. 

Nicolas Blasset, architect. 1658. 

Francois de Harlay, Archbishop of fiouen ; after Cham- 

paigne. 1664. 
Louis Boucherat, Chancellor of France. 1670. 

SUBJECTS. 

The Bust of the Saviour ; oval ; after Raphael. 

The Virgin suckling the Infant; circular; after Anni- 

hale Carracci. 
The Virgiu adoring the Infant ; oval : after Guide Rem. 
Christ crowned with Thorns ; after Annibale Can-acci. 

LENFANT, Pierre, a French battle-painter, 
was bom at Anet, near Dreux, in 1704, and died 
in Paris in 1787. He was a pupil of Parrocel, and 
was made an academician in 1745, as a painter of 
landscapes and battle scenes. At Versailles are the 
following works by him : 

The Taking of Mervin. 
The Siege of Friboorg. 
The Siege of Mons. 
The Siege of Toumai. 

LENGELE, Martinds, was bom at the Hague 
in 1604, and distinguished himself as a portrait 
painter. There was by him in the Shooting-house 
a painting with ten large figures, representing 
the Company of Orange. He was appointed 
Director of the Academy in 1656, and died in 1661. 

LENGERICH, Heinrich, was born at Stettin in 
1790, and studied under Wach. In 1817 he visited 
Italy, where he studied chiefly the works of Raphael 
and Correggio. He was professor at the Academy 
at BerUo, where he died in 1865. A 'Taking 
down from the Cross ' by him is in the church of 
St. Jakob at Stettin. 

41 



Lenker 



A BIOGRAPHICAL DICTIONARY OF 



Lenz 



LENKER, Hans, was a goldsmith at Nuremberg. 
There is by liiin in the Royal Library at Munich a 
book of prayers ornamented with beautiful minia- 
tures, the' covers of which are engraved and 
enamelled in silver, and dated 1573. He was 
burgomaster at Augsburg. Hans Lenker, the 
elder, who is supposed to have been his father, was 
the author of a treatise upon optics, published in 
1616. 

LENOIR, Adelaide, whose maiden name was 
BiNAET, was born in Paris in 1771. She was first 
instructed by her father, and afterwards by Beg- 
nault. She painted several portraits, among which 
was that of her father, most of which were ex- 
hibited between 1801 and 1817. 

LENOIR, Maeib Alexandre, was born in Paris 
in 1761. He was instructed in painting by Doyen, 
but it is chiefly as an art lover and writer that he is 
known. At the outbreak of the French Revolution 
he received permission from the National Assembly 
to collect the principal ecclesiastical monuments 
and art treasures into one place, and he used the 
Convent of the " Petits Augustins " as a museum, 
of which he became the president, and published 
eight volumes descriptive of its formation and 
contents. He also wrote a history of French art, 
and a work on hieroglyphics. His museum was 
scattered under Louis XVIII. 's government, and 
its president became in 1816 curator of the Royal 
Monuments. His collection of French portraits 
is at Staiford House, and has been lithographed 
by Lord Ronald Gower. He died in Paris in 1838. 

LENOIR, Paul Marie, was a French painter of 
ability, who died at Cairo in 1881. He was a 
pupil of GerSme and Jalabert, and his ' Les Courses 
a Osaka, Japon,' in the Salon of 1880, attracted 
considerable attention. 

LENOIR, Simon Bernard, a French portrait 
painter, was born in Paris in 1729, and died in the 
same city in 1789. 

LENS, Andrew Bernard, and Peter Paul, were 
miniature painters, who practised in London about 
the middle of the 18th century.' They were sons 
of Bernard Lens the younger. The first-named 
exhibited at the Incorporated Society from 1765 to 
1770, and sold a collection of his own and his 
father's works in 1777. 

LENS, Andries, was born at Antwerp in 1739, 
and was a scholar of Ykens and Balthasar Beschey. 
At the age of sixteen he obtained the first prize 
at the Academy, of which he became a pro- 
fessor in 1763. In 1764 he was appointed court 
painter to Prince Charles of Lorraine, and went 
the same year to Italy, where he studied after 
Raphael and the old masters. In 1781 he estab- 
lished himself at Brussels, where he painted for 
the palaces and churches. He was a member of 
the Institute, and he died at Brussels in 1822. He 
has been called the regenerator of painting in 
Belgium, and a monument has been erected to 
him in Notre-Dame de la Chapelle, Brussels. The 
following are his most important paintings: 

Antwerp. Gallery. The Annunciation. , 

,, „ Allegorical Subject. 

„ „ Portrait of Maiteuasie, the 

Engraver. 
Brussels. Oallei'y. Delilah cutting off the Locks 

of Samson. 
„ Hotel Stevens. The principal events in the 
Fables of Bacchus. 
Ghent. St. Michel. The Annunciation. 

Li(^ge. Ch. of Aleriens. Subjects from the New Testa- 
ment. 
42 



Lille. Madeleine. The History of St. Mary Mag- 

dalene. 
Lyons. Alexian Chxirch. Several paintings. 
Vienna. Gallery. Several mythological paintings 

formerly in the palace of 

Laeken. 

LENS, Bernard, the elder, the son of a painter 
of the same name, of little note, was bom in 
London in 1659, and was instructed by his father. 
He was a mezzotint engraver, and also etched a 
few plates, and drew views in Indian ink. He 
died in 1725. The following plates are by 
him : 

David with the Head of Goliath ; after Domenico Feti. 
The Judgment of Paris ; after Sir Peter Lely. 
Bacchus, Venus, and Ceres ; after F. Badens. 
Three Landscapes, with Figures and Cattle ; after Bcr- 

chem. 
Einaldo and Armida ; after J. Vandervaart. 

LENS, Bernard, the younger, the son of Ber- 
nard Lens the elder, was born in London in 1680, 
and became celebrated for his fine copies in 
water-colours from Rubens, Van Dyck, and other 
masters. He was also an eminent miniature 
painter and drawing-master, and had the honour 
of instructing the Duke of Cumberland, and of 
becoming enameller and miniature painter to 
George II. He etched a few portraits, and two 
or three drawing-books of landscapes and views, 
which he published for the use of his pupils. He 
died at Knightsbridge in 1740. He also engraved 
in mezzotint; an account of 23 plates is given by 
Nagler. 

LENS, Jacob, a Flemish portrait and historical 
painter, brother of Andries Lens, was bom at 
Antwerp in 1746, and died about 1814. Amongst 
his pictures are : 

Antwerp. Church «/j presentation in the Temple. 

Auyustimans. J ^ 

Brussels. Gallery. Portrait of the Emperor Leo- 

pold. 

LENTHE, Friedrich Christoph Georg, was 
born at Grabow, in Mecklenburg Schwerin, in 1774, 
and studied under Grassi at Dresden. He was 
director of the Gallery in 1811-12, and afterwards 
court painter of the Grand-Duke. He died at 
Ludwigslust in 1851. He worked with great 
ability, and his paintings are marked by a deep 
religious feeling. He also painted portraits, and 
was successful in mezzotint engraving. A ' Death 
of Christ ' by him is in the cathedral of Schwerin. 

LENTZEN, Jan Fraks, a Flemish landscape 
painter, was born at Antwerp in 1790, and died 
there in 1840. He is known chiefly by his success- 
ful copies of the works of Oinmeganck. 

IiENTZNER, Johann Nikolaus, was born at 
Schleiz in Voigtland, in 1711. He was instructed 
by Dietrich at Weimar, and studied afterwards 
under Hamilton, in whose style, as well as in 
that of Wouwermanj Heinrich Roos, and Dietrich, 
he executed excellent landscapes, ruins, and cattle. 
He settled at Frankfort, and died there in 1749. 
In addition to several drawings in Indian ink and 
ruddle after the above-mentioned artists, he has 
left one of the ' Festivities at the Coronation of the 
Emperor Charles VII. in 1741.' 

LENZ, Karl Gottlieb, was born at Dresden in 
1753. He was a pupil of Hutin, and resided for 
some time at Schenau, but in 1788 he went to 
Rome, where he died in 1790. Among his works 
were ' Paul and Festus,' and the ' Worship of the 
Golden Calf.' 



Leon 



PAINTERS AND ENGRAVERS. 



Leone 



LEON, Christobal de, a scholar of Valdes 
Leal, painted eighteen monastic portraits, and 
some decorations in distemper for the church of 
San Felipe Neri, by which he proved himself, 
according to Cean Bermudez, one of the best artists 
in Seville after the death of Murillo and Valdes. 
He died at Seville in 1729. 

LEON, Felipe de, a Spanish historical painter, 
appears to have been the brother of Christobal 
de Leon. He imitated the style of Murillo, and 
also copied the works of that master. Many of 
his copies were formerly at Seville, where they 
were held in great esteem by the amateurs. He 
likewise produced several pictures of his own 
composition ; among others, ' The Prophet Elijah 
ascending to Heaven in a Chariot of Fire.' He 
died at Seville in 1728. 

LEON, Juan de Vanderhamen y. See Van- 

DERHAMEN Y LEON. 

LKON, Juan Valdelmira de. See Valdelmira 
DE Leon. 

LEON LEAL, Simon de, a Spanish painter, was 
born at Madrid in 1610. He was a scholar of 
Pedro de Las Cuevas, and distinguished himself 
both in history and portraits. In the latter, he 
formed his style from the chaste and simple colour- 
ing of Van Dyck. For the Prernonstratensian 
Friars he painted aij allar-piece representing ' St. 
Norbert triumphing over Heresy,' and another 
picture of ' St. Norbert receiving his vestments 
from the hands of the Virgin.' For the church of 
the Noviciado of the Jesuits he painted an altar- 
piece, and a series of pictures of the Infancy of 
Christ, and for the church of the Capuchins an 
' Immaculate Conception.' He was appointed 
painter to the queen, and was much employed by 
the court. He died at Madrid in 1687. 

LEON SALCEDO, Ignacio de, was a scholar of 
Valdes Leal, who studied in the Academy of 
Seville in 1666-7. He imitated the styje of his 
master. His best work was in the Convent of 
Mercy, and represented ' San Pedro Nolasco cor- 
recting the Novices of his Order.' 

LlfeONARD, Jean Pierre, a French still-hfe and 
historical painter, was born at Montpellier in 1790. 
He was a pupil of Gu^rin. Among his works are 
'The Baptism of our Lord,' and 'The Baptism of 
the Eunuch,' in the Cathedral at Montpellier, and 
the ' Death of St. Joseph ' in the church of La 
Charite at Nimes. 

LEONARDIS, Giacomo, an Italian designer and 
etcher, was born at Palma, in the Venetian State, 
in 1723, and died after 1780. He was instructed 
by M. Benville and G. B. Tiepolo, and obtained 
the first prize at the Academy of Venice. He was 
skilful in preserving the character of the artist 
he represented. He etched several plates after 
Italian masters ; among which are the following : 

Cupids at Play ; after Giulio Carpioni. 

The Triumph of Silenus ; after the same. 

Neptune and Thetis ; after Sebastiano Conea. 1765. 

The Rape of Europa ; after the same. 

Two plates of the Amusements of the Carnival : afterr 

Tiepolo, 
The Golden Calf ; after Tintoretto. 
The Last Judgment ; after the same. 1768. 

LEONARDO, Agtjstin, a native of Valencia, is 
supposed to have taken the habit of the Order 
of Mercy at Xativa. In 1620 he was a brother 
of the convent of that order at Puig, near 
Valencia, where he painted for the sacristy four 
large pictures of the ' Finding of the Image of Our 



Lady at Puig ; ' the ' Siege of Valencia,' and its 
surrender to King James; and the 'Battle of 
Puig,' in which St. George fought for the Christians. 
He afterwards visited Seville, where he painted a 
picture, dated 1624, of ' Christ and the Woman of 
Samaria.' In 1624-5 he was called to Madrid, 
where he painted two pictures for the great stair- 
case of the Convent of Mercy, which, according 
to Cean Bermudez, possessed some merit in draw- 
ing and composition, but were harsh in colouring. 
He was thought' to excel in portraiture, and 
painted a portrait of Gabriel Bocangel, the poet. 
Palomino states that he died at Madrid in 1640, but 
Cean Bermudez thinks it more probable that he 
returned to Valencia, and died there at a later date. 

LEONARDO, Jusepb, a Spanish painter of 
battles, was a distinguished scholar of Pedro de 
Las Cuevas. He was born at Calatayud in Ara- 
gon in 1616, and died at Saragossa in 1656, of 
poison, supposed to have been administered to liim 
by some who were jealous of his merits. He was 
painter to the king, and executed for the palace 
of Buen Retire works worthy of celebrity; among 
them the ' Surrender of Breda,' and the ' March of 
the Duke of Feria's Troop upon Acqui,' which are 
now in the Madrid Gallery ; the latter is a picture 
of large dimensions and great merit. Tliere is also 
a portrait of Alaric the Goth, which is one of the 
ornaments of the royal collection. 

LEONARDO da VINCI. See Vinci. 

LEONARDONI, Francisco, was born in 1654 at 
Venice, where he studied for some time. Expa- 
triated for some unknown cause, he travelled 
through various parts of Europe, and settled at 
Madrid in 1680. There he distinguished himself 
by his portraits, especially miniatures, although he 
also painted several pictures for the churches. In 
the church of the Convent of Atocha at Madrid, are 
two pictures of the ' Marriage and Death of St. 
Joseph ; ' and in the church of San Geronimo el 
Real, a large altar-piece of the ' Annunciation.' He 
died at Madrid in 1711. 

LEONART, Johannes Fredrik, a Flemish 
etcher and engraver in mezzotint, was born at 
Dunkirk about 1633, and died at Berlin in 1680. 
He engraved the portraits of Justus van Merstrae- 
ten, Syndic of Brussels, and his wife, after Van 
Dyck. 

LEONBRUNO, Lorenzo, was born at Mantua in 
1489. He studied after the works of Mantegna, 
attended the school of Lorenzo Costa in 1508, and 
visited Rome in 1521. Several of his paintings, 
which he executed in the palaces of his native 
city, have disappeared. There is by him in the 
Berlin Gallery the ' Judgment of Midas.' He died 
in 1537, probably at Mantua. 

LEONCINI, Feanoesco, was the engraver of a 
plate representing the ' Flight into Egypt ; ' it is 
etched in the style of a painter, and signed Fran- 
cesco Leoncini di S. Geminiano,f. et inv. 

LEONE, a Benedictine 'monk, was- probably 
a native of Amalfi. He wrote in 1072 the Codex 
99, ' Homilise diversse,' at Monte Cassino, which he 
illuminated with portraits and scenes from the 
Bible in miniature, that might easily be attributed 
to Cimabue or Giotto. He is probably identical 
with Leo, Cardinal Bishop of Ostia, who was 
secretary to Pope Urban IL, and died in 1115. 

LEONE, Andrea di, born at Naples in 1596, 
was a disciple of Corenzio, II Greco, and Salvator 
Rosa. When Corenzio left Naples, Leone became 
his successor, and adorned the palace of the Viceroy 

43 



Leone 



A BIOGRAPHICAL DICTIONARY OF 



L6iJicil 



in that city. He painted tliere several battles, 
but afterwards imitated Aniello Falcone in his 
works of a smaller size. There are several paint- 
ings by him in the cathedral and in San Paolo 
Maggiore at Milan. He died at Naples in 1676. 
The following also is by him : 

Madrid. Oallery. The Wrestling of Jacob with the 

Angel. 

LEONE, Gabriem. See Van dee Leedw. 

LEONELLO, Antonio, was a native of Bologna, 
who lived at the end of the 15th century. He 
painted chiefly fruits, flowers, and animals. 

LEONETTI, Giovanni Battista, was an Italian 
engraver, who was working at Rome at the com- 
mencement of the 19th century, but who died 
before 1830. Among his works are the following : 

The Triumph of David ; after Guercino, 
Christ on the Cro.,s ; after F. Gessi. 
Christ in the Temple among the Doctors ; after 
LeoTtardo da Vinci. 

LEONI, Gdglielmo da, an Italian painter and 
engraver, was born at Parma in 1664. He is 
supposed to have been a pupil of Giulio Romano, 
but he soon abandoned painting for engraving. 
He died about 1740. 

LEONI, LoDOVioo, called II Padovanino, was 
born at Padua in 1531. He spent most of his life 
in Rome, and executed portraits in wax, besides 
painting in oil and fresco landscapes and historical 
subjects. He died at Rome in 1606. 

LEONI, Ottavio, the son and pupil of Lodovioo 
Leoni, was born at Rome about 1578. He 
was esteemed one of the ablest portrait painters 
of his time, and drew the popes, cardinals, and 
principal nobility of the period in which he lived. 
His talents were not, however, confined to por- 
traiture ; for he painted several altar-pieces for the 
churches in Rome. In Sant' Eustachio is a picture 
by him of the ' Annunciation ' ; in Santa Maria 
della Minerva, the 'Virgin and Child, with St. 
Hyacinthe ' ; and in Sant' Urbano, ' St. Charles, St. 
Francis, and St. Nicholas.' He was made principal 
of the Academy of St. Luke, and a knight of the 
order of Christ, on which occasion he painted 
for the church of the Academy the ' Martyrdom 
of St. Martina.' He died at Rome in 1630. 
Ottavio Leoni was the engraver of a set of heads 
of painters and others, executed in a singular 
manner, but producing a very pleasing effect 
The hair and draperies are engraved with strokes ; 
the faces delicately dotted, with the shadows assisted 
with strokes. There are about twenty of the plates, 
among which are the following, which are signed, 
Mques Ottav. Leonus, Bomanus pictor fecit. 

LudovicTis Leonus, Pictor et Sculptor. 1625. 

Eques Ottav. Leonus ; se ipse fee. 1625. 

Joannes Franciscus Barbieri, Centinus pictor. 1623. 

Marcellus Provenzalis, Centensis. 1623. 

Eques Christopher. Ronchalis de Pomeranciis, pictor. 

1623. 
Eques Joseph Csesar Arpinas, pictor. 1621. 
Antonius Tempesta, pictor Florentinus. 1621. 
Thomas Salinus, Bomauus, pictor. 1625.' 
Fr. D. Antonius Barberinus. 1625. 

LEONORI, PiETRO Giovanni, was a painter of 
the Bolognese school, who about 1400 painted a 
' Madonna and Saints ' in the Custom House, and 
decorated with frescoes several public buildings. 

LEPAGE, FEANgois, a Frencli flower painter, 
was born at Lyons in 1796., In 1826 he was 
appointed a Professor at the Ecole des Beaux- Arts 
at Lyons. 

44 



LB PASTURE, Rogier db. See Van dek 
Wbyden. 

LE PAULTRE, Jean, (or Lb Pautrb,) a 
French draughtsman and engraver, was born 
in Paris in 1618. In the early part of his 
life he was placed with a carpenter and builder, 
under whom he learned to draw plans and orna- 
mental designs. He afterwards turned his atten- 
tion to engraving, both with the point and the 
graver, and executed some fourteen or fifteen 
hundred plates, consisting of architectural decora- 
tions, friezes, ceilings, vases, and other ornaments, 
which, with the exception of a few prints from 
the drawings of Paolo Farinati, are all after bis 
own designs. He also engraved several historical 
and religious subjects ; but they are inferior to 
his other plates. He was made a member of the 
Academy at Paris in 1677, and died there in 1682. 
His works are usually marked with the initials 
I. P. or /. le P. The following are his most 
esteemed prints : 

PORTRAITS. 
Jean Lepautre, with a border of flowers, supported by 

Genii. 1674. 
Louis XIV., in Roman attire. 1684 
Jean Eobert. 

VARIOUS SUBJECTS. 

Ten plates of the History of'Moses. 

Twenty-two plates of Mythological Subjects. 

Twelve Landscapes, Views of Gardens and Grottoes. 

Six plates of Italian Fountains. 

Six of Friezes, Mythological Subjects. 

Twelve of Antique Yases. 

Six plates of Sea-ports and Vessels. 

The Coronation of Louis XIV. in the cathedral at 

Eheims ; on three sheets. 
The Baptism of the Dauphin. 
Two perspective Views of the Canal of Fontainebleau. 

LBPICIB, Bernard, a French engraver, was 
born in Paris in 1698. He was probably a pupil 
of Jean Audran, whose style he adopted with 
success. 'He was invited to England by Claude 
Du Bosc, to assist him in engraving the cartoons 
of Raphael, on a smaller scale than those of 
Dorigny ; but his talents ought not to be estimated 
from those unfavourable specimens. On his return 
to Paris, he engraved several plates, which gained 
him great reputation. He was received into the 
Academy in 1740, and became its secretary 
and historiographer ; and in the latter capacity 
he published in 1752 a ' Catalogue raisonni des 
Tableaux du Cabinet du Roi,' and 'Les Vies des 
Premiers Peintres du Roi, depuis M. Le Brun, 
jusqu'a present.' He died in Paris in 1755. The 
following are his principal prints : 

PORTRAITS. 
Nicolas Bertin, painter; after De Lien; engraved for 

his reception into the Academy. 
Louis de BouUongne, painter ; after Sigaud. 
Philibert Orry, Minister of Finance ; after the same. _ 
Pierre Grassin, Director of the Mint ; after LargilUire. 
Charles Capperonnier, Librarian to the King; after 

Aved. 
Madame Dufresne, actress ; after the same. 
Jean Antoine "Watteau, painter ; after himself. 
Fran9oise d'Aubign^, Marquise de Maintenon ; after 

Migyiard. 
Jean Baptists Moliere ; an etching ; after Cliarles Coypl- 

SUBJECTS AFTER VARIOUS MASTEES. 

The Circumcision ; after Giulio Romano ; for the Crozat 

Collection. 
Jupiter and lo ; after the same ; for the same. 
Jupiter and Juno ; after the same ; for the same. _ 
St. John preaching in the Wilderness ; qfter Badem; 

for the same. 



Lepicie 



PAINTERS AND ENGRAVERS. 



Lerous 



Vertumnus and Pomona ; after Rembrandt. 

Two Subjects ; after Teniers. 

The Chess-players ; after 0. He Moor. 

The Players at Piquet ; after G. Netscher. 

Town Love and Village Love ; after Charles Coypel. 

The Pacha having his Mistress's portrait painted; after 

Carle van Loo. 
Charles I. taking leave of his Children ; after Eaoux. 

L^PIClfi, Nicolas Bernard, tlie son of Bernard 
L6pici6, was born in Paris in 1736. He studied 
under Carle van Loo, and became painter to the 
king, and professor of the Academy. He died in 
Paris in 1784. The following are his best paintings : 

The Courage of Porcia. (ZiUe Museum.) 
Kegulus taking leave of his Family. 

LEPICIE, REN:fiB i!1lis4beth, whose maiden 
name was MarliS, was born in 1714, and in 1732 
became the wife of Bernard Ldpici^. She en- 
graved after Raphael, Boucher, Van Loo, Chardin, 
Rigaud, and other French painters, and died in 
Paris in 1773. The following are two of her prints : 

Saying Grace, and the Industrious Mother; a pair; 

after Chardin. 
The Flemish Cook ; after Teniers. 

LE PIPER, Franqois, was the son of a Kentish 
gentleman of Flemish extraction, and was born 
about the year 1640. His father, who was in pos- 
seasion of a considerable estate, gave him a liberal 
education, intending him for a merchant, but his 
inclination leading him entirely to drawing, he 
rambled over great part of Europe to study paint- 
ing. He was of a gay and facetious turn of mind, 
and the subjects he treated were usually humorous 
and comical, and were chiefly painted in black and 
white. Most of his performances wei-e produced 
over a bottle, and the theatre of his exertions was 
the Mitre Tavern at Stock's Market, or the Bell 
in Westminster, which were adorned by the pro- 
ductions of this jovial artist. He drew landscapes, 
which he etched on silver plates for the tobacco- 
boxes of his friends. Towards the latter part of 
his life his circumstances were sufficiently reduced 
to make it necessary for him to think of turning 
his talents to some account. Becket employed 
him to design his mezzotints, and he drew several 
of the heads of the Grand Seigniors, for Sir Paul 
Rycaut's ' History of the Turks.' On the death of 
his mother, his fortune being re-established, he 
launciied again into a course of pleasure, con- 
tracted a fever, and being bled by an ignorant 
surgeon, who pricked an artery, he died in 1698. 
His portrait was drawn in crayons by Faithorne, 
and engraved by Lutterel. 

LE POITTEVIN, Edmond Modeste Edgenb, a 
French landscape and marine painter, whose name 
was originally Poidevin, was born in Paris in 
1806, and studied under Hersent. He visited 
England, the Netherlands, and Italy, and died at 
Aiiteuil in 1870. He used the initials L. P. There 
are by him : 

The Sinking of the Ship ' Le Vengeur.' 

Winter in Holland. 

A Norman Cottage. 

The Fisherman on, the Ice. 

The Sea-Baths at Etretat. 

Adriaan Brouwer painting a Tavern Child. {Munich 
Gallery.) 

Kocky Coast near Havre. (South Kensington Museum.) 

LE PRINCE, AuGUSTE Xavier, a French genre 
painter, was born in Paris in 1799, and studied 
after nature and from the works of Albert Cuyp 
and Adriaan van de Velde. His village fairs, 
carnivals, corps de garde, and a great variety of 



other subjects are to be found in some of the best 
collections. He exhibited at the Salons of 1819, 
1822, and 1824, and died at Nice in 1826. His 
' Interieur de son Atelier' was finished by his pupil 
Eugene Le Poittevin, and ' L'Antiquaire ' by 
Renoux. In the Louvre there are by him ' Em- 
barkation of Cattle at Honfleur,' and a view of the 
Pass of Susten, Switzerland. 

LE PRINCE, Charles Bdouard, Baron de 
Crespy, a French genre painter, was born in Paris 
in 1784. He was a pupil of David and Madame Le 
Brun, and exhibited at the Salon from 1812 to 1850. 

LE PRINCE, GnsTAVE, a French landscape 
painter, was born in Paris in 1810, and was a 
pupil of Xavier and Leopold Le Prince. He died 
in 1837. There is by him in the Museum of Douai 
a ' View in the Environs of Fontainebleau.' 

LE PRINCE, Jean Baptiste, a French painter 
and engraver, was horn in 1733 at Metz, where he 
learned the rudiments of art. Subsequently he 
studied painting under J. M. Vien and Fran9ois 
Boucher, and after having acquired some reput- 
ation at Paris, went to Russia, where he resided 
several years, and visited various parts of that 
empire, sketching the different- costumes and the 
most remarkable views in the provinces through 
which he passed. He returned to Paris with an 
extensive collection of drawings, from which he 
painted pictures, which were much admired, and 
executed several plates, both in etching and 
aquatint. He also engraved several fancy sub- 
jects and domestic scenes from his own designs. 
The number of his plates exceeds 160. He became 
an academician in 1765, and died at St. Denis-du- 
Port, near Lagny-sur-Marne, in 1781. Among his 
best paintings are : 

Le Corps de Garde. {Louvre.) 

A Bnssiau Baptism. 

A Kussian Shepherdess. 

A Kussian Peasant's Cottage. 

LE PRINCE, Robert L:^opold, a French land- 
scape painter, the brother of Anguste Xavier Le 
Prince, was born in Paris in 1800, and died at 
Chartres in 1847. There are pictures by him in 
the Museums of Chartres and Besangon. 

LEQUEUTRE, Hippolyte Joseph, a miniature 
portrait painter, was born at Dunkirk in 1793. He 
was a pupil of the elder Isabey, and exhibited at 
the Salon from 1822 to 1863. Among his works 
are portraits of the Duke of Bordeaux, Duchess of 
Berri, Princess of Nassau, etc. 

LERCH, J. M., a German engraver, flourished at 
Vienna about the year 1670. He engraved some 
of the portraits for Priorato's 'History of the 
Emperor Leopold,' 1670 ; and in conjunction with 
Hoffman executed a large print, in three sheets, of 
the ' Siege of Brandenburg.' 

LEROUX, Jean Marie, a French line-engraver, 
was born in Paris in 1788, and was a disciple of 
David. He died in Paris in 1871. Among his 
best plates are : 

La Madonna della Soala ; after Correggio. 

Leda ; after Leonardo da Vinci. 

St. Catharine ; after Raphael. 

Thalia ; after the same. 

Jeanne d'Aragon ; after Raphael. 

St. Theresa ; after Gerard. 

The Eendezvous of Bianca Capella ; a.fter L. Duds. 

The Flight of Bianca Capella ; after the same. 

St. Jerome ; after Domenichino. 

Francis I., King of France.; after Titian. 

Lafayette ; after Ary Scheffer. 

Eouget-Delisle ; after a medallion hy David. 

45 



Le Roy 



A BIOGRAPHICAL DICTIONARY OF 



Leslie 



La Vierge a TEtoile ; after Pinturlcchio. 

La Vierge a I'Aureole ; after Murillo. 

La Yierge aux Anges ; after the same. 

The Magdalen in the Desert ; after Gennari. 

LE ROY, Claude, a French engraver, flourished 
in Paris about 1709. He engraved the portraits of 
Fleury, Boileau, Bossuet, and Cardinal Dubois, all 
after Rigaud. His name is also affixed to the por- 
trait of Cardinal de Fleury, engraved after Autreau. 

LE ROY, Henry, was an engraver, by whom 
there is a set of six plates of butterflies, beetles, 
and other insects, etched in a style resembling that 
of Hollar, and retouched with the graver. They 
are inscribed Renry le Roy fecit 'JE. 72, 1651. 

LE ROY, Jacqdes, a French line engraver, was 
born in Paris in 1739. There is a portrait by him 
of Voltaire, engraved after the death of the latter 
in 1778. 

LE ROY, Joseph Anne, a Flemish genre painter, 
was born at Brussels in 1814. He was the son of 
Pierre Frangois Le Roy, the elder, and studied 
under his brother and Eugene Verboeokhoven. He 
died at Brussels in 1860. His best known work is 
' Cavaliers in an Inn Yard.' 

LE ROY, PiEREE Feanqois, the elder, a Flemish 
animal and battle painter, was boi'n at Namur in 
1772. He was the son of the sculptor Le Roy. 
He gained various medals, one of which was 
awarded for his ' Battle of Waterloo,' which found 
an English purchaser. There are several good 
examples of bis skill with the etching needle. He 
died at Brussels in 1861. 

LE ROY, PlERBB FRANgois, the younger, a 
Flemish genre painter, the son and pupil of Pierre 
Fran9ois Le Roy the elder, was born at Brussels 
in 1803. Several works were painted by him in 
conjunction with Eugene Verboeokhoven. There 
are etchings by him. He died in 1833. Amongst 
his pictures are : 

Haarlem. Pavilion. The Schoolmaster. 

Ghent. Academy. A young Boy preparing Break- 

fast. 

LE ROYER, Jean and Aubin Olivier, were 
brothers, who lived in the middle of the 16th cen- 
tury, and were both in the service of Henry II. of 
France, the one as a printer, the other as a 
medallist. Both were skilful engravers on wood, 
and jointly executed the figures for the ' Livre de 
Perspective,' by Jean Cousin, printed and published 
by Jean Le Royer, in 1560. These geometrical 
figures are very beautiful, and consist of about 
sixty illustrations. Jean availed himself of his 
knowledge of drawing to embellish the works that 
he printed ; so that the greater part of the fleurons, 
vignettes, and ornamental letters, whether on metal 
or on wood, employed in his editions, are his own 
work. In 1553 he obtained letters patent, in which 
he is designated "Printer in ordinary to the King, 
and especially in mathematics." Jean Le Royer 
flourished until 1681. 

LERPINI^RE, Daniel, though from his name 
apparently of French extraction, was born in Eng- 
land about 1745, and was a pupil of F. Vivares. 
He followed the style of his master, using both 
graver and point. He worked in London, where 
he died in 1785. He engraved several landscapes, 
among which are the following : 

A Landscape, with the Flight into Egypt ; after Claude 

Lorrain. 
The Companion, with St. George and the Dragon ; after 

the same. 
A Landscape, with the Israelites worshipping the 

Golden Calf ; after the same. 
46 



A Sea-piece, a Oalm ; after Vernet. 
The Companion, a Storm ; after the same. 
Two Italian Landscapes ; after John Taylor. 
Two Landscapes, with Cattle ; after Ouyp. 
A Landscape, Evening ; after Pynacker. 
Six Views of Sea-fights, &o. ; after R. Paton. 

LESCOT-HAUDBBOURG, Hoetbnse Victoire, 
_a French genre and portrait painter, was born in 
'Paris in 1784. She studied under Lethiere, whom 
she followed to Rome, on his appointment as 
Director of the French School in that city. Her 
works first appeared at the Salon in 1810, and in 
1820 she married M. Haudebourg, an architect. 
She died in Paris in 1845. Amongst her works 
are : 

Kissing the Feet of the Statue 

of St. Peter. 1812. 
Confirmation. 1814. 
Besangon. Museum. Portrait of the Architect Paris. 

Dijon. Museum. Old Man and Children. 1819. 

LESLIE, Charles Robert, a subject painter, 
was born in London in 1794, of American 
parents, who soon after returned to Philadelphia. 
In 1808 he was bound apprentice to a bookseller, 
but, desiring to become an artist, in 1811 he sailed 
for England, where he entered the schools of 
the Royal Academy in 1813, and obtained two 
silver medals. Amongst his instructors were 
Benjamin West and Washington Allston. His 
first picture was ' Saul and the Witch of Endor,' 
which was bought by Sir John Leicester, after- 
wards Lord De Tabley, for 100 guineas, in 1817. 
The same year saw his first exhibited work, ' Mur- 
der.' At this period he- produced several historical 
works, and he also practised as a portrait painter. 
It was not till after a visit to the continent in 1817 
that he settled down to the class of works — 
humorous genre subjects from the standard 
authors — on which his reputation rests. His pro- 
gress then was rapid. In 1821 he was elected an 
Associate of the Royal Academy, and in 1825 his 
prospects were sufficiently assured to admit of his 
marrying. In the following year he became a full 
member of the Academy. With the exception of 
one year, 1833, when he was induced to go to 
America as teacher ol: drawing at tlie West Point 
Military Academy, the remainder of his life was 
spent in England. From 1847 to 1852 he held the 
Professorship of Painting in the Royal Academy, 
and he published the substance of his lectures as 
a ' Handbook for Young Painters.' This was not 
his only literary venture. He published in 1845 
' Memoirs of Constable,' and his materials for a life 
of Reynolds were posthumously brought out by 
Tom Taylor, who also edited his autobiography. 
He died in London in 1869. The following are 
some of his principal works : 

Bowood. Marquis of \ Sir Roger de Coverley going to 
Zansdowne. j Church. 
„ „ Sir Roger de Coverley and the 

Gipsies. 
„ „ Rebecca in her Dungeon. 

Cassiobury. Earl of 1 Don Quixote, the Duchess, and 
Essex. } Sancho. 
„ „ Don Quixote and Dorothea. 

„ „ Portrait of Miss Stephens, 

afterwards Countess of Essex. 
Eaton Hall. Dukeof),^, „ -n m iom 

WestminsJ. j ^^^ Grosvenor Family. 1832. 

London. JJuckingliam \ The Queen receiving the Sacra- 
Palace. \ ment after the Coronatioa. 
J 1843. 
„ „ Christening of the Princess 

Royal. 
,, „ Scene from ' Comus.' 



Lessing 



PAINTEES AND ENGRAVERS. 



Le Sueur 



London. Nat. OalUry. My TJncle Toby and 'Widow 
Wadman. 1831. 
It n Sancho Panza in the Apartment 

of the Duchess. 1844. 
„ S(mth Kensing- > TJie Taming of the Shrew. 

ton Muaemn. J 1832. 
„ I, My Uncle Toby and Widow 

Wadman. 1832. 
„ „ Autolycus. 1836. 

„ „ Florizel and Perdita. 1837. 

„ „ The Dinner at Mr. Page's House 

(' Merry Wives of Windsor '). 
1838. 
„ „ Who can this be? 1839. 

„ ., Who can this be from ? 1839. 

„ » Le Bourgeois Gentilhomme. 

1841. 
„ „ Le Malade Imaginaire. 1843. 

„ „ Les Femmes Savantes. 1845. 

„ Nat. Port. Gall. Lord Holland. 
„ Holland House. The Library at Holhmd House. 
Petworth . Lord Lecon- ) Sancho Panza in the Apartment 
jUld. / of the Duchess. 1824. 
„ J, Catharine and Petruchio. 

„ ,, Lady Carlisle carrying the par- 

don to her Father in Prison. 
„ „ Charles II. at Tillietudlem. 

„ „ Gulliver's Introduction to the 

Queen of Brobdingnag. 
Woburn. Abbey. Lady Jane Grey prevailed on 

to accept the Crown. 1827. 
LESSING, Kakl Eeiedbich, a German historical 
and landscape painter, the grandnephew of the 
poet, was born at Breslau in 1808. He was originally 
intended for an architect, but, evincing a love of 
painting, he received his first instruction from 
Eosel and Dahling, at Berlin. In 1827 he went 
with Schadow to Diisseldorf, where he speedily 
became famous both for his masterly landscapes 
and his historic paintings. The latter show a strong 
Protestant feeling ; three of his masterpieces being 
scenes inspired by the history of Hus, the Re- 
former. In 1858 Lessing was appointed Director 
of the Gallery of Carlsruhe, a post which he held 
till his death in that city in 1880. The following 
are his principal works : 
Berlin. National Gall. Eitterburg. 1828. 

„ „ View in the Eifel Mountains. 

1834. 
„ „ A Hussite Preaching. 1836. 

„ „ A Chapel in a Wood. 1839. 

„ „ View on the Havel. 1841. 

„ „ Hus at the Funeral Pyre. 1850. 

,1 „ Defence of the Pass, 1851. 

„ „ Stormy Landscape. 1875. 

Carlsruhe. Gallery. Discussion of Luther and Eck 

at Leipsic. 
Darmstadt. Gallery. Evening Landscape. 1837. 
Dresden. Gallery. Landscape in the character of 

the ' Teufelsmauer,' near 
Blankenburg. 1877. 
Diisseldorf. Gallery. Peasants defending a Height. 
Frankfort. Stadel Inst. Landscape. 1835. 

„ „ Ezzelin IV. in prison after the 

Battle of Cassano, 1259. 
1836. 
„ „ Oaks of a Thousand Years. 

1837. 
„ „ Landscape. 1839. 

„ „ Hus before the Council at 

Constance. 1842. 
Heltdorf. Castle. Scene from the Life of Bar- 

barossa. 
Leipsic. Gallery. Convent in Snow. 1828. 

LESSOEE, !16mile Adbeet, a French genre 
painter, and a native of Paris, was a pupil of 
Hersent and of Ingres, and exhibited at the Salon 
between 1831 and 1869. He also designed for 
the Sfevres manufactory, and afterwards for the 
Wedgwoods. He died in 1876. 



LE STRANGE, Hamon, an amateur, was born 
at Hunstanton Hall, Norfolk, in 1815. As a labour 
of love he undertook to paint the nave of Ely 
Cathedral, but died suddenly in London in 1862, 
after which his work was carried on by Mr. Gambier 
Parry. 

LE SUEUR, EasTACHE, a French historical 
painter, was born of humble parentage in Paris in 
1616. Hewas one ofthe many celebrated artists who 
received instruction from Vouet, and his progress 
was such that he was selected by his master to 
assist him in various works. Although he did not 
visit Italy, he lost no opportunity of studying the 
works of the great Italian masters which found 
their way to France. The style of Raphael greatly 
attracted him, and the works of his fellow-country- 
man, Nicolas Poussin, also had an important 
influence in the development of his art. In 1640 
he became a member of the guild of master- 
painters, and painted for them a -picture of ' Sf. 
Paul expelling Evil Spirits at Ephesus.' He quitted 
this confraternity, however, on the formation of 
the French Academy, of which he was one of the 
twelve original members. The position which he 
early achieved among French artists rendered him 
the chief competitor of Le Brun, when the latter 
settled in Paris after his return from Italy. Many 
stories of their rivalry are extant, not altogether 
to the credit of Le Brun, if they may be trusted. 

Le Sueur was much engaged in decorative 
works. He was one ofthe numerous band of French 
artists who worked at the hotel of the President 
Lambert de Thorigny in the He de la Cit6. A^ 
the Louvre, he decorated the apartments of the 
King and of the Queen-Mother. His greatest work 
in this line was the series of paintings in the 
cloisters of the Chartreuse at Paris, illustrating the 
life of St. Bruno, the founder of the order. These 
were afterwards sold by the community to Louis 
XVI., and are now in the Louvre. So great is the 
number of his productions, that, however un- 
wearied his industry, he could not possibly have 
found time during his short career to execute them 
without assistance. This help he obtained from 
his brothers, Pierre, Philippe, and Antoine, and 
his brother-in-law, Thomas Gouss^. The elder 
Patel also is said to have inserted the landscape 
backgrounds in his compositions. 

Concerning the life of the painter, many tales 
have obtained currency. Such are the accounts 
of his narrow means, of his melancholy at the 
loss of his wife, of his being left childless, and 
of his subsequent retreat among the Carthusians, 
where he is said to have died. These fictions 
have, however, been dispelled by recent research. 
He died in Paris in 1655, at the early age of 
thirty-eight. For many years his art was not 
duly appreciated, owing to its eclipse by the 
pretentious works of his rival Le Brun. His 
reputation has, however, recovered. He is now 
justly considered to hold a place in the front 
rank amongst the artists of his country, and he 
has sometimes been styled the French Raphael. 
This position he owes to his gracefulness, and 
freedom from affectation. Another merit is the 
originality of his ideas, although founded on the 
best traditions of the great masters. The follow- 
ing is a list of his works in the chief European 
galleries : 



Berlin. Gallery. St. Bruno. 

Bordeaux. Museum. Urania. 

Caen. Museum. Sacrifice of Manoah. 



47 



Le Sueur 

Cherbourg. Museum. 

Dijon. Palais de Justice. 
Frankfort. Stdchl Inst. 



A BIOGRAPHICAL DICTIONABY Of 



LetliiSre 



Grenoble. 


Museum, 


Lyons. 


Museum. 


Marseilles. 

Mbutpellier. 

Munich., 


Museum. 
Museum. 
Gallery. 


Nantes. 
Nimes. 
Paris. 


Museum. 

Museum. 

Louvre. 



Fetersburg. Hermitage, 



Toulouse. 
Tours. 



Museum. 
Museum. 



and 



Our Lord teaching. 
Divine Justice. 
The Crucifixion. 
Death of St. Bruno. 
Thanksgiving of Tobit's 

Family. 
Martyrdom of St. Gervais 

and St. Protais. 
Presentation in the Temple. 
Tobit's "Wedding Night. 
Christ in the House of 

Martha. 
St. Louis of France at Mass. 
The Birth of Aurora. 
The Burial of Christ. 
The Life of St. Bruno. (22 

pictures.) 
History of Cupid. (6 pic- 
tures.) 
The Muses. (5 pictures.) 
The Descent from the Cross. 
St. Paul preaching at Bphe- 

sus. 
Moses exposed by his Mother. 
Nativity of the Virgin. 
The Virgin and St. Anne in 

the Temple. 
The Presentation- 
Death of the Virgin. 
Martyrdom of St. Stephen. 
Darius Hystaspes at the 

Tomb of Nitocris. 
Sacrifice of Manoah. 
St. Sebastian. 
The Mass of St. Martin, 
Christ with Martha 

Mary. 
St. Louis healing the Sick. 
Espousal of tlip Virgin. 
Death of Cupid. 
Joseph and Potiphar's "Wife. 
Massacre of the Innocents. 
Klnaldo. 

0. J. D. 

LB SUEUR, Nicolas, the son of Pierre Le Sueur 
the younger, was born in Paris in 1690. He ex- 
celled as an engraver on wood, and was the most 
eminent of his family. He executed, chiefly in 
chiaroscuro, several fine cuts for the Crozat Collec- 
tion, from the works of the great masters, especi- 
ally Goltzius. He also engraved, in a very tasteful 
style, the ornaments which embellish the edition 
of La Fontaine's Fables, from the designs of 
Bachelier. He died in Paris in 1764. Some of his 
works are signed N. L. S., others with a monogram. 
The following cuts were executed by him for the 
Crozat Collection : 

Fishermen drawing their Nets ; after Giulio Romano, 

The Mass ; after Folidoro da Caravaygio. 

The Egyptians overwhelmed in the Eed Sea ; after 

G. F. Fenni, called II Fattore. 
Christ with the Apostles ; after Raffaello dal Colle. 
The Man and the Lion ; after BaZdassare Feruzzi. 
The Death of St. Francis Xavier; after Lodovico 

Giniignani. 
The Descent of the Holy Ghost ; after G. B. Zenardi, 
The Annunciation ; after G, Morandi. 
The Virgin appearing to St. Philip Neri; after L. 

Garzi. 
The Virgin on a Throne, surrounded by Saints ; after 

F. Fietri, 

LE SUEUR, PiEKEE, the elder, a French en- 
graver on wood, was born at Kouen in 1636, and 



Vienna. Academy. 

„ Ziecktenstein Gallery. 
„ Czernin Coll. 

,, Count Harrach. 



was a disciple of Du Bellay. Among other prints, 
he executed a woodcut, representing ' Judith,' after 
Van Sichera. He generally used a monogram 

composed of the letters P. L. S., thus, ^^ . He 

died at Rouen in 1716. 
48 



LE SUEUR, Pierre, the younger, the son of 
the elder artist of the same names, was bom at 
Rouen in 1669, and was instructed in drawing 
and engraving on wood by his father. He 
engraved many figures and vignettes, and some 
devout subjects and Biblical prints ; and Papillon 
mentions an emblematical subject by him, called 
' Alpha and Omega,' in which the Christian Religion 
is represented by a naked figure, and Idolati-y 
concealed by a veil. He died in 1750. He usually 
marked his prints with the initials P. L. 8., or a, 
monogram composed of the same. Among his 
other works were cuts for the following books : 

The Fables of ^sop. 1678. 

Ozanam's ' Cours de MathSmatiques.' 1693. 

Erasmus's ' Eloge de la FoUe.' 1745. 

LE SUEUR, Vincent, the brother of Pierre Le 
Sueur the younger, was born at Rouen in 1668. After 
being instructed in the principles of the art by his 
father, he was sent to Paris, where he became a 
pupil of Jean Papillon. He distinguished himself 
as an engraver on wood, and Papillon mentions as 
his best print 'The Soldier's Farewell,' engraved 
in 1702. He executed several cuts in chiaroscuro, 
among which is ' Mercury and Prometheus,' after 
P. Farinato. He marked his prints with the 
initials V. L. 8. 

LE SUISSE, — , is mentioned by Papillon as an 
engraver on wood, who, among other prints, exe- 
cuted a large cut, representing the Turkish army 
arranged in order of battle, at the bottom of which 
is an eulogy in praise of the artist. He is probably 
the same as Christoph Slimmer. 

LETELLIER, Chaelbs Fkanqois, a French 
engraver, was bom in Paris in 1743, and died in 
1800. He was a pupil of Franpois Boucher, and 
engraved several plates, representing conversations, 
&c., after the French and other masters. 

LETELLIER, Jean, a French portrait and his- 
torical painter, was born at Rouen in 1614. He was 
the nephew and pupil of Nicolas Poussin, and owed 
much to his teaching. His heads of the Virgin are 
full of candour and grace. Later in life he adopted 
a more careful finish than his early works display. 
He was the master of Jacques Restout, and for a 
time painter and secretary to the prior of the abbey 
of Moneel, near Vitry, on the Marne. He painted 
the ' Death of St. Alexis ' for the church at Grave- 
lines, and a ' Holy Family ' and the ' Miracles per- 
formed at the Tomb of St. Augustine,' both in the 
church dedicated to that saint at Rouen, are works 
of great' merit. He died in 1676. Many of his 
pictures are at Rouen. 
LETH, Hendmk db. See De Leth. 
LBTHBRIUGB, Walter Stephens, a miniature 
painter, was born at Charlton in Devonshire in 
1771. His father was a fanner, who apprenticed 
him to a house painter, but he afterwards became 
assistant to a travelling artist, and after visiting the 
principal cities in England and Scotland, he settled 
in London. He then became a student of the 
Royal Academy, where he exhibited from 1801 
to 1829. In April 1830 he removed from London 
to Stonehouse, where he died in 1831. In the 
National Portrait Gallery are portraits of Bishop 
Horsley and Dr. John Wolcot (' Peter Pindar'). 

LETHIERE, Gtjillaume Guillon, a French his- 
torical painter, was born of Creole parents at Sainte- 
Anne, in the island of Guadeloupe, in 1760, hut 
came to France wlien young, and received a good 
general education. The knowledge of the classics 



Letterini 



PAINTERS AND ENGRAVERS. 



Le Vasseur 



he thus obtaiued proved valuable to him in the 
phase of French art contemporaneous with the 
Revolution. His art training was obtained in the 
studio of Doyen. Although he only succeeded in 
obtaining the second prize by his version of the 
'Canaaaitish Woman 'in 1784, he was by special 
favour allowed to proceed to Rome to complete his 
studies. After a stay of four years in Italy, he 
returned to Paris, and settled down to the practice 
of his art. His reputation was first made by the 
designs, exhibited in 1795 and 1801, for his 'Vir- 
ginius' and ' Brutus.' The actual pictures were not 
completed by him until many years after. He had 
the good fortune "to find a patron in Lucien Bona- 
parte, whom he accompanied on his embassy to 
Spain. There he remained two years, selecting 
pictures from the Spanish collections to enrich the 
French galleries. Subsequently, he succeeded 
Suv6e as Director of the French School at Rome, 
which office he held for the exceptionally long 
period of ten yeai'S, and his authority was wielded 
to the great advantage of French art. Returning 
to Paris in 1817, he opened a studio, and pupils 
flocked to him so rapidly that their numbers 
rivalled even those in the studio of Gros. In 1818 
he was elected a member of the Institute, and also 
became a professor in the Ecole des Beaux-Arts. 
He died in Paris in 1832. At one period of his 
career, Lethiere's reputation stood so high that he 
was considered the rival of the great David ; but in 
the rapid rise of the Romantic school, his fame, 
like tliat of many other classicists, was quickly 
obscured. Amongst his chief works are : 

.fflneas aud Dido. 1819. 
The Woraau taken in Adultery. 
Louis IX. visiting the Plague- 
stricken at Carthage. 
Death of Virginia. 1828. 
Brutus condemning his Son to 

death. 1812. 
The Magdalen. 
The Peace of Leoben. 1805. 
O.J.D. 

LETTBRINI. See Littebini. 
LEU, De. See De Leeuw. 
LEULLIER, Louis F^ux, a French landscape 
painter, was born in Paris in 1811, and died in 
1882. He was a pupil of Baron Gros, and has left 
a picture of the ' Inundation of the Loire,' which 
is in the Lille Museum. 

LEUPBNIUS, J., (or Ledpen,) was a Dutch 
landscape painter and engraver, by whom there 
are a few slight etchings, retouched with the 
graver. They represent views in Holland, and 
appear to be the works of a painter. He was a 
pupil of Rembrandt, and flourished from about 
1660 to 1677, probably at Utrecht. 
LEUR, NiooLAUs VAN DEE. See Van der Lehe. 
LEUTZE, Emandel, a German historical painter, 
was born at the village of Emingen, near Reut- 
lingen in Wiirtemberg, in 1816. He went when 
a child to Philadelphia, where he was instructed 
by John A. Smith, a portrait painter. In 1841 
he returned to Europe, and pursued his studies at 
Diisseldorf under Lessing ; but as he did not hold 
with the views of that Academy, he established an 
atelier of his own. In 1842 he visited Munich, 
Venice, and Rome, and returned in 1845 to Diissel- 
dorf, where he executed a considerable number of 
paintings. He obtained in 1850 the gold medal at 
Berlin for his ' Washington crossing the Delaware,' 
now in the Kunsthalle at Bremen. After having 
been in America in 1851, and again in 1859, he 

VOL. II. B 



Amiens. 
Angers. 
Bordeaux. 


ill 


Paris. 


Louvre, 


Versailles. 


St. Sock. 
Gallery. 



established himself there in 1863, and died at 
Washington in 1868. The following is a list of 
his chief productions in chronological order : 

Hagar and Ishmael. 

The Indian gazing at the Setting Sun. 

Columbus before the Council of Salamanca. 1841. 
(Jrt Union of Diisseldorf.) 

The third Eeturn of Columbus from America. 

Raleigh taking leave of his "Wife. 

Cromwell at the Death-bed of his Daughter. 

The Lauding of the Norsemen in America. 

John Knox admonishing Mary Stuart. 

Ealeigh spreading his Cloak before Queen Elizabeth. 

English Iconoclasts. 

Torquemada and the Embassy of the Jews. 

The Reception of Columbus at Court. 

Waiihington crossing the Delaware. 1850. (His chef- 
d*osuvre.) 

'Washington at the Battle of Monmouth. 1852-54. 

The Rose 'of the Alhambra. 

Cromwell visiting Milton. 

The last Evening of Charles I. 

Henry VIII. and Anne Boleyn. 1858. 

The Voyagre of the Artist in the Lagunes. 

Frederick the Great before his Mother. 

The Maid of Saragossa. 

Lafayette in Prison. 

Elizabeth in Prison. 

The first Lauding of Columbus in America. 

The first Mass of Mary Stuart in Scotland. 

Cromwell searching the State Papers. 

The Triumph of the Cross. 

Lady Godiva. 

The Advance of Civilization to the "West. (Frf^sco in 
the Capitol at Wa^hinyton.) 

Portraits of President Liucoba, General Grant, 'Washing- 
ton, &c. 

LEUX, Feanz von. See Ldyx von Luxenstein. 

LEVACHEZ, Chaeles FEANgois Gabeiel, was 
a French engraver and publisher, who flourished 
at the close of the 18th century and the commence- 
ment of the 19th, He executed in aquatint the 
portraits of the ' Tableaux historiques de la 
Revolution Pran9aise,' beneath which are memor- 
able scenes by Duplessi-Bertaux. He also engraved 
an equestrian portrait of Napoleon I., after Carle 
Vernet. 

LE VASSEUR, Jean Chaeles, a French line 
engraver, was born at Abbeville in 1734. He was a 
pupil of Daulie and Beauvarlet, and has engraved 
chiefly after the works of the modern French 
painters. He became an academician in 1771, and 
died in Paris in 1816. Among other prints by him 
are the following : 

The Triumph of Venus ; after Boucher. 

The Death of Adonis ; after the same. 

The Continence of Scipio ; after Le Maine. 

Diana and Endyraion; after J. B. van Loo. (His 

reception work for the Academy.) 
Apollo and Daphne ; after Luca Giordano. 
The Triumph of Galatea ; after J. F. de Troy. 
Diana and Actseon ; after the same. 
The Rape of Proserpine ; after the same. 
The Parting of Hector and Andromache ; after Restout. 
Alexander and his Physician ; after the same. 
Tarquin and Lucretia ; after A. Peters. 
The Milk-maid ; after J. B. Greuze. 
Thais, or the Beautiful Penitent ; after the same. 
The Step-Mother ; after the same. 
The 'Widow and the Curate ; after the same. 
The 'Will destroyed ; after the same. 
The Curious Lovers ; after Etienne Auhry. 
Paternal Love ; after the same. 
Leonardo da Vinci expiring in the arms of Francis I. ; 

after Menageot. 
Holy Family ; after E. Mengs. 
Cardinal de Luynes. 

Jean Restout, painter ; after J. B. Uestont. 
The Pleasures of the Satyrs ; after Foelenhorch. 

49 



Levati 



A BIOGRAPHICAL DICTIONARY OF 



Lewis 



LEVATI, Giuseppe, an architectural painter, 
was born at Concorezz.o, near Milan, in 1739. He 
worked first under a decorator, and afterwards 
applied himself to the study of the works of 
Barocci, Palladio, Serlio, and especially the per- 
spectives of Barbaro and Zanotti. In 1802 he 
was elected director of the school of perspective 
at Milan. He also executed architectural subjects 
and landscapes in pencil, pen-and-ink, and water- 
colour. He died in 1828. His chief works are 
decorations in the house of the Marquis Litta at 
Lainate ; in the residence of Count Borromeo, and 
the archducal palace at Milan ; and in the palace 
at Monza. 

LEVEAU, Jean Jacques Ande^, a French 
engraver, was born at Rouen in 1729. He went 
■when young to Paris, whei'e he became a pupil of 
J. P. Le Bas, in whose style he has engraved several 
plates. He died in 1785. Among his works are 
the following : 

Two Yiews iu Flanders, by mooaligM ; after Van der 
JVeer. 

Eomau Shepherds ; after Mtttay. 

View of Montserrat ; after Vernet. 

The Fishermen ; after the same. 

La Cuisine ambulant des Matelots ; after the same. 

The Cascade of Tivoli ; after La Croix. 

View of Pozzuoli ; after the same. 

The Village Blacksmith ; after Berchem. 

A Landscape, with a Shepherd watching his Flock; 
after jRaisdael. 

Abraham sending away Hagar ; after Dietrich. 

The Shepherdess of the Alps ; after Auhry. 

The Dangerous Bncouuter ; after jBaudouin. 

The Judge, or the Broken Pitcher; after Debiicmirt. 

The Curious Lover ; after Loutherhoury . 

The Pet Lamb ; after the same. 

LEVECQ, Jakob, (or Lavecq,) a Dutch portrait 
painter, was born at Dordrecht about 1624. He 
was a pupil of Rembrandt, and a most successful 
imitator of his style, for portraits by him have 
passed as genuine works of Rembrandt. He visited 
France, and afterwards painted in the style of De 
Baan. In 1655 he became a member of the artists' 
guild in his native town, where he died in 1674. 
The Duke of Leinster possesses a ' Portrait of a 
Young Man,' Joy him, dated 1654. 

LBVEILLE, PiEBRU, a French engraver, was a 
native of Orleans, and a pupil of Janinet. His 
best plates are ' Le Charlatan ' and ' Le Bascule,' 
after Borel, engraved in 1785. 

LEVESQUE, PiBREE Chaeles, a French etcher 
and writer, was born in Paris in 1736, and died in 
1812. He is perhaps better known for his share 
in the publication of the ' Dictionnaire des Arts de 
Peinture, Sculpture et Gravure,' 1792, begun by 
M. Watelet, than by his works as an engraver. 
There are, however, several plates by him which 
possess considerable merit. Among them are the 
following : 

POKTEAITS. 

Louis Philippeaux, Duke de<>La Vrilliere ; after Van Loo. 
Michel Frauijois Sedaine ; after J. L. David. 
Jean Causeur, aged 130 years ; after Caffieri. 

SUBJECTS AETER VARIOUS MASTERS. 

The Conquest of Erigone ; after Deshayes. 
Augustus embellishing Rome ; after Saint-AuUn. 
Venus and Cupid ; after Pierre. 1770. 
Cupid sharpening his arrows ; after Gazes. 
Sleeping and 'Waking ; two prints ; after Boucher. 1765. 
The Dutch Toilet ; after Metsu. 
Lot and his Daughters ; after Diepenbeeck. 
Jupiter and Danae ; after De Troy. {Begun iy DaulU, 
and finished by Levesque.) 
50 



LEVIEUX, Renaud, a French painter and etcher, 
was born at Nimes, about 1626, and died after 
1698. He was the son of a goldsmith, and after 
having learned the elements of drawing in his 
native city, he studied in Italy. His only etching, 
is a ' Ploly Familj-.' Among his paintings, besides 
several portraits, are: 

Aix. St. Jean de Malte. St. Bruno. 1665. 

„ Madeleine. The Visitation. 

Nimes. Cathedral. Christ at Emmaus. 

Paris. Louvre. The Arrest of John the Baptist. 

1685. 

LB VILLAIN, GitRAED R^nk, a French line 
engraver, was born in Paris in- 1740, and died 
there in 1812. His best works are ' La Jeunesse 
studieuse ' and ' La Jeunesse laborieuse,' after 
Grimoux, and 'Repentir tardif,' after Lavreince. 
He also engraved plates for the ' Galerie de 
Florence,' ' Galerie du Palais-Royal,' and ' Musee 
Franjais.' 

LEVRAC TOURNIERES, Robert, a French 
historical and portrait painter, was born at Ifs in 
Calvados in 1668. He was a pupil of the Carmelite 
monk Lucas de La Haye, and of Bon de BouUongne. 
In 1702 he was received into the Academy as a 
painter of portraits, upon those of Mosnier and 
Michel Corneille, now in the Bcole des Beaux-Arts 
and at Versailles ; and in 1716 as a painter of 
history, his reception work being ' Dibutade 
drawing by the light of a lamp the Portrait of 
her Lover,' which is now in the Louvre. He died 
at Caen in 1752. 

LEVYN, Ceuyl, (or Livius,) was bom at Ghent 
in 1640. He was an ecclesiastic who visited Rome, 
and there designed antique and modem build- 
ings, and adorned them with figures, many of 
which he etched in a spirited manner. He was 
living in 1684. Among his etchings are views of 
the Pantheon and of St. Peter's. 

LEWIN, William, was an amateur, who in 1789 
published, with plates drawn and engraved by 
himself, seven quarto volumes of the ' Birds of 
Great Britain,' followed in 1795 by the ' Insects of 
Great Britain.' 

LEWIS, Charles, a still-life painter, was bom 
at Gloucester in 1753. In early life he decorated 
japanned tea-trays, and then went on the stage. 
After a visit to Holland in 1781, he practised his 
art, painting birds and fruit, in London and in 
Scotland successively. He died at Edinburgh in 
1795. 

LEWIS, Charles Geoegb, an etcher and en- 
graver in line and mezzotint, was born in 1808 at 
Enfield, Middlesex. He was the son and pupil 
of Frederick Christian Lewis, and a brother of 
John Frederick Lewis, R.A. He died in 1880, at 
Felpham, near Bognor. Many of his better known 
works are after the paintings of Sir Edwin Land- 
seer, and the more important of them are included 
in the following list : 

Hawking in the Olden Time ; after Sir Edioin Landseer. 

The Cat's Paw ; after the same. 

Islay, Macaw, and Love Birds ; aft&r the same. 

Breeze ; after the same. 

Shoeing ; after the same. 

The Otter Hunt ; after the same. 

The Wood-Cutter ; after the same. 

The Peregrine Falcon, and the Hawk ; a pair ; after 

the same. 
Collie Dogs ; after the same. 
The Bandom Shot ; after the same. 
Sleeping Bloodhound ; after the same. 
Hunters at Grass ; after lAe same. 



Lewis 



PAINl'ERS AND ENGRAVERS. 



Iieybold 



The Sanctuary ; after the same. 

A Grand Hart ; after the same. 

The Mothers ; a set of eight etchings ; after the same. 

A Cover Hack ; after the same. 

The ■Waterloo Banquet ; after J. P. Kniyht. 

The Allied Generals before Sebastopol; after T. J. 

Barker. 
The Melton Breakfast ; after Sir Francis Grant. 
Eobinson Crusoe reading the Bible to his man Friday ; 

after A. Fraser. 
Asking a Blessing ; after the same. 
The Village Festival ; after &'ir David Willde. 
The Card-Players ; after the same. 
Interior of a Highland Cottage ; after J. F. Lewis. 
Bay of Spezzia ; after Bonington. 
Sea-Shore ; after the same. 
Sunset ; after the same. 
Picking out the Lambs ; after Ansdell. 
Sheep-Shearing ; after the same. 
Highland Larder ; after F. Tayler. 
Morning in the Highlands ; aftm- Rosa Bonheur. 
The Raid ; after the same. 

LEWIS, Frederick Christian, an English en- 
graver and landscape painter, was born in London 
in 1779. His instruction was derived from Stadler, 
a German engraver, and in the schools of the 
Royal Academy. The first work on which he was 
engaged was Ottley's ' Italian School of Design ' 
(1823), and for some years he engraved in the 
stipple manner many of Lawrence's portraits. But 
he did not neglect original work, for he sketched 
much from nature about Enfield and in Devon- 
shire, exhibiting landscapes at the Watei-Colour 
Society, the British Institution, and the Royal 
Academy. He was engrarer to George IV., 
William IV., and Queen Victoria. He died at 
Enfield in 1866. Amongst his best plates are : 

The Calmady Children ; after Sir Thomas Lawrence. 

Mrs. John Fairlie ; after the same. 

■William IV. ; after the same. . 

Elizabeth, Duchess of Devonshire ; after the same. 

Cardinal Oonsalvi ; after the same. 

The Countess of Blessington ; after Sir Edwin Landseer. 

Cottage Industry ; after the same. 

Queen Victoria ; after Winterhalter. 

Market Gardeners ; after Witherington. 

The Works of Mercy ; eight plates in aquatint ; after 
Flaxm^n. 
As specimens of his work with the brush, mention 
should be made of : 

Three Views of Berry Pomeroy Castle. {Smith Ken- 
sington Museum.) 

Two Views of Oxford. (The same.) 

View on the Tamar. (Oil.) (Wolmm Abbey.) 

Budsleigh. (Oil.) (The same.) 

Amongst the works he illustrated and engraved 
are: 

'Picturesque Scenery of the Dart.' 1821. 

' Scenery of the Kivers Tamar and Tavy.' 1823. 

' The Scenery of the River Exe.' 1827. 

Salviati's ' Mondo rovesciato.' 1822. 

' Scenery on the Devonshire Rivers.' 1841-43. 

' Scenery of the Rivers of England and ■Wales.' 1845-47. 

' Liber Studiorum of Claude Lorrain.' 1840. 

' Imitations of Sir T. Lawrence's Drawings.' 1840. 

LEWIS, George Robert, a portrait, subject, 
and landscape painter, was born in London in 
1782. He studied in the schools of the Royal 
Academy, where he was a pupil of Fuseli. In 
1818 he accompanied Dibdin through France and 
Germany, furnishing the illustrations for the 
'Bibliographical Tour' and the 'Bibliographical 
Decameron.' He exhibited at the Royal Academy 
from 1820 to 1869, and obtained a good practice 
as a portrait painter. He died at Hampstead in 
1871. Several works were published by him, 
illustrated by himself ; amongst them are : 
E 2 



' Muscles of the Human Frame.' 1820. 

' Illustrations of Kilpeck Church.' 1842. 

' Early Fonts of England.' 1843. 

' British Forest Trees.' 

' Description of Shobdon Church.' 1856. 

LEWIS, John Frederick, a painter of Italian, 
Spanish, and Oriental subjects, in oil and water- 
colours, was born in London in 1805. He was the 
eldest son of FrederickChristianLewis,the engraver, 
from whom he received his first instruction in art. 
His earliest efforts were in animal painting, and he 
exhibited at the British Institution from 1820, and 
at the Royal Academy from 1821. Devoting him- 
self chiefly to water-colours, he became an Associate 
of the Old Water-Colour Society in 1827, and a full 
member in 1830. In 1832 he went to Spain, and 
did not return to England until 1834: this visit 
caused a complete change in the current of his 
art. The Carlist War furnished him with many 
subjects, and he also made a large number of 
studies of the works of the great masters, which 
were purchased by the Scottish Academy. In 
1843 he went to Egypt, and remained several years 
in the East. This sojourn turned his attention to 
Oriental subjects, which inspired some of his best 
works. On his return to England in 1851 he 
married, and settled at Walton-on-Thames. In 
1855 he succeeded Copley Fielding as President of 
the Society of Painters in Water-Colours, but did 
not long hold the office. He resumed oil-painting, 
and was elected an Associate of the Royal Academy 
in 1859, and an Academician in 1865. He died at 
Walton-on-Thames in 1876. Amongst his chief 
works are : 

WATER-COLOnE DRAWINGS. 
Monks preaching at Seville. 1835. 
A Bull-Fight at Seville. 1836. 
A Christino Spy. 1837. 
Easter Day at Rome. 1841. 
Interior of a Hareem. 1851. 

Halt in the Desert. 1853. (South Kensington Museum..) 
A Frank Bncaaipment ia the Desert of Mount Sinai. 
1856. 

OIL PAINTINGS. 
The Greeting in the Desert, Egypt. 1856. 
A Kibab Shop, Scutari. 1858. , 
■Waiting for the Ferry-Boat, Upper Egypt. 1859. 
A Bedouin Sheikh. 186i: 

Door of a Caf6 at Cairo. 1866. (Soyal Academy.) 
The Prayer of Faith shall save the Sick. 1872. 

LEWIS, William, an amateur landscape painter, 
and brother of Frederick Christian Lewis, exhibited 
at the Royal Academy from 1815 to 1838. There 
is a ' View of Raby Castle ' by him in the South 
Kensington Museum. 

LEXMOND, Jan van, was born at Dordrecht in 
1769, and was a pupil of A. and J. van Strey. He 
executed some views of towns, though he was 
mostly employed as a teacher. He died at Dor- 
drecht in 1838. 

LEYBOLD, Johann Friedrioh, an engraver and 
miniature painter, was born at Stuttgart in 1755. 
He was instructed in design by the court sculptor 
Bauer, and began to paint at the Karlsschule under 
Guibal in 1772, and to engrave under G. von Miiller 
in 1776. He went to Coburg in 1797, and to 
Vienna in 1798, where he brought himself into 
notice by his miniature paintings. He died at 
Vienna in 1838. His best plates are : 

The Death of Mark Anthony ; after Fiti. 

The Death of Papirius ; after Hetsch. 

Two plates for Lucan's ' Pharsalia ' ; after Wachter. 

Several plates after Fuger's designs for Klopstock's 

* MpRRiah ' 



51 



Leybold 



A BIOGRAPHICAL DICTIONARY OF 



Liano 



LEYBOLD, Kael Jakob Theodor, the son of 
Johann F. Leybold, was born at Stuttgart in 1786, 
and studied under Wiioliter at the Academy at 
Vienna. He was in Rome from 1807 to 1815, 
after which he returned to Vienna, and in 1821 
went to Stuttgart, where he became in 1829 a 
professor in the Academy, and in 1842 Inspector 
of the Gallery. He died at Stuttgart in 1844. He 
distinguished himself as a painter of history and 
portraits. His best works are : 

Heinrich von Cotta. 

Johann Heinrich von Dannecker, the sculptor. 

William, King of "Wiirtemberg, and his Consort,Pauline. 

Sophia, Queen of the Netherlands. 

The Beneficence of Cimon (in oil). 

Charon, from a modern Greek myth. (A design.) 

LEYDBN, Ghekabd van. See Zyl. 
LBYDEN, Lucas van. See Jacobsz. 
LEYENDECKER, Mathias, a French portrait 
painter, was born at Dernau in Rhenish Prussia in 
1822. He studied under Drolling and Winterhalter, 
and died in 1871. ' Quail and Larks ' by him is in 
the Luxembourg Gallery. 

LEYS, Jean Auguste Henei, Baron, a Belgian 
historical and genre painter, was born at Antwerp in 
1814. He studied in the Academy of that city, and 
under his brother-in-law, Ferdinand De Braekeleer. 
His works were first exhibited in 1833 at Brussels, 
and he rapidly acquired a reputation ; the subjects 
which he chose — scenes from the mediaeval history 
and customs of his country— contributing much to 
the popularity of his works. In 1862 he was 
created a Baron. His latter years were much 
occupied in the execution of decorations for the 
Hotel-de-Ville at Antwerp, where he painted a 
S3ries of pictures illustrating the history of the 
city. He died in 1869, and a statue has been 
erected in his honour in the park at Antwerp, 
Alma Tadema was one of his pupils. Amongst 
his works are : 
Amsterdam. Fare &r) Lady in satin and Man read- 

Hoop Mus. j ing. 
Antwerp. Academy. Kubens at a F^te of the Arque- 

busiers. 
Berlin. Gallery. Eeligious Service in Holland, 

17th century. 
„ „ Dutch Society in the 17th cen- 

tury. 
„ „ Diirer painting Erasmus. 

Brussels. Gallery. Studio of Frans Floris. 

„ „ Entry of Charles V. into Ant- 

werp. 
„ „ Mass for Bertall de Haze. 

„ „ Rich and Poor. 

„ „ Ke-opening of Antwerp Cathe- 

dral. 
Frankfort. Stadel Inst. Interior of an Inn Yard. 1842. 
London. South Kensing- 1 ^j^^ knight's Funeral. 

ton Museum. J " 

Munich. JVeio Pinakothek. A Street in a Dutch Village. 

1841. 
"Windsor. Castle. The Armourer. 

LEYSEBETTEN, Pietee van. See Lisebbtten. 

LEYSSENS, NiooLAAS, called Cassenoix, was 
born at Antwerp in 1661, and was a scholar of 
Pieter Ykens. On leaving that master, he went 
to Rome, where he passed some time, and would 
have prolonged his studies in that metropolis of 
art, had he not been under the necessity of return- 
ing to his native city for the purpose of succouring 
an aged parent in his last illness. Leyssens had 
acquired in Italy a correct and tasteful design, and 
was much employed in ornamenting the saloons 
and ceilings of the principal mansions at Antwerp, 
in which he was assisted by Bosohaert, Verbruggen, 

52 



&c. who painted the flowers and other accessories. 
For what reason his surname was given to him is 
not stated ; it will bear the interpi-etation of a nut 
cracker, a magpie, or a blackbird. He died in 1710. 

LEYTO, Andees, a painter of historical subjects 
and interiors, resided at Madrid in 1680. He 
painted, in conjunction with Josef de Sarabia, the 
pictures of the cloister of the convent of San 
Francisco at Segovia ; but his chief excellence lay 
in painting interiors, in which he had few equals 
among the Spanish artists of his time. 

LEYVA, Diego de, was bom about 1580, at 
Haro, in Old Castile. He is supposed to have spent 
his youth at Rome, whence he returned to Spain a 
painter, and settled at Burgos. In 1628 he was 
commissioned by the Chapter of Burgos to paint 
the portraits of certain dignitaries for the chapel 
of St. Catalina in the cathedral, and for the chapel 
of the Virgin he painted a picture of the ' Present- 
ation.' In 1633 he retired to the Chartreuse of 
Miraflores, where in 1634 he took the final vows, 
and devoted himself to the performance of his 
duties, and the production of religious pictures, 
among which were fifteen large compositions on 
the life of St. Bruno, eleven martyrdoms, ten 
pictures of Saints of the Order, a Crucifixion, and 
some pictures of the Virgin. His style was some- 
what weak. He died at Miraflores in 1637. 

LEZIER, Paul, a native of Dordrecht, who 
flourished in the i7th century, and was a contem- 
porary of Cuyp, was the painter of a large picture 
representing the principal citizens of Dordrecht. 

LHERIE, Feedinand, an engraver, was a native 
of Paris, who went to Antwerp about 1831, and 
became a pupil of Baron Wappers, after whom 
alone he engraved. He died insane, as did his 
brother, who was an actor. The following plates 
after Wappers are by bim : 

H61oise and Ab^lard. 

Agn^s Sore! reproaching Charles Til. 

The Defence of Tournai by the Countess of Epernay. 

The Entombment. 

Devotion of the Burgomaster Van der Werff. 

L'HOMME, Jacques, an historical and landscape 
painter, born at Troyes at the commencement 
of the 17th century, was a pupil of Vouet at 
Rome. He painted a ' St. Catharine ' and a ' Lady 
playing the. Lute ' ; the latter he also etched. 

L'HORFELIN, Antonio, a Spanish painter, was 
born at Saragossa in 1687. He was the son of an 
obscure artist, named Pedro L'Horfelin, who sent 
him to Rome for improvement when he was very 
young, and he there studied the works of Michel- 
angelo and Raphael. His principal work is a 
picture of ' St. Joseph,' with two laterals, in the 
church of the Bare-footed Augustines at Saragossa. 
He die(i in 1660. 

LI A NO, Felipe de, a Spanish portrait painter 
and etcher, was born at Madrid in 1556, and 
was a scholar of Alonso Sanchez CoeUo. He 
is supposed to have resided in Italy, where he 
executed the plates signed Teodor. FUippo da 
Liagno. He particularly excelled in painting 
portraits of a small size, which he executed with 
such fidelity of resemblance and beauty of colour- 
ing that he acquired the title of 'El Titiano 
Pequeno,' or simply ' Bl Pequeno.' He died at 
Madrid in 1625. His most esteemed portrait is 
that of Don Alvaro de Bazan, Marquis of Santa 
Cruz, which was painted for the Emperor Rudolph 
in 1584. His best etchings are 'St. John the 
Baptist in the Wilderness,' a set of twelve plates 



Iiiano 



PAINTERS AND ENGRAVERS. 



Liberi 



of Soldiers and Moors, 'The Nymph surprised,' 
'The Nymph and the Satyr,' and fifteen plates of 
the skeletons of animals. He signed his works 
F. ; Felippo Lia, f. ; and as above. 

LIANO d'ANGELI, Filippo de. See Angeli. 

LIART, Matthew, was born in London, of 
French descent, in 17.36, and studied under Ravenet, 
as well as with the Society of Artists, and in the 
schools of the Royal Academy, in the latter of 
which he gained the silver medal. He was em- 
ployed in engraving some plates for Boydell's 
collection._ He died about 1782. Among others, 
the following prints are by him : 

The Sacrifice of Noah; after Andrea Sacchi. 

The Convention between Jacob and Laban ; after Fietro 

da Cortona. 
The Jovial Companions ; after Ostade. 
Venus lamenting the Death of Adonis ; after West. 
Oephalus and Procris ; after the same. 

LIBERAL, Geoeg, was a German painter and 
wood engraver, probably of Meissen, who flourished 
about 1660, and in conjunction with Wolfgang 
Miererpeck executed the large cuts of the animals 
and plants for Mattioli's ' Commentaries on Diosco- 
rides,' published at Venice in 1565. 

LIBERALE, who is described as the son of 
'Magistri Jaoobi a Blado de S. Joanne in Valle,' 
and who was commonly called ' Liberale de 
Jacomo da Verona,' in that city's account-books, 
was bom there in 1451, and brought up as a 
miniaturist. He was a disciple of Vincenzo di 
Stefano, and his first works were performed at the 
chapel of the Monte della Pietk in the church of 
San Bernardino, where he painted a ' Deposition 
from the Cross.' In the church of Sant' Anastasia 
is a picture of the ' Dead Christ.' He left Verona 
when he was eighteen, and worked for the Bene- 
dictines of Mont' Oliveto, near Siena, painting in 
miniature and illuminating books, and was after- 
wards employed in the cathedral of that city. 
His miniatures are considered masterpieces of art, 
and his paintings, after the style of Bellini, only 
too clearly show the effect of his early training. 
In the cathedral of Verona is an ' Adoration of. 
the Magi' by him; and in the arohiepiscopal 
palace is a predella containing ' The Nativity,' ' The 
Epiphany,' and ' The Death of the Virgin,' painted 
by Liberale between the years 1480 and 1490. In 
the Casa Scotti, Milan, is a ' Madonna' by him that 
was formerly assigned to Andrea Mantegna. The 
churches of San Fermo, Santa Maria del Paradiso, 
and the chapel of Comune alia Vittoria, Verona, 
all possess panels with saints by this artist. In 
the Brera, Milan, is a ' St. Sebastian,' of which the 
Berlin Gallery possesses the replica ; the last- 
named gallery also possesses a 'Virgin and Child 
enthroned, between SS. Lawrence and Christopher, 
dated 1489. The Gallery of Verona has a ' Holy 
Family ' and an ' Adoration of the Shepherds ' by 
this master. He was an umpire in the Municipal 
Council of Verona in 1493. He died in 1536, and 
was buried in San Giovanni in Valle, a suburb of 
Verona. The following are some of his chief works : 

Assiei. Frescoes and Altar-pieces. 

Berlin. Gallery. St. Sebastian. {A replica of the 

picture in the Brera Gallery.) 

Bologna, Gallery. The Annunciation ; Virgin, 

Child, and Saints ; painted 
on the two fronts. 1482. 

Foligno. Museum. Frescoes and numerous Altar- 

pieces. 

Milan. Brera. St. Sebastian. I 



Paris. 



Zomre. Predella in three compartments, 
comprising — Christ in the 
Garden ; the Flagellation ; 
the Way to Calvary ; the 
Crucifixion ; Nicodemus and 
Joseph of Arimathea; Two 
Angels, holding a cartel with 
the names of the Donatrix 
and the Artist. 
Perugia. Gallery. The Annunciation. 

1, ,, Frescoes and Altar-pieces. 

Borne. Vatican, Coronation of the Virgin. 

„ Spada Falace. The Virgin rescuing an Infant. 

LIBERALE, Gennesio, (or Gensio,) a painter 
of the Venetian school, was born at Udine, and 
flourished in the second half of the 16th century. 
He was a pupil of Pellegrino da San Danielle, and 
painted animals and fish. 

LIBERATORE, Niocol6 di, called in error 
by Vasari, Niccol6 Alunno, was a native of 
Foligno, and was born about the year 1430. His 
earliest work still ^tant, dated 1458, is in tlie 
Franciscan church of La Diruta, near Perugia, 
He signed his pictures Nicolaus Fulginates. A 
'Madonna enthroned,' painted in 1465, is in the 
Brera, Milan. There is an altar-piece representing 
the 'Annunciation,' dated 1466, in Santa Maria 
Nuova at Perugia. There are also altar-pieces 
by him in the Castle of San Severino and in San 
Francesco at Gualdo. A 'Pieta,' of which frag- 
ments only remain, in the cathedral of Assisi, 
was one of his best works. Vasari says of two 
angels represented as weeping in this ' Pieta,' that 
their emotion was so naturally expressed that no 
painter in Italy at that time could have painted 
them better. In 1499 he painted the altar-piece 
of Sant' Angelo, in La Bastia, near Perugia. Over 
a side-altar in the church of San Nicoolo at Foligno- 
is a picture of ' St. Nicholas and the Infant Christ,' 
painted in 1492. It was one of the many paintings 
which were sent to Paris, and when it went back 
it was without its predella, which is still in the 
Louvre. An ' Ecce Homo ' in the National Gallery 
is given in the catalogue to Niccolo ; but Mr. J. A. 
Crowe thinks it is probably by Matteo da Siena. 
Niccolo died, a rich man, in 1502 ; and was buried 
in Sant' Agostino, in his native town. He exe- 
cuted his pictures in tempera, and excelled espe- 
cially in rendering the expression of the face ; he 
also painted standards, called 'Gonfaloni,' which 
were used in religious ceremonies ; there is still a 
gonf alone by him in Santa Maria Nuova at Perugia, 
which bears the following inscription : " Societas 
Annunciata fecit fieri hoc opus 1466." He is 
supposed by Mariotti to have been the master of 
Pietro Perugino, Pinturicchio, and Andrea di Luigi. 
A very interesting memoir concerning this painter 
has been written by Professor Adamo Rossi, of 
Perugia, and printed in the ' Giomale d'Erudizione 
Artistica ' for 1872. 

LIBERI, Marco, the son of Pietro Liberi, was 
born at Padua about the year 1640, and was edu- 
cated under his father, whose style he imitated 
with little claim to originality. He copied his 
father's works almost to illusion, and painted easel 
pictures of fabulous subjects, some of which are in 
the Palazzo Ercolani, at Bologna. He died after 
1687. In the Dresden Gallery is ' Venus caressing 
Cupid,' and 'Venus and Cupid smelling a Flower.' 
LIBERI, Pietro, called Libeetino, was born at 
Padua in 1605. He was a scholar of Alessandro 
Varotari, and is considered one of the ablest de- 
signers of the Venetian school. His studies at 

53 



Libour 



A BIOGRAPHICAL DICTIONARY OP 



Licinio 



Rome, after Raphael and Miohelangelo, at Parma, 
after Correggio and Parmigiano, as well as after tlie 
most distinguished of the Venetian painters, led 
him to a style which may be said to partake of 
every school. Few artists have discovered a greater 
variety of character in their works than Pietro 
Liberi. He was used to say, that when employed 
for the intelligent, his pencil was frank and expe- 
ditious, without the appearance of labour or finish;' 
but when working for the less experienced, his 
pictures were painted with the utmost minuteness, 
in which every object, even to each hair, was pre- 
cisely attended to. In his works for the churches 
he exhibits a grandeur which is not to be found in 
his other productions. Such are the 'Murder of 
■the Innocents,' at Venice ; ' Noah leaving the Ark,' 
and the ' Destruction of Pharoah' s Host,' at Vioenza; 
and the 'Deluge,' and 'Moses striking the Rock,' 
at Bergamo. He was more employed in subjects 
of the fable, which he treated with elegance and 
grace, in the style of Titian j'but sometimes with 
a freedom which procured him the title of ' Liber- 
tino.' He died at Venice in 1687. He signed his 
works P.L., or with a monogram. His chief 
works are as follow : 



Bergamo. 
Dresdeu. 



8. Maria 

Ma(jgiore. 

Gallery. 



Petersburg. Hermitage. 

» » 

Venice, Palace. 

„ Academy. 

„ San Fietro. 

„ S. Maria delta 

Salute, 
„ San Ste/ano. 

„ Madonna del 

Carmine. 
„ San Moise. 

„ SS. Giovanni e 

Paolo. 
„ San Giovanni 

Evangelista. 
Vicenza. Cathedral, 



\ Marriage of St. Catharine. 

Judgment of Pans. 

Youth under the Shield of 

■Wisdom. 
Diana and Callisto. 
The Graces and the Loves. 
Battle of the Dardanelles. 
An Allegory. 
The Plague of Serpents. 

J Venice imploring St. Anthony. 

The Trinity. 
I St. Theresa. 

The Invention of the Cross. 
> Christ on the Cross. 






St. John writmg the Apoca- 
lypse. 
Sacrifice of Noah. 



LIBOUR, EsPKiT AimS, an historical and portrait 
painter, was born at Laval in 1785. He went 
to Paris and became a pupil of David, Regnault, 
and Gros. In 1805 he received a first prize for 
his ' Arab dying in the Wilderness.' Among his 
other works were ' The Death of Abel,' ' Cephalus 
and Procris,' and ' Venus in the Water. ' 

LIBRI, Dai. See Dai Libei. 

LICALDE, Juan de, was a scholar of Pedro de 
Las Cuevas, who displayed considerable ability, 
but died young. One of his drawings, ' A Crowned 
Lion upholding a Shield of the Arms of Spain and 
Portugal,' neatly executed with the pen, was seen 
by Cean Bermudez in the collection of Don Pedro 
Gonzalez de Sepulveda. It bore the signature 
Juan de lAcalde en el amor de Bios li 10 Novem- 
hre de 1628, which places his death after that year. 
He made a clever pen-and-ink portrait of the Duke 
of Olivarez, Philip IV.'s minister. 

LIOHERIE, Louis, was born at Houdan (Seine- 
et-Oise) in 1629, and was instructed by the elder 
Louis de Boullongne, He was employed by Le 
Brun from 1666 to 1670 as a teacher at the 
Gobelins, and in 1679 became a member of the 
Academy, presenting ' David and Abigail ' (now 
in the Louvre) as his reception picture. Other 
paintings by him are in the churches of the Invalides 
and St. Germain I'Auxerrois at Paris. He died in 
Paris in 1687. 

64 



LICHT, Ferdinand, a German painter, was bom 
in 1750 at Troppau in Silesia. He was instructed 
by Joseph Burkart,and painted portraits as well 
as altar-pieces, of which there are two in the church 
of Obrowitz. He died at Briinn, but in what year 
is not recorded. 

LICHTBNREITER, Feanz, was bom at Passau 
in 1700. He went to Italy and studied at Venice 
under Vincentini. After some years he returned 
to Germany and settled in Prague, painting por- 
traits and historical pieces. He died in 1775. 

LICHTENSTECHER, Geoeg, a German en- 
graver, was born at Nuremberg in 1700. He 
executed several portraits and anatomical engrav- 
ings. He died about 1780. Among his works 
are : 

Cattarina Comaro, Queen of Cyprus ; after Titian. 

Portrait of H. von Behaim. 

Portrait of the Artist ; after C. B. Miiller. 

LICINIO, Bernardino, was a distant relation of 
Pordenone, who flourished in the 16th century. He 
received his early education in Friuli, and after- 
wards resided in Venice. Of his birth and death 
nothing certain is known. His pictures have been 
frequently confounded with those of Pordenone, 
and chiefly consist of portraits and family groups, 
the earliest known being dated 1624, and the latest 
1541. His finest religious composition is the altar- 
piece of the Frari at Venice, representing the 
' Virgin and Child enthroned between Saints.' The 
following are his principal paintings : 

Alnwick. Castle. The Artist and his Pupil. 

Brescia. Cathedral. Holy Family. (Attributed to 

Giorgione.) 
Florence. Vffi^i. Virgin and Child, with St. 

Francis. 

Holy Family. {Attributed to 
Polidoro da Caravaggio.) 

A Family Group of Ten Per- 
sons. 1524. 

ladies playing the Spinet. 

Venus and Cupid..* {Attributed 
to Giorgione.) 

A Man's Portrait. 1528. 

Virgin and Child, with St. 
John and St. Jerome. 

Adoration of the Magi. 

Portraits of a Family. 

A Family Portrait. 1524. 

Herodias. {Attributed to Gior- 
gione.) 

The Virgin and Child, with 
Saints. {His best work.) 

Ottavio Grimani. 1541. 



Genoa. Balhi-Piovera \ 
Palace. j 
Hampton Court. Palace. 



Hanover. Hausmann \ 
Collection. J 
London. Mr. Perkins. 
„ Sir Ivor Guest. 

Petersburg. Hermitage. 

» )» 

Borne. Borghese Palace. 
„ Sciarra Palace. 

Venice. _;;^ Frari. 

Vienna. Gallery. 

"LICINIO, Giovanni Antonio, (or CnTicBLLO,) 
called Pordenone, from the name of his native 
town, twenty-eight miles from TJdine, was born in 
1483. He assumed various surnames, and was 
called at one time ' Licinio,' at another time 
'Regillo,' but more often 'Pordenone,' and with 
this name he signed many of his works. His father 
was a builder or architect living in Pordenone, 
named Angelo di Bartolommeo de Lodesanis, and 
also ' de Corticellis,' from the name of his father's 
birthplace, as well as ' Sacchiensis,' or ' de Sacchis.' 
Pordenone received a liberal education, and is said 
to have been a pupil of Pellegrino da San Danielle 
at Udine. Ridolfi relates that Giovanni's first 
commission was given to him by a shopkeeper of 
Pordenone, and that its subject was a 'Madonna,' 
which the artist began and finished in the time 
that his patron heard mass. Vasari states that 
Pordenone was driven for some years from his 
home by an epidemic, and that he employed this 



Licinio 



PAINTERS AND ENGRAVERS. 



Liefriuck 



tiitie in decorating' the surrounding village churohea. 
In the church of Vacile, fifteen miles from Porde- 
none, are a series of mural designs which may be 
his workmanship ; at CoLitto, near to Conegliano, 
there is a chapel dedicated to San Salvatore, which 
is decorated with frescoes representing the ' An- 
nunciation, 'the ' Epiphany,' the ' Plight into Egypt,' 
the 'Meeting of Jesus and Martha,' the 'Raising 
of Lazarus,' the 'Last Judgment,' the Evangelists, 
Prophets, and Angels, painted by him in the early 
part of the 16th century. Of this period in his 
life is the ' Madonna and Saints ' of the church of 
Susigana. In 1513 he again returned to Pordenone 
and married his second wife, Elisabetta Quagliata. 
In 1514 he painted ' The Glory of St. Anthony, 
with attendant Saints,' in Sant' Antonio of Cone- 
gliano ; and also adorned with frescoes the church 
of Sant' Odorico of Villanuova. In 1515 he pro- 
duced the ' Virgin of Mercy, with SS. Joseph and 
Christopher,' in the Cathedral of Pordenone. In 
1516 he contracted to paint the frescoes which 
formerly adorned the church of Rorai Grande. 
He next went to Travesio, where he painted a ' St. 
Christopher ' on the f aqade of the church, and thence 
to Udine, where he completed a ' Virgin and Child ' 
on the Loggia of the Town Hall. In 1519-20 
Pordenone executed the frescoes in the Malchiostro 
chapel in San Niccol6 of Treviso, for which Titian 
painted the altar-piece. The frescoes represent 
the ' Eternal in Benediction,' the ' Epiphany,' the 
' Visitation,' and figures of St. Liherale and other 
Saints, Doctors of the Church, and Angels. In 
1520 he went to Mantua, where he covered the 
fagade of the Ceresara palace with rriythological 
subjects ; from thence he journeyed to Cremona, 
where the authorities of the cathedral contracted 
with him to paint the frescoes of ' Pilate delivering 
up Christ,' the ' Procession to Calvary,' the ' Pre- 
paration for the Crucifixion,' and the ' Crucifixion.' 
During a second visit paid to Cremona in 1522 he 
finished that series by the ' Deposition,' and also 
executed the altar-piece in the Schizzi Chapel in 
the Cathedral, representing the ' Virgin and Child, 
between SS. Paul and Dominick.' In 1624 he went 
to Spilimbergo, and executed a series of distempers 
for the organ of the church of Santa Maria, repre- 
senting the ' Assumption,' the ' Pall of Simon 
Magus,' and the ' Conversion of St. Paul ' ; he 
also painted five panels for the well of the same 
organ, and an altar-piece for the church that is 
now lost. From 1625 to 1527 he completed a 
great quantity of pictures and frescoes for the 
churches of 'Travesio, and in the adjoining towns 
and villages of Galeriano, Blessano, Casarsa, Udine, 
and Valvasons. The frescoes in the cathedral "of 
Travesio cover the entire octagon of the choir, and 
include seven scenes from the life of St. Peter, 
seven subjects drawn from Old Testament history, 
the ' Conversion and Martyrdom of St. Paul,' the 
' Epiphany,' the ' Last Supper,' the ' Entombment,' 
and 'Christ in Glory.' In 1528 Pordenone went 
to Venice, where he decorated the tribune of 
the church of San Rocco with frescoes which have 
now disappeared, and also designed two colossal 
panels of SS. Christopher and Martin, which are 
still remaining. In 1629 he was again in Porde- 
none, and from there went to Piacenza, where he 
decorated two chapels in the church of the Madonna 
di Campagna with frescoes drawn fi-om the lives 
of the Virgin and St. Catharine. His next journey 
was to Genoa, where he went by invitation of 
Andrea Doria, and embellished his palace with 



allegorical designs which are now lost. About 
1534-5 were finished the altar-pieces of the 'Trinity ' 
for the cathedral of San Daniele, and the ' Glory 
of St. Mark ' for the cathedral of Pordenone. In 
1535 Pordenone received the patent of knighthood 
from King John of Hungary, and thenceforward 
took the name of ' Regillo.' Soon afterwards he 
settled at Venice, where he decorated the house of 
Martino d'Anna, the palaces of the Moeenigos 
and the Morosinis, the brotherhood of San Francesco 
de' Frari, and the cloisters of San Stefano with 
frescoes, which gained for him such renown that 
he received from the Council of Ten the order to 
finish the decorations and ceiling of the Sala del 
Scrutinio, which he completed by 1538. His work 
here was so much approved that in 1537 the 
Council deprived Titian of his patent in the Pon- 
daco de' Tedeschi, and ordered of Regillo in 1538 
a picture for the Sala del Senate. All these last- 
named works have perished. In that same year 
he left Venice to pay a visit to Ercole, second 
Duke of Perrara, for whom he had already designed 
subjects drawn from the Odyssey, for embroidery 
in arras. He' arrived there in the month of Decem- 
ber, and before he had been there many days, was 
taken sick (some accounts state he was poisoned), 
and died at the Angel Inn, Perrara, in his 66th 
year, in January 1639, and was buried in the church 
of San Paolo in that city. Authentic pictures by 
this artist are very scarce, many of those under his 
name in public and private collections being by 
his pupils and imitators. Some authentic examples 
may be found in the different collections in Venice. 
Especially worthy of mention are the following : 

Edinburgh. Nat. GdUery. Christ on the Mount of Olives. 
Florence. Uffizi. Portrait of the Artist. 

„ „ A Portrait. 

„ „ The Conversion of St. Paul. 

London. Nat. Gallery. An Apostle. 

„ Earl of North- \ Portrait of a Man, half-length, 
brook. ) life-size. 
Petersburg. Hermitage, An Old Man and a Girl. 
Kome. Doria Palace. The Daughter of Herodias with 

her Maid. 
Venice. ^rafJemy. The Glory of St. Lorenzo 

Ginstiniani. 
„ „ The Virgin of Mercy, with B. 

Simon Stock, and B. Angelo. 

LICINIO, Giovanni Antonio, the younger, called 
II SACcpiENSB, was a brother of Giulio Licinio, and 
a nephew and pupil of Pordenone. He was born 
about 1515, and died at Como about 1576. 

LICINIO, GlULio, of Pordenone, is said to have 
been the nephew of Pordenone, and to have been 
at Rome during some period in his life. Records 
remain to prove that he was in Augsburg as late 
as 1561, and he is thought to have died there. 
In the Philippinewelser Strasse, Augsburg, can be 
seen the remains of frescoes, representing ' Pluto, 
Venus, and Janus,' that are assigned to him. 

LIEBE, Christian Gottlieb August, was an 
engraver of Leipsic, who worked under Oeser, and 
died about 1810. Among his plates are : 

The Holy Family ; after Gmdo Meni. 
An Assembly of Monks ; after the same. 
Juno and Argus ; after Jordaens. 
The Tavern ; after Annibale Carracci. 
Portrait of Zollikof er ; after Sause. 

LIEFRINCK, C, who flourished at Amsterdam 
about 1620-40, was a painter and designer. There 
are two etchings by him, a very rich frieze, repre- 
senting an ' Expedition of Soldiers and Baggage- 
waggons,' and a battle piece. 

56 



Liemaker 



A BIOGRAPHICAL DICTIONARY OF 



Lignon 



LIEMAKER, Nicolaes de. See De Liemaker. 

LIBNARD, Edouard, a French historical and 
portrait painter, was born in Paris in 1779. He 
was the son of Jean Baptiste Li^nard, and was 
originally intended for an engraver, but preferring 
painting, he studied under Regnault and afterwards 
under Isabey. Settling at Lille, he became in 1823 
a professor in the Academy there. He painted a 
great number of portraits in the style of David, 
and also miniatures. He died at Lille in 1848. 
The Museum at Rheims has by him 'The Oath 
of Allegiance of the Inhabitants of Rheims,' and 
that at Lille has some of his portraits. 

LIBNARD, Jean Baptists, a French engraver, 
was born at Lisle about the year 1760. He was a 
pupil of Jacques Philippe Le Bas, and has engraved, 
in a neat style, several views and landscapes. He 
executed some of the plates for the 'Voyage 
pittoresque du Royaume de Naples et de Sicile,' 
by the Abb^ de St. Non, and the 'Voyage pittor- 
esque de la Suisse.' He died after 1807. The 
following engravings also are by him : 

The Pleasures of Summer ; after J. B. Le Prince. 
Views of the principal Monuments of Borne; after 

S. Molert. 
Three plates in the first edition of Beaumarchais's 

' La FoUe Journfe, ou le Mariage de Figaro,' Paris, 

1785. ' 

LIBNDER, Paulus van, a Dutch engraver, bom 
at Utrecht in 1731, was a brother of Pieter van 
Liender. His uncle Jakob sent him to Amsterdam 
to learn drawing, and he afterwards painted flowers, 
landscapes, and views. He also executed some 
etchings. He died at Utrecht in 1797. 

LIENDER, PlETEB van, a Dutch landscape 
painter, was born at Utrecht in 1727. Many of 
his subjects are views of cities, and scenes on the 
borders of the Rhine. He died at Utrecht in 1779. 

LIENDO, Diego Vipal db. See, Vidal de Liendo. 

LIER, Adolf, a German landscape painter, was 
born in 1827, and died at Brixen in 1882. 'There 
is by him in the New Pinakothek at Munich a 
view of ' The Theresien Wiese at Munich, with the 
colossal Bavaria.' 

LIERNUR, Alexander, a Dutch draughtsman 
and engraver, was born at the Hague ,in 1770. 
Having had the misfortune at an early age to lose 
his parents, he was adopted by the Stadtholder, 
William V., who placed him in the Home of the 
Lutheran Orphans. Showing a disposition for art, 
he was sent to the Academy, where he gained the 
gold medal. In 1794 he went to Rome, but 
owing to political affairs in Holland being so 
disturbed, he was obliged to return the following 
year. He was very successful with his drawings, 
as well as with the graver. He died at Amsterdam 
in 1815. 

LIERRE, JoosT VAN, was bom at Brussels in 
1530. He was a painter of landscapes and figures, 
but resigned art to hecome a minister of the re- 
formed religion at Zwyndrecht near Antwerp. 
He died in 1583. 

LIES, Joseph, a Flemish genre and historical 
painter, was born at Antwerp in 1822. He studied 
under N. De Keyser and Leys, and received a gold 
medal at Brussels in 1853. He died in 1865. 
Amongst his pictures are : 

Baldwin, Count of Flanders, punishing Robbers. {Brus- 
sels Gallery.) 
Rapine, Plunder, and Conflagration. (The same.) 
The Prisoner. {Antwerp Gallery.) 
The Approach of the Enemy. {The same.) 
66 



A Military Envoy returning from an Expedition. 

The Promenade. 

The Pleasures of Winter. 

LIBSBORN, Master of, is known by an ex- 
cellent altar-piece, which was formerly in the 
second church of the convent at Liesbom, near 
Mlinster, and consecrated in 1465. It was 
sold in 1807, and the new proprietor made 
several pieces of it. Some of them are in the 
possession of Dr. Haindorf at Miinster, and others 
are now in the National Gallery in London. A 
copy of the whole by one of the artist's pupils 
was in the Protestant Church at Liinen, but it 
is now destroyed ; it represented, in the middle, 
' Christ on the Cross, surrounded by St. John, St. 
Soholastica, and St. Benedict, the Virgin Mary, St. 
Cosmas, and St. Damian ' ; and on the sides eight 
scenes in the Life of Christ, — the 'Annuncia- 
tion,' ' Nativity,' ' Adoration of the Magi,' ' Pre- 
sentation,' 'Resurrection,' 'Ascension,' 'Descent 
of the Holy Ghost,' and ' Last Judgment.' The 
whole is a mixture of the school of the Van Eycks 
and that of Cologne. The Master of Liesbom 
had several pupils, whose works are still partly 
preserved. 

LIBVENDAL, Isaac, was a Spanish engraver, 
who resided at Granada in the reign of Philip IV. 
(1621-1666). 

LIEVENS, Jan. See Livensz. 

LIGARIO, Cesare, a painter, bom at Milan in 
1716, was a sou of Giovanni Pietro Ligario. He 
studied at Venice under Pittoni, and afterwards 
with his father. He was living in 1766. 

LIGARIO, Giovanni Pietro, was bom at 
Sondrio, in the Valtelline, in 1686, and having 
learned the first rudiments of art in his native 
country, went to Italy, and resided some years at 
Rome, where he improved his design by frequenting 
the school of Lazzaro Baldi, and afterwards visited 
Venice, where he studied the works of the most 
eminent masters of that school of colouring. On 
his return to his native town in 1727, he was 
employed in painting some historical pictures for 
the churches and private collections. He died at 
Sondrio in 1748. He has left a ' St. Benedict ' in 
the church of the nunnery at Sondrio, and a 
' Descent of the Holy Ghost ' in the church at 
Morbegno. In the Brera at Milan are portraits 
of the painter's father and the Abbot Mottalini. 
He also engraved a ' Virgin ' and ' 'The Martyrdom 
of St. Peter.' 

LIGHTBODY, John, an English engraver, has 
left a few small etchings of Beggars. 

LIGHTFOOT, William, was an English painter 
and engraver. He excelled in painting landscapes 
and perspective views, and was employed by 
Wren in the decoration of the Royal Exchange. 
In the ' Sculptura,' by Evelyn, he is mentioned as 
an engraver, in the following terms : " Lightfoot 
hath, a very curious graver, and special talent for 
the neatness of his stroke, little inferior to Wierix ; 
and has published two or three Madonnas, with 
much applause. He died about 1671." 

LIGLI, Ventura, was a painter of the Neapolitan 
school, who lived in the second part of the 17th 
and the commencement of the 18th centuries. 
He was a pupil of Giordano, and went to Spain, 
where he was called 'Linos.' In 1682 he was 
living at Madrid, where there is a picture of the 
' Battle of Almansa ' painted by him. 

LIGNON, ^TiENNE FRiDiSRio, a French line en- 
graver, was born in Paris in 1779, and died there 



Ligny 



PAINTERS AND ENGRAVERS. 



Limosin 



in 1833. He studied under Morel, and among his 
best plates are : 

Ecce Homo ; after Gvido Bern. 

The Eape of Deianeira ; after the same. 

The Virgin with the Fish ; after Raphael. 

Leo X. ; after the same. 

Nicolas Poussin ; after himself. 

The Duchess of Angoul^me ; after Augustin. 

Louis Philippe ; after L. Dupre. 

Charles X.; after Gerard. 

Mile. Mars ; after the same, 

Alexander I., Emperor of Eussia ; after Vigneron. 

Camoens ; after the same. 

Francois Joseph Talma ; after Picat. 

Psyche and Cupid ; after the same. 

The Duke de Richelieu ; after Sir Thomas Lawrence. 

LIGNY, FEANgoiS db, a French engraver, 
executed two landscapes after Gaspard Poussin. 

LIGORIO, PiRRO, an architect, engineer, sculptor, 
and antiquary, who also executed some paint- 
ings, was bom at Naples in 1493. He went early 
in life to Rome, where he studied under Giulio 
Romano. He was employed in an architectural 
capacity by Paul IV. and Alphonso II. ; but he 
produced some fresco works at Rome, of which 
the principal is the ' Feast of Herod,' in the oratory 
of the Compagnia della Misericordia. He also 
painted several friezes and ornaments in the public 
edifices. He died at Ferrara in 1580. 

LIGOZZI, Bartolommeo, a nephew of Jacopo 
Ligozzi, was bom at Verona, and flourished at 
Florence about 1620. He painted flowers and 
genre subjects, and died at the age of 75. 

LIGOZZI, Giovanni Ermanno, a native of Verona, 
flourished about 1570. By some he is supposed to 
have been a son of Jacopo Ligozzi. In the Church 
of the Apostles at Verona is a picture by him 
entitled ' The Name of Jesus,' dated 1573, and a 
fresco over the principal door of the church of SS. 
Nazzaro e Celso. 

LIGOZZI, Jacopo, was born at Verona about 
1543, and was a disciple of Paolo Veronese. 
His principal residence was at Florence, where 
he was made painter to the Grand-Duke Ferdi- 
nand II., and superintendent of the Ducal Gallery, 
a distinction honourable to his talents, as it 
was conferred on him in preference to the many 
able Florentine painters of the time. He died 
after 1632. He has left some admired fresco 
paintings in the cloister of the Ognissanti. There 
are several of his oil pictures in the churches at 
Florence. In Santa Maria Novella is a grand 
picture of ' St. Raymond resuscitating a Child ' ; 
but his most celebrated work is his ' Martyrdom of 
St. Dorothea,' at the Conventuali at Pescia. He was 
very successful with easel pictures of a small size. 
He signed his works Jacob Ligot. pinxit. Some 
of them have been engraved by Agostino Carracci, 
and other artists. Andrea Andreani executed 
several woodcuts after him, and it is said that he 
engraved some prints,' both on copper and on wood, 
from his own designs. The name of Fkancbsco 
Ligozzi is found on a painting in San Luca ; and 
that of Paolo Ligozzi (died 1630) on one in Sant' 
Eufemia. 

LILIENBERGH, Cornelis, (or Lelienbergh,)^ 
painter of dead game and subjects of the chase, in 
the manner of Weeninx, was born at the Hague 
about 1600. His works are distinguished for cor- 
rectness of drawing, good colouring, and truth to 
nature. He died at the Hague after 1663. Several 
of his paintings are in the galleries of Berlin, 
Dresden, Christiania, Count Czernin at Vienna, and 
Castle Howard. 



LILIO, Andrea, called Andrea d'Ancona nella 
Marca, was born at Ancona (?) in 1555. He went 
to Rome, where he was employed by Pope 
Sixtus V. in the decoration of the Hbrary of the 
Vatican, and in the palace of St. John Lateran, 
where he painted in fresco on the Soala Santa 
' Moses striking the Rock,' a grand composition of 
many figures, and ' Moses with the Brazen Serpent.' 
In a chapel of the Chiesa Nuova, he painted 
'The Archangel Michael driving the Evil Spirits 
from Heaven ' ; and in Santa Maria Maggiore a fine 
fresco of ' Christ washing the Feet of His Disciples.' 
After the death of his protector he continued to orna- 
ment several of the churches and convents of Rome 
in the time of Pope Clement VIII. He also painted 
allegorical subjects, some of which have been 
engraved. At Ancona, in the church of San Stef ano, 
is a picture of the ' Stoning of St. Stephen.' He 
died at Ascoli in 1610. 

LILLY, E., an English portrait painter and 
engraver, practised at the end of the 17th and 
the beginning of the 18th centuries. There is 
a portrait of Queen Anne by him at Blenheim 
Palace. 

LILLY, Henry, an English illaminator and 
draughtsman, flourished in the early part of the 
17th century, and held the office of Rouge-Croix 
pursuivant at arms. There is a genealogy of the 
Howard family by him containing portraits, &o. 
He died in 1638. 

LIMBORCHT, Hendrik van, was born at the 
Hague in 1680, and studied under H. Brandon, 
Robert Du Val, and Adriaan van der Werffi, whom 
he imitated with success. Limborcht excelled in 
painting landscapes, historical subjects, and por- 
traits. He died in 1758. There are by him : , 

Amsterdam. Museum. Cupid and Psyche. 

„ „ Children playing. 

„ „ The Shepherds. 

Dresden. Gallery, Venus and Cupid. 

Paris, Louvre. The Eepose in Egypt. 

„ „ The Golden Age. 

Eotterdam. Museum. Ulysses at the Court of Lyco- 
medes. 

Two engravings by him are known — ' Pandora' 
and ' Hercules and Lichas.' 

LIMOSIN FAMILY. The history of this family 
of enamel painters of Limoges is veiled in a cloud 
of obscurity, which the researches of M. Maurice 
Ardarit among the archives of Haute-Vienne, and 
of M. A. Thomas in the mnnicipal archives of 
Limoges, have not been able entirely to dispel. 
Nevertheless, the following genealogical table will 
show approximately the relationship which existed 
between several members of the family of Limosin, 
but there are others also who practised the art of 
enamel painting, whose lineage has not yet been 
ascertained. Three only of these are of sufficient 
importance to merit separate notices, viz. Leonard 
I., Jean I., and Franjois I. 

Fran(;ois Limosin 
(Innkeeperj. 



LEONARD I. 
(1606 ?-d. before isrr). 



Martin 
(d. 1571?). 



•Teak L 
(16287-1610?). 



Leonard II. 
(1550?— 1626?). 



Francois Jean Martial Francois 
(b. 1689). (1). 1601 (b.lOOr). (b. 1616). 



Francois I. 

(b. before 1664: 

d. 1646). 



Leonard, 



Leonard 
(b. 1619). 



FraoQoia 
Cb..lfl06). 



Leonard 
(b. 1620). 

57 



Limosia 



A BIOGRAPHICAL DICTIONARY OP 



Limosin 



LIMOSIN, Francois, the younger son of Martin 
Limosin, was born before 1654, and with his 
brother, Leonard II., was co-heir of his uncle, 
Leonard I. He died in 1646. His enamels are 
more like those of the De Courts ; they are deep in 
colour and sometimes heightened with gold, and 
his backgrounds are often of dark violet. He 
frequently copied the designs of Virgil Solis and 
Etienne Delaune. The following may be mentioned 
as examples of his style : 

London. British Mitseum. Keptune. 1633. 
Paris. Louvre. Neptune; after Virgil Solis. 

1633. 
„ „ Orion pierced by the arrows of 

Apollo. 
„ „ Psyche imploring Venus. 

„ „ Orpheus before Pluto and 

Proserpine ; after Virgil Solis. 
„ „ Orpheus nharmingthe Animals; 

after Mltienne Delaune. 
„ „ Venus and Cupid. 

LIMOSIN, Jehan, a younger brother of L(5onard 
I. and Martin Limosin, was born before 1528, and 
died about 1610. The earliest enamel signed by 
Jehan Limosin is a portrait of Bardon de Brun, 
the founder of the confraternity of Penitents at 
Limoges, which bears the date of 1597. His style 
approaches nearer to that of Jean and Suzanne de 
Court than to that of his uncle, and he gives to his 
heads the sharp proiile which is characteristic of 
French art at the close of the 16th century. Hunt- 
ing scenes were his favourite subjects, and green 
backgrounds and reliefs of gold dominate in most 
of his works. Among them may be mentioned : 

liondon. British Museum. Charon ferrying Psyche across 
the Styx ; oval plaque. 1590 ? 
„ „ St. Margaret. 1600 ? 

„ South Kensington \ Oblong Casket, painted with 
Museum. j Bacchanalian procession and 
mediaeval dancing groups. 
(Formerly in the Deiruge and 
Soltykoff Collections.) 
„ „ The Death of St. Benedict ; a 

plaque. 
Paris. Louvre. Esther before Ahasueras, 

„ „ The Wife of Uriah. 

„ „ The Kape of Europa; after 

Virgil Solis. 
» „ Pompey. 

„ „ Julia, wife of Pompey. 

„ „ Divine Love conquering Pro- 

fane Love. 

LIMOSIN, LiiONAED, the greatest of the enamel 
painters of Limoges, whether in regard to the variety 
of his works, or to their artistic merit, was born at 
Limoges about 1505, and was probably a pupil of 
Nardon P&icaud. His first works were inspired 
by German masters, and the earliest date foUnd 
upon any of them is 1532, which occurs upon 
a series of eighteen plaques of the 'Passion,' 
after Albrecht Diirer. From 1635, however, he 
came under the influence of the Italian school, 
and of the artists who had been engaged by 
Francis I. to decorate his palace at Fontainebleau. 
Nevertheless, his copies even of Raphael are exe- 
cuted with such freedom as to render them almost 
his own works. In 1641 he was established at 
Limoges, and subsequently he was appointed 
court-painter to Francis I., and patronized by 
Henry II. The latest enamels upon which Leonard 
Limosin has placed a date bear that of 1574. He 
died between January, 1575, and February, 1577. 
He practised all the processes known to the enamel 
painters who had preceded him, but his predilection 
was for brilliant colours, which towards the end of 
58 



Iiis career he placed on a deep blue ground. His 
portraits in enamel are very fine, and often of 
large size. He also painted in oil the 'Incredulity 
of St. Thomas,' dated 1551, in the Museum at 
Chartres, and other works. Hi^ works are signed 
with his name, the initials Zi. L., or a monogram. 
There are by him : 
Berlin. Kuns hammer. A Madonna. 

„ „ Buth and Boaz. 

Chantilly. Duke ) Antoine de Bourbon, King of 

d^Aumaie.j Navarre. {Formerly in the 
Delrruge and Soltykoff Col- 
lections.) 
„ „ Jean de Bourbon, Due d'En- 

ghien. (Formerly in the 
Soltykoff Collection.) 
„ „ Jeanne d'Albret, Queen of 

Navarre. (Formerly in the 
Visconti Collection.) 
„ „ Louis de Bourbon, Duke of 

Montpensier. 1550. (For- 
merly in the Debruge and 
Soltykoff Collections.) 
Chartres. Saint-Fere. The Twelve Apostles. 1547. 
(This series was executed from 
the deigns of Michel Hochetel, 
and formerly adorned the 
chapel of the Chiteau d'Anet.) 
Loudon. British Museum. The Twelve Sybils ; half-length 
figures. 1550? 
„ „ Cupid and Psyche, forming the 

centre of a large round dish, 
and surrounded by a very 
rich border of figures, fish, 
animals, birds, &c. (Formerly 
in the Fauntaine Collection.) 
„ South Kensington ) The Crucifixion ; a plaque in 
Museum. J transparent colours on ' pail- 
Ipn,' or metallic foil. 1539. 
„ „ Tazza, or Shallow Bowl, with 

the figure of Laocoon,painted 
in grisaille. 1539. 
n >, The History of Cupid and 

Psyche (after Raphael) ; two 
plaques in light colours on 
white ground. 1540 ? 
;, „ Charles Tiercelin, Chancellor of 

France ; a square plaque. 
1540? (Formerly in the 
Soulages Collection.) 
;, )) Antoine de Bourbon ; a square 

plaque. 1540-50? (Formerly 
in the Smilages Collection.) 
» „ The Banquet of the Gods ; an 

elliptic plaque. 1560 ? (For- 
merlyintluBemal Collection.) 
» „ Charles de G uise. Cardinal de 

Lorraine ; a large oval medal- 
lion. (Attributed to Leonard 
Limosin.) 
„ „ St. Thomas, St. Matthew, St. 

James the Greater, and St. 
James the Less ; medallions. 
(Attributed to Leonard Li- 
inosin.) 
„ Mr.Magniac. Hunting Horn, decorated on 

one side with the Conversion 
of St. Hubert and scenes of 
the chase, in colours, and on 
the other side with David 
slaying Goliath, and mednl- 
lions in grisaille. 1538. (For- 
merly, in the Strawberry Hill 
Collection.) 
„ Mr.Daniy't'FTB.-acis I,, King of France. 

Seymour, f (Formerly in the Strawberry 
Hill Collection.) 
» n Catharine de' Medici. 

Munich. Treasury. The Manna in the Desert; a 

dish. 
Paris Louvre. Psyche carried off by Zephyr 

(after Saphael). 1535. 
» )) St. Thomas (Francis I.). 



Lin 



Paris. 



PAINTERS AND ENGRAVERS. 



Louvre, St Paul (Admiral Ohabot). 

„ „ Votive Tablet for the Sainte 

Chapelle, consisting of 
twenty-three plaques, that 
in the centre representing 
the Crucifixion. 1553. 

„ i, Votive Tablet for the Sainte 

Chapelle, consisting of 
twenty-three plaques, that 
in the centre representing 
the Resurrection. 1553. 

„ „ Francis II. 

„ „ Catharine de' Medici, in widow's 

costume. 

„ ), Venus and Cupid. 1555. 

„ „ A Concert. 

„ Musie de Cluny. Eleanor of Austria, Queen of 
Francis I. 1536. 

„ „ The Life and Passion of Christ ; 

twelve large oval medallions. 
1557. 

„ » The Judgment of Paris {after 

Raphael) ; a circular dish, 
with figures in grisaille on a 
blue ground. 1562. 

„ Legislative Chamber. Two glass paintings represent- 
ing Henry II. and Catharine 
de' Medici. 1553. 

„ Barm Alphonse ) The Adoration of the Kings ; 
de Rothschild. J a triptych. 1544. 

„ £aron Gvstave \ The Manna iu the Desert. 

de Rothschild. J 1568. 

„ Baroness James ) Henry II. on horseback, with 

de Rothschild. J Diana of Poictiers riding 
behind him. 1547. 

1, » Anne d'Este, Duchess of Guise. 

I, „ Charles IX., as Apollo. 1573. 

« >, Henry III., as Jupiter. 

■, „ Catharine de' Medici, as Venus. 

1574. 

)i „ Anne de Montmorency, Con- 

stable of France. 

» ), Pius V. 

» „ The Last Supper. 1546. 

„ Prince Soltykoffl Claude de France, first wife of 
(now dispersed). J Francis I. 1550. 

Four etohiugs, according to Robert-Dumesnil, were 
executed by Leonard Limosin, after liis own com- 
positions ; they are done with a broad and spirited 
point, with ^arge figures and small heads ; they 
are as follow : 

Christ entering Jerusalem. 1544. 
The Last Supper. 1544. 
Christ on the Mount of Olives. 1544. 
The Resurrection. 1544. 

LIN, Hans van, called Stillheid, or ue Stillb, 
flourished from 1664 to 1675, according to dates 
on his pictures. He painted battles and hunting 
pieces, and some of his works are to be met with 
at Copenhagen and Dresden. His pictures are 
marked H. V. L. There exists a plate of animals 
engraved by him. C. E. Boetius executed after 
him an engraving of ' A Company in an Alehouse.' 

LINAJUOLO, Beeto, was a Florentine painter, 
who lived in the first part of the 15th century. His 
pictures gained him sufiicient fame to cause him to 
be summoned to the court of Hungary, where he 
was received with favour. 

LINCK, Hans von, is mentioned as an engraver 
by Professor Christ, who says he marked his prints 

with the monogram JJ', 

LINCK, Johann Anton, a painter and engraver, 
was a native of Geneva, who worked with his 
father, Johann Conrad Linck, till 1788. He exe- 
cuted a large number of Swiss views, especially of 
Chamounix, which are correct in drawing and good 
in colour. 



Lines 

L'INDACO, Jacopo, an Italian painter, was born 
at Florence m 1476. He was the son of Lazzaro 
di I'letro, a baker, and received from his contem- 
poraries the surname of 'L'Indaco.' He was a 
pupil of Domenico Ghirlandaio, and worked in 
Rome with Pinturicohio. There he became intimate 
with Michelangelo, who instructed him in the art 
of painting in fresco. He died at Rome about 
1544, at the age of 68. He was a good artist, but 
all his works mentioned by Vasari have perished 
He had a brother, Francesco, also called L'Indaco' 
who was born in 1492, and was living in Rome in 
1658. His talents were inferior to those of Jacopo 

LINDBMANN, Christian Philipp, a German 
engraver, was born at Dresden in 1700. He 
worked in Italy, Nuremberg, and Ratisbon, and 
devoted himself chiefly to reproducing Italian 
masters. He died at Nuremberg in 1754. Among 
his works are : 

St. John the Baptist ; after Bernin. 

Apollo and Marsyas, Endymion, Zephyrus and Flora ; 

after Corradini. 
Venus and Cupid ; after Balestra. 

LINDENSCHMIT, Wilhelm, was born at 
Mayence in 1806, and studied in the Academy at 
Munich under Cornelius in 1823. In 1824-25 lie 
was at Vienna, but established himself at Munich 
in 1826. He was subsequently employed in the 
castle of the Duke of Saxe-Meiningen at Lands- 
berg. He died at Mayence in 1848. The following 
are by him : 

Hohen- Castle. The History of the Fortress of 

schwangau. Hohenschwangau. 

)) „ The History of the Hohen- 

staufen and Guelfs. 
Landsberg. Castle. Encaustic Frescoes of the His- 

tory of Saxony. 
Munich. Court Garden. The Victory of Louis the Rich 
at Giengen. 
„ Royal Palme. Several scenes from Schiller's 

Poems. 
„ Royal Gallery. Some scenes from the Life of 

Leonardo da Vinci. 

LINDER, Feanz, (or Lindeben,) a German 
painter and engraver, was born at Klagenfiirt in 
1738. He studied the elements of art under Lay- 
bach, and then went to Venice and afterwards 
to Vienna, where he attended the Academy. In 
1776 the Empress sent him to Rome, whence after 
four years he returned to Vienna. He painted 
portraits i;j the style of Palko, and among his sitters 
were the Grand-Duke Maximilian, Joseph II., the 
Royal Family of Naples, and several others. He 
died about 1809. 

LINDMEYER, Daniel. See Lintmeyee. 

LINDNER, Feanz. See Linder. 

LINDSAY, Thomas, a landscape painter in 
water-colours, whose specialty was Welsh scenery, 
was in 1837 elected^ a member of the New Society 
of Painters in Water-Colours. In the latter part 
of his life he lived near Brecon, where he died 
in 1861. 

LINES, Samuel, a landscape painter, was born 
in 1778 at Allersby, near Coventry. Being an 
orphan, he was brought up by an uncle, a farmer, 
whom he assisted. He was then apprenticed to a 
clock-face enameller at Birmingham, and after- 
wards designed for art-manufactures. He found 
his true vocation in 1807, when he opened a draw- 
ing academy, and during the remainder of his life 
he took a prominent part in all matters relating to 
art in Birmingham. He died in 1863. 

59 



Lines 



A BIOGRAPHICAL DICTIONARY OF 



Liuuell 



LINES, Samuel Restell, a landscape painter, 
the third son of Samuel Lines, by whom he was 
taught, was born at Birmingham in 1 804. His forte 
was the depiction of trees, and he had also a keen 
eye for the picturesque in architecture. He died 
at Birmingham in 1833. There is a water-colour 
drawing by him at the South Kensington Museum 
of the ' Dais and Dining-Table at Haddon Hall.' 

LINGE, Bernhard van, was a native of the 
Netherlands, who established himself in England 
about the middle of the reign of James I. He 
distinguished himself as a painter on glass, and 
his oldest known work is at Wadham College, 
representing the ' History of Christ,' 1622. It is 
said that several other glass paintings by him are 
there, as well as at Lincoln College, 1629-31. 

LINGJ^E, Charles Louis, a French engraver, 
was born in P;iri3 in 1751. He worked with the 
point and the burin, and engraved several prints, 
among which was ' The Vintage,' after Louther- 
bourg. He died in Paris about 1805. His wife, 
TH^siiSE lilLtioNORE H:6meex, who was born in Paris 
in 1753, executed several plates in the crayon style. 

LINGELBACH, Johannes, was born at Frank- 
fort on the Main in 1625. It is not mentioned by 
whom he was instructed ; but the ability of the 
master may be presumed from the talents of the 
pupil. He went to Amsterdam in 1637, and after 
spending five years there he returned home and re- 
mained two years, and then in 1644 visited Italy. 
He passed six years at Rome, assiduously employed 
in sketching the most remarkable objects in and 
near that capital. In 1652 he returned to Amster- 
dam, with the studies he had accumulated during his 
residence in Italy, of which he made an ample use 
in the composition of his pictures. His works 
frequently represent Italian sea-ports, in which he 
introduced an infinite number of small figures, 
habited according to their different nations. His 
pictures are embellished with architecture, and the 
ruins of ancient monuments and statues. He was 
equally successful in his representation of fairs, 
Italian markets, and the amusements of the Carni- 
val, with appropriate figures, ingeniously grouped, 
of quack doctors, surrounded by crowds of spec- 
tators, and similar assemblages. His ability in 
painting small figures and animals induced several 
of the landscape painters of his time to have re- 
course to him to decorate their pictures, particularly 
Wynants and Wouwerman, by whom his style of 
painting was largely influenced, and also Koninck, 
Verboom, Moucheron, and Hackaert. He signed his 
works with his name or a monogram. Zylvelt 
engraved after him four ' Genoese Harbours,' and 
Gronsvelt twelve ' Italian and Oriental Ports.' 
There are by Lingelbaoh a few slight but spirited 
etchings of landscapes, sea-ports, &c., after his own 
designs. He died at Amsterdam in 1687. The 
following are among his paintings (besides others 
at Augsburg, Copenhagen, Christiania, Brunswick, 
Dresden, Frankfort, Munich, St. Petersburg, and 
Vienna) : 

Amsterdam. Museum. Dentist on Horseback. 

„ „ An Italian Harbour. 1664. 

„ „ The Biding Scbool. 

„ Town Hall. The plan of tbat building. 1656. 

" ''coSfrl^o-gtotl^^Hunt. 

Hague. Gallery. An Italian Port. 1670. 

London. Nat, Gallery. Hay Harvest. 

Paris. Louvre. The Vegetable Market. 1670. 

„ „ A Sea-port, 

Kotterdam. Museum. Italian Landscape. 

60 



LINNELL, John, aportraitand landscapepainter, 
was born in 1792 in London, where his father was a 
picture-dealer and wood-carver. He soon showed 
remarkable aptitude for art, and by the advice of 
Benjamin West he attended the schools of the Royal 
Academy at Somerset House, into which he was 
admitted in ■ 1805. He became too a pupil in 
John Varley's studio, where he learned more from 
his fellow pupil, Mulready, than from his master. 
His progress was so rapid that in 1807 he con- 
tributed to the Academy exhibition 'A Study 
from Nature,' and ' A View near Reading.' About 
this date he and William Hunt worked for George 
Dawe on a large transparency which was required 
for an illumination intended to celebrate a victory 
over the French. Like the ablest of his con- 
temporaries, he could paint a panorama or a minia- 
ture, or engrave a portrait. Besides old masters' 
works, Linnell engraved in mezzotint John Varley's 
'Burial of Saul,' and Collins's 'Feeding the 
Rabbits ' and a ' Scene on the Brent.' In 1807 he 
gained a medal for a drawing, and in 1810 one 
for a model in the Life School of the Academy ; 
and in 1809 he gained in the British Institution 
a prize of fifty guineas for a landscape called 
'Removing Timber.' He soon devoted himself 
to portrait painting and to pictures of scenery near 
London. At this time he established himself 
with Mulready in Francis Street, Tottenham 
Court Road. In 1810 appeared ' Fishermen wait- 
ing the return of the Perry Boat, Hastings,' and 
in 1811, 'The Ducking, a scene from Nature.' 
After this Linnell ceased to contribute to Somerset 
House till 1821, but from 1818 to 1820 he exhibited 
in Spring Gardens with the Society of Painters in 
Oil and Water-Colo urs. He executed many minia- 
tures on ivory, and produced several portraits, 
some of which he reproduced in mezzotint. One 
of the first of his subject landscapes was painted 
in 1835, ' Christ's Appearance to His Disciples on 
the way to Emmaus,' which attracted a great deal 
of attention owing to its originality, and the pathos 
imparted to the landscape, which was the distin- 
guishing characteristic of all his work. ' Windsor 
Forest' was painted in 1837. In 1852 Linnell 
retired from London to Redhill, where he died in 
1882. He published 'Michael Angelo's Frescoes 
in the Sistine Chapel,' 1834 ; ' The Royal Gallery 
of Pictures,' being a selection of the paintings 
in Buckingham Palace, 1840 ; and a, tract entitled 
' The Royal Academy, a National Institution,' 1869. 
A drawing of Sarah Austin by him is in the 
National Portrait Gallery. The following is a list 
of his principal pictures : 

portraits. 

Sir Augustus 'Wall Callcott, E.A. 1832. 

William Mulready, E.A. 1833. 

Thomas Phillips,E.A. 

Eev. Thomas Eobert Malthus. 

William Collins, E.A. 

Archbishop Whateley. 

John Sterling. 

Thomas Carlyle. 

Sir Robert Peel, Bart. 

Lord Lansdowne. 

Ijord Monteagle. 

Sir Francis Thornhill Baring, Bart., afterwards Lord 

Northbrook. 1842. 
Samuel Eogers. 1835. 
Sir Henry Torreus. 
Lady Lyndburst. 
Marshal Espartero. 
General Sir Ealph Darling. 
Charles Chetwynd, second Earl Talbot. 1840. 



Lino 



PAINTERS AND ENGRAVERS. 



Xiiotard 



SUBJECT PICTURES. 

Christ and the 'Woman of Samaria. 

The Disobedient Prophet. 1854. 

The Last Gleam before the Storm. 

Crossing the Brook. 1868. 

The Lost Sheep. 1869. 

The Timber "Waggon. 

Barley Harvest. 

Eampstead Heath. 

Under the Hawthorn. 

The ■Woodcutter. 

The Eve of the Deluge; 

The Eeturn of Ulysses. 

Wood-Cutters. {National Gallery.) 

The 'Windmill. 1847. {The same.) 

LINO, PiETKO Di, or Pbreolino, was an old Sien- 
nese painter, who flourished in the 12th century. 
He is the oldest Tuscan master known, but no work 
has been assigned to him with certainty. 

LINSCHOTBN, Cornelis Adeiaan van, a Dutch 
historical painter, was born at Delft in 1690. As 
soon as he had learned the rudiments of the art, 
he went to Rome, where he is stated to have been 
a pupil of Ribera, and to have attached himself 
to the study of the works of Michel Angiolo da 
Caravaggio, whose vigorous style he followed with 
some success. On his return to Holland he painted 
some historical subjects ; but his dissipated cha- 
racter rendered it difficult for his employers to get 
their pictures out of his hands. Two of his most 
esteemed works, representing 'St. Peter denying 
Christ ' and the ' Repentance of St. Peter,' were at 
the Hague. He died at the Hague in 1679. 

LIN SEN, Jan, was a Flemish painter, who re- 
sided some years in Italy. He painted marines 
and sea-fights, of which the most remarkable was 
the representation of an engagement at which he 
had himself been present, and in which he was 
taken by an African corsair. He is said to have 
been killed in a quarrel with a gamester. 

LINT, Hendrik van, called Studio, the youngest 
son of Pieter van Lint, was born at Antwerp in 
1684. In 1697 he entered the studio of Pieter 
van Bredael, and afterwards went to Rome, where 
he passed the remainder of his life. He was 
assiduous in sketching the most picturesque views 
in the vicinity of that city, from which he formed 
the subjects of his landscapes, which are painted 
in a style imitating that of Claude Lorrain. He 
acquired the name of ' Studio ' from the society of 
Plemish painters at Rome, through his application 
to his studies. He was still living in 1726. His 
paintings include the following : 

Augsburg. Gallery. Two Landscapes. 

Brunswick. Gallery. Beturn from the Chase. 
Turin. Gallery. Landscape. 1726. 

LINT, Pieter van, was born at Antwerp in 
1609. At the age of ten he entered the studio 
of Roeland Jacobs, and having become in 1633 
a master of the Guild, he went to Italy, and 
passed several years at Rome. Soon after his 
arrival, his talents attracted the notice of Car- 
dinal Domenico Ginnasio, Bishop of Ostia, who 
employed him in several considerable works for 
his cathedral, and in the chapel of La Santa Croce 
in Santa Maria del Popolo, at Rome. After an 
absence of nine years he returned to Antwerp, 
and was employed in painting some altar-pieces 
for the churches, as well as pictures of a smaller 
size for private collections. He died at Antwerp 
in 1690. Among his chief historical works were 
the ' Virgin and Child, with Saints,' in the church 
of St. Jacques, at Antwerp ; and a fine picture in 



the church of the Carmelites, representing the 
' Virgin presenting to some Monks the Order of 
their Community,' painted in the style of Van 
Dyck. He also painted portraits with great suc- 
cess, many of which are highly esteemed in the 
Low Countries. Besides five other paintings, there 
is the portrait of Cardinal Ginnasio in the Antwerp 
Gallery. Bat apart from these the only other 
picture by Pieter van Lint now to be seen in his 
native city is ' The Parting of St. Peter and St. 
Paul before their Martyrdom,' which adorns one of 
the altars in the church of St. Jacques. He exe- 
cuted also an etching, representing ' Virtue and 
Vice.' 

LINTHORST, J., a painter of fruit and flowers, 
was born at Amsterdam in 1766, and died there in 
1815. Two fine specimens of his work are in the 
Museum of his native city. 

LINTMEYER, Daniel, (or Lindmeyee,) was 
born at SohafEhausen about the year 1540. He 
was chiefly known as a painter on glass, and 
flourished from about 1560 to 1591. 

LINTON, J., an English portrait painter, flour- 
ished at the close of the 17th century. He painted 
a portrait of Sir 'W'illiam Ashurst, Lord Mayor of 
London in 1694. 

LINTON, 'William, a landscape painter of the 
classic or ideal school, was born at Liverpool in 
1791. He was educated at Rochdale, and then 
placed in a merchant's ofBoe at Liverpool. At- 
tracted by art, he studied Claude and Wilson, and 
made his first appearance at the Royal Academy 
with three pictures in 1817. He also exhibited at 
the British Institution, and at the Society of British 
Artists, of which he was one of the founders. 
Considerable time was spent by him in travel 
among the scenes of classical antiquity, and he 
exhibited a collection of his sketches in 1842. He 
paid considerable attention to the composition of 
colours, and published a pamphlet on ' Ancient and 
Modern Colours.' He died in London in 1876. 
Amongst his chief works are : 

The Temples of Psstum. (National Gallery.) 

Embarkation of the Greeks for the Trojan 'War. 

A Fdte Day at Venice. 

Venus and .fflneas. 

Greek Armament. 

Marius at Carthage. 

Lake of Orta. 

Italy. ( Woburn Albey.) 

BelHnzona. 

View on Coast of Southern Italy. {Bridgewater Gallery.) 

LION, A., is a name inscribed, with the date 
1628, on a good picture in the Town Hall of Amster- 
dam, representing twenty-five archers. No other 
work is known by this master. 

LION, Pierre, a Belgian portrait painter, was 
born at Dinant about 1740. He went to Paris, 
where he became a pupil of De Vien. He lived 
for several years at Vienna, but eventually returned 
to his own country, where he died in 1814. 

LIONARpO DA VINCI. See Leonardo. 

LIOTARD, Jean Etienne, called 'The Turk,' 
was born at Geneva in 1702, and was intended by 
his father for mercantile pursuits, but having suc- 
ceeded in copying a miniature by Petitot, he was 
permitted to follow his inclination for painting. 
He went to Paris in 1725, where he became a 
pupil of J. B. Mass6 and made the acquaintance 
of Lemoyne. He soon got into practice in paint- 
ing portraits in crayons, miniature, and enamel. 
In 1738 he accompanied the Marquis de Puysieux 
to Naples and then to Rome, where he painted the 

61 



A BIOGRAPHICAL DICTIONARY OF 



Liotard 

likeness of the Pope, and became acquainted with 
two Bngliah noblemen, who engaged him to ac- 
company them to Constantinople. During his 
journey to the Levant, he put on Turkish cos- 
tume, which he wore, with a long beard. He re- 
mained in the Turkish capital four years, and was 
next employed at Jassy by the Prince of Moldavia, 
and then in 1749 by the Empress Maria Theresa 
at Vienna. From there he proceeded to Pans 
and thence to London, where he painted por- 
traits of the Princess of Wales and the young 
princes. He met with considerable employment, 
for which he was probably indebted more to the 
notoriety of his masquerade than to his talents as 
a painter. He went in or about 1756 to Holland, 
and there married ; but returned to London in 
1772, bringing with him a valuable collection of 
pictures by celebrated masters, as well as glass 
paintings of his own workmanship, and these were 
sold by auction for large sums. His chief forte 
lay in crayon portraits, which he exhibited at 
the Royal Academy in 1773 and 1774. In 1776 
he returned to Switzeriand, and died at Geneva 
in 1779. Among his paintings are : 
Amsterdam. Museum. La Belle Lyonnaise (Mile. La- 
vergne). 1746. 
„ „ Marshal Saxe. 

^, „ Maria Theresa, Empress of 

Austria. 
„ „ Lord Besshorough. 

,j „ Louis, Dauphin of France. 

,' „ Marie Josephine, Dauphiness 

of France. 
„ „ Oount Algarotti. 

„ „ Countess of Coventry, in Turk- 

■ish costume. 
„ „ Countess of Marlborough. 

Dresden. Gallery. The Viennese Chocolate Girl. 

„ „ La Belle Lyonnaise. 

„ „ The Artist's Portrait. 

„ „ Count Maurice of Saxony. 

London. iSouth Kensing- \ A Turk seated. 

ton Museum. J A Profile Portrait. (Sir Everard 
Fawkener ?) 
Vienna. Gallery. La Belle Lyonnaise. 

„ „ An Old "Woman sleeping. 

There are a few etchings by this artist, among 
which are the following : 

The Empress Maria Theresa, in a Turkish dress. 
The Archduchess Maria Christina, as above. 
Een^ H^rault, Lieutenant-General of Police. 
Portrait of Himself, with a long beard. 
The Sick Cat, with some French verses. 

LIOTARD, Jean Michel, born, at Geneva in 
1702, was a twin bi-other of Jean Etienne Liotard. 
He learned engraving at Paris under Benoit Audran, 
and in 1735 went to Venice, whence after a time 
he returned to Paris, and finally to his own country, 
where he died in 1788. He engraved the following 
prints : 
Seven large plates from the Cartoons painted in fresco 
in the Palace of the Duke of Parma, by Carlo Ciynani; 
viz : 
Love conquering the AVorld. 
Cupid riding on pn Eagle. 
Cupid's Fight with Pan. 
Apollo and Daphne. 
Bacchus and Ariadne. 
The Triumph of Venus. 
The Kape of Buropa. 
Apollo rising from the Waves. 

A set of subjects from the Bible ; aftar Sehastiano 
Ricci. 

LIPPARINI, LuDovico, was born at Bologna in 
1800, and was instructed in art in that city, where 
he brought himself into notice at the age of 

62 



Lippi 



fifteen In 1820-21 he was at Rome and Naples, 
and in' 1822, and again in 1826, at Venice, where 
he became Professor at the Academy in 1838, and 
Professor of Painting in 1848. He died at Venice 
in 1866. Among his chief paintings there are : 

Erigone. 1827. 

Byron's Oath at the Grave of Bozzans. 

The Ascension of Mary (Gca« Cathedral.) 

Achilles. 

Bacchus and Ariadne. 

The Youth of Jupiter. 

Pisani. [VienTM Gallery.) 

LIPPERT, Joseph, a portrait painter, was born 
at Neuburg in 1764. He went to the Art Academy, 
and afterwards to Vienna, where he became ac- 
quainted with a painter named Gerringer, with 
whom he travelled for seven years. He died at 
Pressburg in 1812. 

LIPPI, Fra Filippo, was born at Florence about 
the year 1400. He was the son of a butcher called 
Tommaso Lippi ; but he lost both his parents at an 
early age, and was left to the care of an aunt, 
whose poverty rendered her unable to afford him 
much material aid. In 1412 he entered the Car- 
melite community at the Carmine of Florence, and! 
studied painting from the frescoes of Masaccio in 
the chapel of the Brancacci. In 1430 his name 
first appears as a painter, and in 1432 he seems to 
have left the monastery. The story told of his 
capture by the pirates of Barbary at Ancona, and 
of his captivity, is now considered to be more 
than doubtful, since no traces of this event can be 
found in any authentic records or works of this 
artist. A letter exists, written by Fra Filippo in 
1439 to Piero de' Medici, in which he calls himself 
" one of the poorest friars in Florence," and as 
having under his charge six marriageable nieces 
for whom he has to find means to live and dowries. 
When about twenty-six he painted the altar-piece, 
representing the 'Virgin and Child enthroned,^ 
with a predella of four subjects, for Gherardo di 
Bartolommeo Barbadori, which exhibited wonder- 
ful talent at even that early age. The upper part 
of this altar-piece is now in the Louvre, and ils 
predella is in the Academy of Arts at Florence. In 
1441 he executed for the nuns of Sant' Ambrogio 
a 'Coronation of the Virgin, with Saints and 
Bernardino Monks,' one of the latter of whom is 
his own portrait with the tonsure, and holding a 
scroll inscribed 'Is perfecit opus.' This clearly 
shows that at that date he had not abandoned the 
robes and marks of his Order. He seems at this 
period to have been highly esteemed, and to have 
received many commissions from the clergy and 
the nobility of Florence. His most powerful 
patron was Cosmo de' Medici, and it is probably 
owing to his patronage that in 1452 he was 
appointed chaplain to a convent of nuns in 
Florence ; and in 1457 was made rector of San 
Quirico at Legnaia. In 1456 Fra Filippo began 
the frescoes at the Pieve, now the cathedral of ' 
Prato, having already painted a ' Death of St. Ber- 
nard ' for the provost of that church, where it is still 
preserved. It is whilst he was employed at Prato 
that Vasari tells the story of Fra Filippo Having 
abducted a nun named Lucrezia Buti, whose child 
is known as Filippino Lippi. Ons of the finest 
paintings executed by Fra Filippo whilst at 
Prato is a 'Nativity,' now to be seen in the 
refectory of the convent of San Domenico in 
that city. His frescoes in the choir of tho 
cathedral of Prato represent events in the lives 



liippi 



PAINTERS AND ENGRAVERS. 



Lippi 



of SS. John the Baptist and Stephen. They are 
remarkable for their harmonious grouping and 
colour, as well as for the richness of the costumes, 
head-dresses, and other accessories. After frequent 
interruptions, these frescoes were completed about 
1468 by the one which represents the ' Death of St. 
Stephen,' in which he introduced the portraits of 
Cai-lo de' Medici, Fra Diamante, and himself. He 
afterwards went to Spoleto, where he commenced 
the frescoes which adorn the choir of the cathedral. 
They represent the 'Annunciation,' the ' Nativity,' 
and the ' Coronation of the Virgin,' and were com- 
pleted after Era Filippo's_ death in 1469 by his 
pupil and assistant, Era Diamante. Examples of 
this artist's work may be found as under : 

Berlin. Gallery. The "Virgin and Child. 

„ „ The Virgin adoring the Child. 

„ The Virgin as the Mother of 

Pity. 
Florence. iS. Lorenzo. The Annunciation. 

„ Uffiei. The Virgin adoring the Infant, 

borne by two Angels. 
„ Pitti Pal. The Virgin, with SS. Jcachim and 

Anne. 
„ Academy. The Nativity. 

„ „ Coronation of the Virgin. 

Liverpool. Institution. Martyrdom, of St. Sebastian. ' 

„ „ Temptation of a Bishop. 

London. Nat. Gall. The Annunciation. 

„ „ St. John the Baptist with six 

Saints. 
„ „ The Virgin seated. 

„ „ Vision of St, Bernard, 

„ „ The Virgin and Child, with Angels 

and Saints. (Formerly in San 
Spirito, Florence.) 
Munich. Gallery. The Annunciation. 

„ „ The same {smaller), 

„ „ The Virgin and Child. 

Paris. Louvre. The Nativity. 

„ „ The Virgin and Child. 

Prato. Collegiale. Scenes from the Life of St, John 

the Baptist. 
„ Scenes from the Life of St. 
Stephen. 
„ Municipal Gall. The Virgin giving her Girdle to 

St, Thomas. 
„ S. Domenico. The Nativity. 

Borne. Lateran Gall. Coronation of the Virgin. 
Spoleto. Cathedral. Frescoes. 

LIPPI, PiLippo, called Filippino, to distinguish 
him from his father, was the natural son of Era 
Eilippo, a Carmelite, and Lucrezia Buti, a novice. 
He was born about 1457 at Prato, and received 
his early education in that city, and after the 
death in 1469 of Era Eilippo, whose relatives 
were also living there, he came under the care 
of Era Diamante, and received his first lessons in 
painting from him, and not from Botticelli, as has 
been pretended. This can be judged from his 
early paintings, and from contemporary records. 
In 1480 he painted, by commission of Pietro del 
Pugliese, the 'Vision of St. Bernard,' which is 
now above the altar in a chapel of the Badia, 
Elorence. Another altar-piece, executed at about 
this time, is the one in the church of San Michele, 
Lucca, representing 'SS. Rooh, Sebastian, Jerome, 
and Helena.' Both the above-mentioned pictures 
strongly .recall Era Filippo's style. Between 1482 
and 1490 he painted the frescoes in the Brancacci 
chapel in the Carmine, Elorence, where Masaccio 
had already commenced the decorations, and -left 
unfinished the fresco representing ' St. Peter re- 
storing a Boy to Life,' which was completed by 
Eilipnino. Ills own frescoes are those of the 
' Visit of St. Paul to St. Peter in Prison,' ' St. Peter 
liberated from Prison,' ' SS. Peter and Paul before 



the Proconsul,' and the 'Crucifixion of St. Peter.' 
That he was highly esteemed by the Elorentines of 
his time is proved by the fact that he was chosen 
by the Council in 1482 to replace Perugino in the 
decorations of the hall of the Palazzo Pubblico. 
The ' Madonna and Child, between SS. Victor, 
John the Baptist, Bernard, and Zanobius,' painted 
in 1485, and originally intended for the Sala degli 
Otto of the Palazzo, is now in the Uffizi G-allery. 
In 1487 he received the commission to adorn the 
Strozzi chapel in Santa Maria Novella, but seems 
to have left that work unfinished and gone to 
Rome, where he entered the service of Cardinal - 
Oliviero CarafEa, whose chapel in Santa Maria 
sopra Minerva he embellished with frescoes repre- 
senting different scenes from the life of St. Thomas 
Aquinas. These frescoes were probably finished 
by about 1493, when Eilippino returned to 
Florence, and in 1495 painted for the Confraternity 
of San Francesco at Palco, near Prato, the altar- 
piece of 'Christ appearing to the Virgin,' which 
has upon the gradiiio the Body of Christ in the 
tomb, and SS. Francis, Dominick, Clara, and others. 
This painting is now in the Munich Gallery. 
In 1498 he adorned a tabernacle at Prato with a 
' Virgin and Child, between Angels and Saints,' 
and in that same year he formed one of the 
Council called to decide the question of the 
repair of the lantern above the cupola of Santa 
Maria del Fiore, that had been struck by lightning. 
Both Perugino and Lorenzo di Credi likewise 
assisted at these deliberations. Soon afterwards he 
recommenced and finished the frescoes at the 
Strozzi chapel, which represent various scenes in 
the lives of SS. John the Evangelist and Philip. 
These all show a certain decline in the artist's 
powers in their general design, colour, and execu- 
tion. Filippino died at Florence in 1504, and was 
buried in the church of San Michele Bisdomini. 
Other works by him are : 

Berlin. Gallery, Portrait of a Youth. 

„ „ Christ Crucified, between three 

Angels. 
Bologna. S. Domenico. St. Catharine before the Virgin. 

1501. 
Florence. Uffizi. Madonna with Saints. 1485. 

Badia. The Vision of St. Bernard. 
1480. 
„ S.Donato. The Adoration of the Magi, 1496. 

„ Corsini Gall. The Virgin and Child, with St. 
John. 
London. Nat. Gall. The Adoration of the Magi. 
„ „ The Virgin and Child. 

„ „ St. Francis in Glory. 

Lucca. S. Michele. Four Saints, 
Naples. Pal. S. Angelo. Holy Family. 
Eome. «. Maria sopra ) ^j^^ Legend of St. Thomas. 
Minerva, j ° 

LIPPI, GlACOMO, called Giacomo or Giacomone 
DA BuDEio, and Giacomo della Lippa, born at 
Budrio, flourished at the end of the 16th century. 
He was a pupil of Lodovico Carracci, but displayed 
more power of execution than genius. Among 
his works was a set of frescoes taken from the 
' History of the Virgin,' which he executed for the 
church of the Annunciation at Bologna. 

LIPPI, LOEENZO, was born at Florence in 1606, 
and studied painting under Rosselli. Lorenzo 
Lippi, like his friend Salvator Rosa, divided his 
time between painting and poetry. His poem of 
'II Maltnantile racquistato,' though perhaps less 
read than the ' Satires ' of Salvator, is more elegant, 
and is one of the most admired productions in the 
Italian language. In choosing a prototype worthy 

63 



Icippo 



A BIOGRAPHICAL DICTIONARY OF 



Iiiszewska 



of his imitation in painting, his taste and feeling 
directed him to Santo di Titi. His pictures are 
not very scarce in Florence, though he passed 
several years at Innsbruck, where he was painter 
to the court. He died at Florence in 1664. Among 
his best works may be mentioned : 

Florence. TXffiei. The Crucifixion. 

„ 8ig. Gain. The Triumph of David. 

Vienna. Gallery. Christ with the Woman of 

Samaria, 

LIPPO, a Florentine painter, was born in 
1357. His earliest work was the decoration of a 
chapel in the convent of San Benedetto in his 
native city. From Florence this artist was invited 
to Arezzo, where he decorated the chapel of the 
Magi in the church of Sant' Antonio with a fresco 
representing the ' Adoration of the Magi. ' In the 
Cathedral also he decorated two chapels. At a 
later period he executed many works at Bologna, 
and then returned to Florence, where he executed 
several scenes from the life of St. John the Evan- 
gelist in the church of Santa Maria Maggiore. He 
also worked largely in mosaic. None of this 
master's works now remain, as most of them 
perished in the siege of Florence. He was of a 
quarrelsome disposition, and having used some 
oti'ensive words to an adversary in a law-suit, he 
was stabbed by him and died about 1430. 

LIPPO DI DALMASIO (or delle Madonne). 

See SCANNABEOOHI. 

LIPPOLD, Feanz, a German portrait painter, 
was born at Hamburg in 1688. He was instructed 
by Denner, and employed at several German courts 
until he settled at Frankfort in 1720. He died 
there in 1768. Among his best portraits are : 

The Emperor Charles VII. 1742. 
The Emperor Francis I. 1745. 
The Empress Maria Theresa. 

LIPS, JoHANN Heinbich, was born at Kloten, 
near Zurich, in 1758, and was destined for the 
surgical profession ; but his inclination for art 
caused him to abandon that intention, and he 
studied design under Lavater, attending the 
Academy at Mannheim in 1780, and six months 
afterwards that of Diisseldorf , where he executed 
his first plate, representing the ' Martyrdom of St, 
Sebastian,' after Van Dyck. With his 'Antiochus 
in Love with his Mother Stratonice,' he was 
received a member of the Academy. He visited 
Rome twice, in 1783 and 1786, in which last time 
he began to paint historical subjects in water- 
colours, and his copies after the old masters are 
very faithfully executed. Circumstances forced 
him to return to engraving, and among his 1447 
plates there is not one of inferior quality. From 
1789 to 1794 he was professor at the Academy of 
Design at Weimar, but on account of his health he 
was obliged to return to Zurich, where he died in 
1817. Among the most important of his plates 
may be mentioned : 

The Adoration of the Magi ; after Annihale Cairacci. 

The Bacchanal ; after JV. Foussin. 

Charlotte Corday ; after Bria. 

Portraits of Goethe, Wieland, and Ludwig Hess. 

LIPS, JoHANN Jakob, the son and pupil of Johann 
Heinrioh Lips, was born at Zurich in 1790. He 
studied at Munich, whence he returned to his native 
town in 1818 ; he there committed suicide in 1833 
through disappointment over a plate on which he 
had worked for years. He was an engraver of 
ability, and executed various historical subjects 
and portraits the best of which are : 

64 



Portrait of the Crown-Prince Louis of Bavaria. 
Portrait of the poet Hebel. 
St. John ; after Giulio Romano. 

LIRIOS, Buonavbntuea. See Ligli. 

LIS, Jan, called Pan, a Dutch painter, was born 
at Hoorn in 1570. He was a pupil of Hendrik 
Qoltzius at Haarlem, and imitated his style ex- 
ceedingly well. He afterwards travelled, and 
visited Paris, Rome, and Venice. On his return 
to his native country he found plenty of em- 
ployment, but his intemperate habits led him to 
neglect his art. He after a time resolved again 
to travel, and visit his friend Sandrart at Rome ; 
but stopping at Venice, he died there of the plague 
in 1629. His paintings represent festivals, pea- 
sant life, masquerades, and nymphs bathing. 
Among his best paintings are : 

Cassel. Gallery. Sailors in an Inn. 

„ „ Italian Peasants playing at Mora. 

Dresden. Gallery. The Penitent Magdalen. 

„ „ The Lute Player. 

"^'""- rtif^^js*- J-°-« - '"^^ WMemess. 
„ „ Adam and Eve lamenting over the 

Body of Cain, 
„ „ The Temptation of St. Anthony. 

LIS, Jan van dee. See Van dee Lys. 

LISCORNET, Jakob, was a native of Dantsic, 
who flourished in the first part of the 17th century. 
He painted historical subjects, and died in 1646. 

LISEBETTEN, Pietee van, (or Leysebetten,) 
a Flemish engraver, was born at Brussels about 
the year 1610. In conjunction with Jan van 
Troyen, he engraved part of the plates for the 
Teniers Gallery. Among others are the follow- 
ing: 

The Portrait of David Teniers the elder ; after P. van 

Mol. 
Jupiter and Danae ; after Titian. 
The Marriage of St, Catharine ; after Paolo Veronese. 
The Visitation • of the Virgin to St. Elizabeth ; after 

Palma Vecchio. 
The Virgin, with the Infant Jesus and St. John ; after 

the same. 
Cupid presenting Fruit to Venus ; after Paris Bordone. 
Diana and Endymion ; after the same. 

LISKA, Johann Christoph, (or Lisohka,) a 
painter, whose father was a government ofBcial 
at Breslau, in 1660 executed some frescoes in 
Prague. Several of his pictures are to be found 
in the churches of Bohemia. He was living in 1692. 

LISMANN, Johann Anton. See Eismann. 

LISSANDRINO. See Magnasco, Alessandeo. 

LIST, Geoeg Nikolads, a native of Ulm, was a 
painter of portraits, and worked also at the court 
at Stuttgart. He died after 1657. The following 
portraits by him were engraved : 

The Duchess of Wiirtemberg ; hy E. G. Heiss. 
Eberhard III,, Duke of Wiirtemberg ; by Ph. Kilian, 
The Theologian Schubels ; by Bembold. 

LISTER, Maetin, a draughtsman and engraver 
of natural history subjects, was born at RadclifEe, 
in Buckinghamshire, about 1638. He graduated 
M.D., and practised at York and afterwards in 
London, where he became physician to Queen 
Anne. He died in 1711. Assisted by his daughters, 
Anna and Susanna Lister, in the etchings, ha 
published : 

' Historia Animalium Angliffi,' 1678. 
' Historia Couchyliorum.' 1685-93. 

LISZEWSKA, Anna Doeothea, afterwards 
Theebusch, was born at Berlin in 1722. She was 



Ziiszewska 



PAINTERS AND ENGRAVERS. 



liivensz 



first instructed in painting by her father, Georg 
Liszevvski. She went to Stuttgart in 1761, where 
she painted portraits. Shortly afterwards she 
became a member of the Institute at Bologna, and 
then court painter at Mannheim. Subsequently 
she returned to Berlin, and executed several 
historical sketches. In 1766 she visited Paris, 
and was received a member of the Academy in 
1767, as well as of that at Vienna. She returned 
to Berlin in 1770, and died in 1782. Among her 
best productions are : 

Ariadne iu Naxos. (For the Archduke Charles Eugene 

of WuHemherg.) 
Diana returning from the Chase. (For Frederick the 

Greats King of Prussia.) 
Her own Portrait. 1773. {Brunswick Gallery.) 
A Man holding a Glass of Wine. {Louvre, Faris.) 

LISZEWSKA, Anna Rosina, an elder sister of 
Anna Dorothea Liszewska, was born at Berlin 
in 1716, and was also instructed by her father. 
"She was patronized by the Princess of Anbalt- 
Zerbst at Stettin, whose portrait she painted when 
herself in her fourteentli year. In 1741 she 
married the painter David Mathieu, but he died in 
1755. After this she painted in the Salon des 
Beaut^s at Zerbst forty of the most beautiful 
women. In 1760 she married her second husband, 
H. von Gaso of Berlin, and in 1764 received a 
handsome pension at Brunswick. In 1766 she 
travelled in Holland, and was received in 1769 a 
member of the Academy at Dresden. She died in 
1783. Her best paintings are : 

Monime in the act of throwing off the Eoyal Diadem. 
{For the Buke of Brunswick.) 

Artemisia. 

Portrait of a Lady (Signora Branconi ?). 1770. (^Bruns- 
wick Gallery.) 

LISZEWSKA, Friedbrika Julia, born at Dessau 
in 1772, was the pupil of her father, whose name 
also is stated to have been Georg Liszewski, and 
with whom she came to Berlin in 1792. She 
painted the portraits of her father and of the 
Turliish Ambassador at Berh'n ; also pictures of 
a girl reading, another Icnitting, and a third 
holding a pigeon, for the Duke of Mecklenburg- 
Schwerin. She was living in 1838. 

LISZEWSKA, Julia, who was born m 1724, and 
died in 1794, has left some portraits and family 
scenes. 

LISZEWSKI, Christoph Fribdrich Rbinhold, 
the son of Georg Liszewski, and brother of Anna 
Dorothea and Anna Rosina Liszewska, was born 
at Berlin in 1725, and was probably instructed by 
his father. He was court painter at Dessau in 
1752, worked at Dresden in 1768, visited Berlin 
in 1772, and became in 1779 court painter to the 
Duke of Mecklenburg-Schwerin at Ludwigslust, 
where he died in 1794. He excelled in por- 
traiture, which he liked to represent by candle- 
light, and in which branch he was most successful. 
Among his best performances may be mentioned 
the portrait of Eugene, Prince of Anhalt. 

LISZEWSKI, Jbrzy, (or Georg,) wns born at 
Olesko in Poland in 1674, and was first in the 
employ of Eosander, an architect, wlio, seeing his 
talent, set him to study painting. He established 
himself in Berlin, and died there in 1750. The 
following portraits by him were engraved : 

A. de VignoUes, the Mathematician ; hy J. J. Hcdd. 

Prince Friedrich August of Anhalt ; by J. M. Berni- 
geroth. 

Prince Friedrich of Hesse-Oassel ; hy Boshach. 



LITHUAED. 

VOL. II. 



See LiUTHAED. 



LITSCHAUER, Karl Joseph, an Austrian 
painter, was born at Vienna in 1830. He was first 
instructed- by Waldmiiller of that city, but studied 
afterwards at the Academy of Diisseldorf under 
Tidemand and by himself. After staying some 
time in his native city he returned to Diisseldorf, 
and became from about the year 1850 a follower 
of that school. He died at Diisseldorf in 1871. 
His best known works are : 

Diisseldorf. Serr \ Scenes from the Thirty Years' 

„ Brewer, j "War. 

Vienna. Gallery. The Ambuscade. 

„ Count Arnim. Scenes from the Thirty Years' 

"War. 
„ Laboratory. Morning and Night. 

LITTEEINI, Agostino, (or Letterini,) was 
born at Venice in 1642. He was a pupil of Pietro 
della Vecchia. At Vicenza, in the church of San 
Geronimo, are two pictures by this artist of 'St. 
Joseph' and ' St. John of the Cross.' He was living 
in 1727. His daughter, Catahina Litteeini, born 
in 1675, was also an artist. 

LITTERINI, Baetolommeo, (or Letterini,) was 
born at Venice in 1669, and was instructed by his 
father, Agostino Litterini. He was a happy imitator 
of Titian, and represented Madonnas with exquisite 
sweetness. There are works by him in San Pater- 
niano at Venice, and in the churcli at Partenkirchen 
is an ' Ascension of the Virgin,' dated 1731. 

LITTEET de MONTIGNY, Cl.wde Antoine, a 
French engraver, was born in Paris in 1735, and 
studied under Cars. This artist visited England 
about the year 1768, but not meeting with much 
encouragement, he returned to France, and died at 
Rouen in 1775. He engraved several portraits 
and other subjects, among which are : 

portraits. 
Madame de Pompadour ; after Schennu. 
Mademoiselle Clairon, the actress ; after the same. 
Jean Jacques Rousseau ; after X>e La Tour. 
Pierre Laurent de Belloy ; after his own designs. 
M. de Sartine, Lieutenant-General of Police ; after 

Vigee. 
Antoine de Malvin, Archbishop of Lyons ; after Van 

Loo. 
Charles Simon Favart ; after Liotard. 

VARIOUS SUBJECTS. 

Venus sleeping; after St. Quentin. 

Diana reposing ; c^ter the same. 

l-ove conducted by Fidelity ; after Schenau. 

Love distributing his Gifts ; after the same. 

Two Views of the Ehine ; after Weir.otter. 

The Concert of the Grand Sultan ; after C. van Loo. 

LIUTHARD, (or Lithuaed,) a famous minia- 
ture painter, flourished in the time of Charles the 
Bald, by whose orders in 870 he illustrated with 
miniatures the Codex Aureus, which he wrote witli 
his brother Berengarius. It was tiansferred in 
888 from the Abbey of St. Denis, near I'aris, to St. 
Emmeran at Ratisbon, from whence it was removed 
in 975, and is now in the Eoyal Library at Munich. 
There is also by him a prayer-book of 862-869 in 
the Louvre at Paris. 

LIVENSZ, Jan, (Libvens, or Lyvens,) a Dutch 
painter and engraver, was born at Leyden in 
1607. He was instructed in the first rudiments of 
design by Joris Verschooten, and at ten years 
of age was placed under Pieter Lastman, with 
whom he did not continue longer than two years, 
and it does not appear that he had any further 
instruction. When he was only twelve years old 
he copied the pictures of ' Democritus ' and ' Ilera- 
clitus,' by Cornelis van Haarlem, with an exactness 

65 



Liverseege 



A BIOGRAPHICAL DICTIONARY OF 



Lizars 



which made it difficult to distinguish them from 
the originals. Before he was eighteen, he liad 
established his reputation as a portrait painter, and 
his picture of ' Students reading at a Peat Fire ' 
opened the way to him in 1630 to visit England, 
wliere he was favourably received, and painted the 
portraits of Charles I. and his queen, with several 
of the nobility. On leaving England, he established 
himself at Antwerp, and painted several altar-pieces 
for the churches of the Low Countries. In 1635 
he entered the Grnild of St. Luke, and in 1661 the 
' Piotura ' Society at the Hague, whence after a 
time he returned to Antwerp, where he was still 
living in 1672. He died about that date. The 
following are among his best paintings : 

Amsterrlam. Museum. Portrait of Joost van den Von- 

del, the Poet. 

Berlin. Gallery. Portrait of a Boy. 

Brunswick. Gallery. The Sacrifice of Abraham. 

Leyden. T(yw)i Hall Scipio Africauus. 

Munich. Gallery. Two Portraits of Old Men. 

Paris. Louvre. The Visitation. 

Rotterdam. Museum. St. Peter. 

Other portraits by him are at Cassel, Copenhagen, 
Dresden, Stuttgart, and Vienna. 

Jan Livensz distinguished himself not less as 
an engraver than as a painter. His plates are partly 
etched, and finished with the graver in a mariner 
resembling that of Rembrandt. His prints amount 
to about sixty, and are usually signed with his 
name, but sometimes with the initials J. L. The 
following are his most esteemed prints : 

PORTRAITS AND HEADS. 
Ephraim Bonus, seated in a chair. 
Joost van den Vondel, the Dutch poet. 
Daniel Heinsius, Professor of History at Leyden. 
Jacobus Gouters, musician. 

The Bust of an old Man, bald, with a long beard. 
Bust of a Man with a furred cap ; after Rembrandt. 
Several Busts and Studies of Heads, &c. 

VARIOUS SUBJECTS. 

The Holy Family, with figures kneeling. 

The Virgin presenting a Pear to the Infant Jesus. 

The Raising of Lazarus ; a grand composition. 

St. John the Evangelist. 

St. Jerome in a Cell, holding a Crucifix. 

St. Francis holding a Skull. 

St. Anthony ; one of his early plates. 

Mercury and Argus. 

An Oriental Figure, with a furred cloak and cap. 

Another Oriental Figure, with a gold chain. 

The half-length of a Man, with long hair over his 

shoulders ; a woodcut. 
A Landscape, with three trees ; a woodcut. 

LIVERSEEG-E, Henry, a painter of genre sub- 
jects, was born at Manchester in 1803. From his 
birth he was weak, and deformed in his person, 
and being neglected by his father, he owed his 
edncation to an uncle, who watched over him with 
great care and tenderness. It is not said by whom 
he was instructed in art, but his first attempts were 
in portraiture. His touchy sensibility, however, is 
said to have prevented success in that line. Being 
enamoured of the works of Shakespeare and Sir 
Walter Scott, he turned from the real to embody 
the ideal characters in the writings of those 
authors, and produced a series of pictures of the 
dramatic kind, which brought him both money 
and reputation. Among these personifications of 
imaginary characters were Adam Woodcock, from 
Scott's romance of ' The Abbot,' in which he hap- 
pily depicted the ridiculous part in that good- 
humoured worthy ; ' Isabella and the Recluse,' 
from 'The Black Dwarf: and 'Edie Ochiltree 

66 



and Sir Arthur Wardour,' from ' The Aniiquary.' 
To these followed 'The Inquiry,' a scene of quiet 
humour, representing a country lad inquiring his 
way from a burly-looking porter at the door of 
a mansion. 'The Cobbler ' is of the same stamp ; 
he is reading Cobbett's Register, and spelling his 
way with a look of pondering sagacity. ' I'ercie 
Shafton and Mysie Happer' is another of liia^ 
happy delineations. In 1827 he came up. to 
London, and in the following year exhibited at the 
Koyal Academy, ' Wildrake presenting Colonel 
Everard's Challenge to Charles II.' After this he 
used to spend three or four montlis occasionally in 
this city, studying at the British Museum and the 
British Institution, and continuing to exhibit both 
here and at Manchester. The weakness of his 
frame sank under the activity of his imagination ; 
his life was a continued disease, and it was scarcely 
a surprise to his friends when he expired suddenly 
at Manchester in the year 1832. As an artist his 
power lay in delineation of character ; and he has 
left it doubtful whether he was most successful 
in the serious or the humorous. He is excellent 
in both. His works were published in mezzotint, 
under the title ' Recollections of Liverseege/ in 
1832-35. 

LIVESAY, RiCHAED, a portrait painter and en- 
graver, was bom about the middle of the 18th cen- 
tury, and about 1781 lodged with Hogarth's widow 
in Leicester Fields. He was a pupil and assistant 
of Benjamin West. Settling at Windsor, he was 
patronized by George III., to whose family he 
taught drawing. Afterwards he removed to Port- 
sea, on being appointed drawing-master to the 
Royal Naval College. Some of Hogarth's and of 
his own works were engraved by him. He died at 
Southsea in 1823. There are by him : 

Portrait of James, first Earl of Charlemont. {National 

Portrait Gallery^ 
Review of Troops by George III. (JIa' field Housed 

LIVIN, Menus, a Florentine painter of Dutch 
origin, was born at Amsterdam in 1630. He went 
to Milan and then to Rome, where he met with a 
gentleman who took him to "Vienna. There he 
found a powerful pation in Prince Matthias of 
Tuscany, who placed him with Pietro da Cortona 
at Florence. From thence he ran away and joined 
the players of the Duke of Savoy, but after three 
years he returned to painting, and meeting again 
with Prince Matthias, he joined Stefano della 
Bella. His chief works were a picture of the 
' Sacrifice of Abraham,' and the decoration of tlie 
cupola of the church of La Pace at Florenc ■. 
He was also an engraver. He died at Florence in 
1691. 

LIVIUS, Cruyl. See Levyn. 

LIVIZZANI, Giovanni Battista, was an Italian 
painter and poet, who lived in the first part of the 
17th century. Some of his pictures have been en- 
graved, but he gained more distinction with the 
pen than with the brush. 

LIZARS, William Home, a Scottish subject 
painter and engraver, was born at Edinburgh in 
1788. He received instruction from his father, 
an engraver, and also in the Trustees' Academy. 
His reputation was made by his ' Scotch Wedding' 
and ' Reading the Will,' exhibited at the Royal 
Academy in 1812, and which are now in the 
National Gallery of Scotland. The death of his 
father, however, compelled him to devote the re- 
mainder of his life to the engraving and printing 
business. He died at Edinburgh in 1869. 



Llamas 



PAINTERS AND ENGRAVERS. 



liochner 



LLAMAS, FuANCisco, was a Spanish painter 
who lived at Madrid in 1700. He was a pupil of 
Giordano, whose style he adopted. On the ceilings 
of the halls which separated the two cloisters of 
the College of Monks in the Escorial, he repre- 
sented 'The Trinity,' 'The Creation,' 'The chief 
Doctors of the Church,' 'The chief Philosophers,' 
'The Sciences,' 'The Virtues,' 'The Elements,' 
and several other subjects. He also decorated 
the Cathedral of Avila, and the Hermitage of 
our Lady of Prado, near Talavera de la Reyna. 

LLANOS Y VALDIS, Sebastian de, a painter of 
Seville, was born at Granada about 1602. He was 
a pupil of Herrera the elder, and worked chiefly 
for private and lay patrons. In 1660 he actively 
supported Murillo in founding the Academy of 
Painting at Seville, afterwards making frequent 
donations of oil and other materials for the use of 
the students. He was thrice chosen president of 
the Academy, in 1066 and the two following years. 
It is probable that he died about 1668. Cean 
Berniudez mentions only two of his works, a 
' Virgin of the Rosary, adored by Angels and 
Neophytes,' in the College of St. Thomas at 
Seville, and a ' Magdalene ' in the Recollet Convent 
at Madrid. Llanos is chiefly remarkable for hav- 
ing remained under the despotic Herrera longer 
than any other of his scholars, and for having been 
wounded in a duel by Alonso Cano. 

LLANTA, Jacques FRANgois Gaudebiqub, a 
French lithographer, was born at Perpignan in 
1807, and died in 1866. He was a pupil of Gros, 
and occasionally painted in oil. Among his litho- 
graphs is a portrait of the Duke of Orleans, Regent 
of France, after Santerre. 

LLERA ZAMBRANO, Alonso de, a native of 
Cadiz, flourished iti that city as a painter of banners 
for the royal navy, and executed, in 1639, altar- 
pieces for the oratories of four galleons despatched 
in that year to New Spain. 

LLORENS, Cristobal, was a painter of good 
repute, who lived in Valencia about 1597. He 
painted the histories of St. Mary Magdalene and 
St. Sebastian, which long adorned their altars in 
the conventual church of San Miguel de las Reyes. 
It is uncertain whether these or any of his works 
exist. 

LLORENTE, Bernardo German. See German 
Lloren'ie. 

LLOYD, Mary. See Moser. 

LOARTE, Alexandro, was a painter of Toledo, 
and disciple of El Greco. Cean Bermudez praises 
his works for their correct drawing and a Venetian 
cast of colour, mentioning a large composition of 
the ' Miracle of the Loaves and Fishes,' painted in 
1622 for the Mission Friars of Toledo ; a liunting- 
piece of the next year ; and a picture of ' Hens 
and Chickens,' painted in 1626. 

LOAYSA Y GIRON, Juan de, was a Spanish 
painter and archsologist, who lived at Seville in 
1669. He painted with taste, and was canon of 
the cathedral, and one of the founders of the 
Academy of Seville. 

LOBIN, JunEN Li^oroLD, a French histoi-ioal 
painter, was born at Loches in 1814. He studied 
under Steuben and Hippolyte Plandrin, and became 
director of the manufactory of stained glass at 
Tours, whtre he died in 1864. 

LOCA, BaTtista, according to Dominici, was a 
Neapolitan painter, who flourished about the year 
1540. He was first a scholar of Giovanni Antonio 
dAmato the elder, but afterwards studied the 

F 2 



works of Andrea da Salerno, and became a histori- 
cal painter of some reputation. In the church of 11 
Spirito Santo, at Naples, is a picture by this master, 
representing the ' Conversion of St. Paul,' painted 
in 1543. 

LOCATELLI, Andrea, (or Luca'jelli,) was born 
at Rome in 1660, and studied under Paolo Ancsi. 
He painted landscapes, architectural pieces, and 
some historical subjects, and had also an especial 
talent in representing ' barabocciate.' There is by 
him at Paris, in- the Louvre, a ' Landscape, with 
Shepherds ' ; other works are at Augsburg, Cassel, 
and Stockholm. Joseph Vernet was instructed by 
him. He died in 1741. 

LOCATELLI, Antonio, an Italian engraver, born 
at Alvisopoli, near Venice, about 1800, was a pupil 
of RafEaello Morghen and Longhi at the Academy 
of Milan. Among his plates are : 

Mater Dolorosa ; after Palagi. 1819. 

Daniel in the Den of Lious ; after Subens. 1833. 

Portrait of Giuseppe Parini ; after AlhertoUi. 

Portrait of Carlo Goldoni. 

LOCATELLI, Giaoomo, (or Lucatelli,) an 
Italian painter, was born at Verona in 1580. He 
studied at Bologna under Guido and Albaiii. 
Among his works are two pictures in the church 
of San Fermo Maggiore at Verona. He died in 
1628. 

LOCATELLI, Maria Cattarina, (or Lucatelli,) 
a native of Bologna, was a pupil of Pasinelli. She 
painted historical pictures, and in the church of 
the Madonna di S. Columbano is a picture of ' St. 
Anthony and St. Theresa.' She died in 1723. 

LOCATELLI, Pietro, (or Lucatelli,) an Italian 
painter, was born near Rome about 1630. He was 
a pupil of Ciro Ferri, or Pietro da Cortona, and his 
pictures in the church of Sant' Agostino and the 
Colonna Palace show boldness and freedom of 
colouring. At Siena are a ' Beato Galgano ' at the 
church of San Francesco, and an 'Assumption' at 
the hospital of Santa Maria della Soala. He was 
living in 1690, and died at Rome in the depth of 
poverty and wretchedness. 

LOCHE, Btienne, a French painter and litho- 
grapher, was born at Nimes in 1786. He was a 
pupil of David and of Baron Gros, and he litho 
griiphed several drawings by Girodet. 

LOCHEM, B. van, was a Dutch engraver, who 
flourished at Amsterdam from about 1605 to 1635.. 
There are a considerable number of his plates, 
which are partly in the style of Virgil Solis, and 
partly in that of Wierix, as ' Christ on the Cross.' 
There is a set of plates of ornaments for gold- 
smiths, after Tangen, engraved by him conjointly 
with Hendrik Janssens. He also engraved a set of 
small plates of hunting scenes, which^ from their 
shape, appear to have been intended for fans. 

LOCHER, N., a painter and engraver, was 
bom at Freiburg in Switzerland in 1770. He 
painted pictures in the style of Teniers. 

LOCHNEB, Stephan, (or Loethbnbr,) called 
Meister S'ibphan, a painter of the school of 
Cologne, was born at Constance in the early 
years of the 15th century. In 1442 he was 
living at Cologne ; and in 1448 he represented 
the Guild of St. Luke in that city as a member of 
the Senate. Again in 1451 he occupied the same 
post of honour, but died poor and neglected in the 
same year. His most famous picture is the ' Dom- 
Bild,' or altar-piece, in the choir of the cathedral 
at Cologne, painted soon after 1426. It is a tiip- 
tych, containing on the outside an 'Annunciation,' 

67 



Lochom 



A BIOGRAPHICAL DICTIONAEY OF 



Xiodge 



and within an 'Adoration of the Magi'; on one 
wing are ' St. Gereon and his Knights,' on the other 
' St. Ursula and her Virgins.' The figures are all 
painted on a gold background, and the green fore- 
ground with its many flowers seems to anticipate 
the rich colours of the oil-painters of Flanders. It 
was originally done for the chapel of the Town 
Hall, and is attributed to his latest and maturest 
period. Another great work of this master is ' The 
Madonna of the Rose-Arbour,' in the Cologne 
Museum, attributed to his earliest period. Amongst 
his principal works are : 

Berlin. Gallery. Adoration of the Cross. 

„ „ Adoration of the Magi. 

J, „ St. Ambrose and others. 

„ „ St. Mark and others, 

" "^"^pS^T^ } ^'"^Sin and Child. 
Darmstadt. Gallery. Presentation in the Temple. 1447. 
Frankfort. iStadel Inst. Two series of small works relating 
to the Martyrdom of the 
Apostles. (Doubtful.) 
London, iVat. Gallery. Three Saints (Matthew, Catharine 
of Alexandria, and John the 
Evangelist). 
Munich. Gallery. Figures of Saints. 

„ „ The Annunciation, 

„ „ The "Visitation. 

„ „ The Nativity. 

„ „ Adoration of the Magi. 

LOCHOM, Hans van, a Flemish engraver, pro- 
bably the father of Michiel van Lochom, was born 
at Antwerp about 1650. He engraved in the style 
of Van den Broeck, and among his plates are ' The 
Last Supper,' after that master, and ' The Repent- 
ance of Peter,' after M. De Vos. 

LOCHOM, Michiel van, was a Dutch engraver, 
who resided in Paris about the year 1635. Accord- 
ing to Basan, he engraved several plates for Crispyn 
van de Passe, whose style he attempted to imitate, 
but with little success. He appears to have been 
chiefly employed by the booksellers, and worked 
entirely with the graver. One of his best prints is 
a frontispiece to the 'Life of Louis XIII.,' with a 
portrait of that monarch on horseback, with- several 
small figures. He engraved several portraits for 
the works of Hippocrates, published at Paris in 
1639 ; and others after Ferdinand EUe. He also 
engraved the plates for Girard's ' Peintures sacrees 
de la Bible,' published in folio at Paris in 1656. 

LOCHON, EbniS, a French line engraver, was born 
at Boissy about the year 1632. He resided in Paris, 
where he engraved some historical subjects and 
several portraits, in which he seems to have imi- 
tated the style of Nanteuil. He died in Paris 
about 1675. Among other plates, the following 
are by him : 

portraits. 

Charles de Bourbon, Bishop of Soissons. 1657. 

Bustache de Lesseville, Bishop of Coutances. 1661. 

F61ix Vialart, Bishop of Chlllons. 

Balthasar Ph6Iypeaux de La Vrilliere. 1667. 

JSrome Bignon. 

Louis de Marillao, Doctor of the Sorbonne. 

Hardouiu de P^r^fixe, Archbishop of Paris; after 

Philippe de Champaicjne. 
Antoine Arnauld, Priest of the Oratory ; after the same. 

SUBJECTS. 
Christ bearing the Cross ; after Carracci, 
The Virgin and Infant, with St. John ; after JV. Coypel. 
LOCK, William, an amateur painter, was born 
aljout 1767 at Norbury Park, Surrey. His father 
68 



was distinguished as a collector, and an associate of 
artists, and he himself painted several allegorical 
subjects, of which the best known is the ' Death of 
Wolsey,' which has been engraved. Fuseli dedi- 
cated to him his ' Lectures on Painting.' 

LOCKE, William, was an English portrait 
painter, who lived in London about 1750. 

LOCKEY, Nicholas, was an English portrait 
painter, who practised at the end of the 16th and 
beginning of the 17th centuries. He painted a 
portrait of John King, Bishop of London. 

LOCKEY, Rowland, was an English portrait 
painter, who practised in the latter half of the 16th 
century, and was a pupil of Hilliard. He is reputed 
to have painted a picture containing portraits of Sir 
Thomas More, his son and his wife, and all their 
lineal heirs. 

LOCKLBY, David, was an English engraver, 
who flourished about the year 1719. Among other 
prints, he engraved «, large plate representmg a 
view of the New Church in the Strand ; and his 
name is affixed to a portrait of Michael Malard. 

LODE, Gdstav de, was a painter and engraver, 
who flourished at Viborg from 1730 to 1737. He 
painted historical pieces and portraits. 

LODE, Odoabd Helmont db, was a Danish 
engraver, who lived at Copenhagen in the middle 
of the 18th century. He died in 1757. Among his 
engravings are : 

Portrait of Christian IV. of Denmark; after G. van 
Mander. 

Portrait of Frederick III. ; after the same. 

Portrait of Count Moltke ; after G. G. Pilo. 

Nikola] Brorson ; after Erichsen. 

L5DEL, Heinrich, who was born at Hameln in 
1798, was first a bookbinder, but afterwards an en- 
graver both on wood and metal. He established 
himself at Gottingen in 1819, and died there in 
1861. He executed several beautiful wood-cuts 
and engravings, among which are : 

A Scene in a Public-house ; after Jan Steen ; an en- 
graving. 

Christmas Eve ; after H. Sess ; a woodcut. 

Extreme Unction ; after Seitz ; a woodcut. 

The Nymphs of the Danube; afUr J. Schnorr ; a 
woodcut. 

The Initials of Liitzelburger, with the Dance of Death 
and the Alphabetum Mortis, 1849 ; woodcuts. 

The Facsimiles of the woodcuts of Hans Wecbtlin. 

LODEB, Astolf, was a German painter, born 
at Frankfort in 1721, who, according to Basan, 
etched several plates after his own compositions. 
He was living about 1760. 

LODER, Matthaus, an Austrian painter, was 
born at Vienna in 1781, and studied at the 
Academy of that city under Maurer, Braun, 
Lampi, and Fuger. He first drew flowers and 
architecture, and afterwards painted history, land- 
scapes, and portraits. He became drawing- 
master to the Archduchess Maria Louisa at 
Parma, was received a member of that Academy 
in 1816, and subsequently appointed painter to 
the Archduke Johann. His best work is the 
painting of the Crucifix on the Erzberg. He 
died at Brandhofe in Styria, in 1828. 

LODGE, John, was an engraver, who practised 
in the latter part of the 18th century. He died 
in 1796. 

LODGE, William, the son of a wealthy mer- 
chant, who left him a handsome patrimony, was 
born at Leeds in 1649. From school he was sent to 
Jesus College, Cambridge, and he was afterwards 



Lodi 



PAINTERS AND ENGRAVERS. 



Loggan 



a student of law at Lincoln's Inn ; but being dis- 
posed to more pleasurable studies, lie attended Lord 
Fauconberg in his embassy to Venice, where meet- 
ing with Giacomo Barri's ' Viaggio Pittoresco,' in 
which the principal pictures in Italy are particular- 
ized, with an account of the celebrated collection of 
the Canone Settala at Milan, he translated it into 
English, and published it in 1679, with heads of 
the most eminent painters, and a map of Italy, 
etched by himself. During his travels he drew 
various views, which he afterwards etched. On 
his return to England, he assisted Dr. Lister in 
drawing rare shells and fossils, which were trans- 
mitted to the Royal Society, and are inserted in 
their 'Transactions.' He died at Leeds in 1689. 
Besides those above mentioned, Lodge's works 
include : 
The Pont du Gard,iu Languedoc ; with cipher ^^^Jf, 

View of Gaeta, with the Mole and Plancus's Tomb. 

Pozzuoli, Oaracalla's Mole, Baise, &c. 

Biiins of the Amphitheatre and Aqueduct at Mintur- 
num. 

Promontory of Circe, Temple of the San, &c. 

Lambeth Palace, from the Thames. 

■Westminster Hall and the Abbey. 

The Monument. 

SheriSE Hutton Castle. 

Clifford's Tower. 

View of York. 

Leeds, with Views of Kirkstall and Fountains Abbeys. 

Portrait of Oliver Cromwell, and his Page. 

Portrait of Samuel Malines ; aft&r Claret, 

LODI, Albertino de, was a painter of the 
Milanese school, who lived about 1640. He worked 
at the court of Francesco Sforza, Duke of Milan. 

LODI, Callisto da. See Piazza, 

LODI, Ermbnegildo, an Italian painter, was a 
native of Cremona, who flourished about 1616. He 
was a pupil of Giovanni Battista Trotti, whose style 
he followed. He had a brother, Manfkedi Lodi, 
who was also a painter. 

LODI, Giovanni da. See Della Chiese. 

LOEMANS, Arnold, was a Flemish engraver 
and printseller, who resided at Antwerp about the 
year 1690, He engraved a few plates after the 
Flemish masters, and some portraits, among which 
is that of Jacques Callot. 

LOEMBBRG, Lorenz, was a native of Sweden, 
who painted historical pictures and decorations. 
He went at the end of the last century to Ham- 
burg, where he resided for several years, but he 
eventually returned to his own country, and died 
about 1810. 

LOESCHER, Andreas, a portrait painter, was 
born at Scharfenstein in Saxony in 1693. He 
worked for some time at Rome and Venice, but 
afterwards settled at Augsburg, where he died in 
1762. 

LOBTHENER, Stephan. See Lochner. 

LOFFLER, August, a Bavarian landscape painter 
and engraver, was bom at Munich in 1822. He 
was first instructed by Heinrioh Adam, but he 
afterwards imitated Rottmann. In 1846 he visited 
Triest and Upper Italy; in 1849 the East, especially 
Cairo and the Holy Land ; in 1853 Greece ; and 
in 1856 Milan and Venice, which countries and 
cities he treated with distinction in his paintings. 
He died at Munich in 1866. Among his best 
landscapes are : 

The Cartoon of the Hunt. 

( {Far King 
Jerusalem. ) Frederick 

The Source of the Lykus on Lebanon.") William IV.) 

11851. 



The Palm Forest of Cairo. {For King William of 

Wurteiiiburg.) 
The Euins of Jerusalem. {Stuttgart Gallery.) 
Delphi. 
Damascus. 
Bethlehem. 
Moses. 

The Lord appearing to Elijah. 
The Gulf of Navarino. 
Lake Gennesareth. 1860. 
Athens. 

The Road to Eleusis. 
The Temple at Baalbec. 
Lakes Garda and Kochel. 1861. 
Bethany. 1862. 

Jerusalem from the Mount of Olives. 1863. 
Four large Forest Landscapes for Bad Kochel. 

Among his etchings may be mentioned two views 
of Athens. 

LOFVERS, Hbndeick, the son of Pieter Lofvers, 
was born in 1739, and was instructed by his father. 
He painted marine subjects, fruit, and flowers, 
and died at Groningen in 1805. 

LOFVERS, Pieter, born at Groningen in 1710, 
was a scholar of J. A. Wassenburg, and painted 
sea views with great ability. His pictures were 
formerly in great request in England, France, and 
Hamburg. He died in 1788. 

LOGGAN, David, was bom at Dantsio about 
the year 1630. He is said to have received his 
instruction in engraving from Simon van de Passe, 
in Denmark, and afterwards passing through Hol- 
land, he studied under Hendrik Hond, and came 
to England before the Restoration. He was first 
employed in engraving views of the public build- 
ings of the University of Oxford, which were pub- 
lished in 1675, in a folio volume, under the title 
of ' Oxonia Illustrata,' and comprised forty-four 
plates. He also engraved and published a similar 
volume for Cambridge (' Cantabrigia Illustrata ') in 
1688, comprising thirty plates. He executed also 
a set of eleven plates, entitled, ' Habitus Academi- 
corura Oxoniffi a Doctore usque ad Servientem,' 
which form a distinct series from the plates of cos- 
tumes engraved in the ' Oxonia Illustrata.' He died 
in London in 1693. There are a great number of 
portraits by him, which are esteemed his best 
works. They are generally executed with the 
graver in a neat but formal style, and signed 
2>. L. The following are the principal : 

Charles I., on horseback. 

Queen Henrietta Maria. 

Charles IL ; four plates. 

Queen Catharine of Braganza. 

James, Duke of York. 

George Monck, Duke of Albemarle. 

Sir Edward Coke, Lord Chief Justice. 

Edward Hyde, Earl of Clarendon. 

James Stanley, Earl of Derby. 

Lord-Keeper Guilford. 

James, Duke of Monmouth. 

James, Duke of Ormond. 

Nathaniel, Lord Crew, Bishop of Durham. 

William Sanoroft, Archbishop of Canterbury. 

Sir Henry Pope Blount. 

John Pearson, Bishop of Chester. 

Sir George Wharton. 

George, Prince of Denmark. 

Mother Louse, of Louse-Hall ; one of his earliest prints. 

John Sparrow. 

William Hickes. 

Peter Mews. 

Thomas Isham. 

Robert Stafford. 

Archibald, Earl of Argyll. 

Isaac Barrow. 

Edward Reynolds, Bishop of Norwich. 

James Ussher, Archbishop of Armagh. 

69 



Loh.de 



A BIOGRAPHICAL DICTIONARY OF 



IjOiuazzo 



Peter Gunuiug, ]2ishop of Ely. 

Pope Innocent XI. 

John Lake, Bishop of Chichester. 

Thomas Fuller. 

William Laud, Archbishop of Canterbury. 

Loggan was also very successful in portraits 
drawn with the pencil, and he has left two painted 
in oil — Gilbert Sheldon, Archbishop of Canter- 
bury, and Peter Mew, Bishop of Bath and Wells. 

LOHDE, Max, was horn at Berlin in 1845, and 
was early made acquainted with classical beauty 
by his father, who was a connoisseur. He studied 
painting under Julius Schnorr at Dresden, and 
Cornelius, but he afterwards attended the Academy 
at Berlin, and obtained a prize in 1866 with the 
' Bride of Messina.' Subsequently he travelled in 
Silesia, and devoted himself especially to sgraffito 
painting. He succeeded in inventing a new metliod 
of hardening the chalk, and imparting increased 
warmth to the colours. He earned great applause 
with the four wall-paintings on the staircase of the 
Sophia Gymnasium at Berlin ; they represent the 
Rape of Helen,' the 'Return of Helen,' the 
' Return of Agamemnon,' and the ' Arrival Home 
of Ulysses.' He died at Naples in 1868. 

LOIR, Alexis, the younger brother of Nicolas 
Loir, was born in Paris in 1640. He was brought 
up to his father's profession of a goldsmith, to 
which he added that of an engraver, in which he 
became eminent. He became a member of the 
Academy at Paris in 1678, and died there in 1713. 
He etched several plates from his brother's designs. 
The following are esteemed his best works : 

The Education of Marie de' Medici ; after Ruhens. 

(Luxembourg Gallery.) 
Time disooveriag Truth ; after the same. (The same.) 
Magnificat ; after Guido. 

The Fall of the Rebel Angels ; after Le Brun. 
The Massacre of the Innocents ; after the same. 
The Dead Christ in the lap of the Virgin ; after 

Miynard. 
The Finding of Moses ; after JV. Foussin. 
Venus giving Arms to -tineas ; after the same. 
The Adoration of the Kings ; after Jouvenet. 
The Presentation in the Temple ; after the same. 
The Descent from the Cross ; after the same. 
The Virgin with the Infant sleeping ; after N. Loir. 
The Holy Family ; after the same. 
. Mary Magdalene praying ; after the same. 
Portrait of Jean Mabillon; after Salle. 

LOIR, Nicolas, a French painter and etcher, 
was born in Paris in 1624. He was the son of a 
goldsmith, who, perceiving his inclination for 
painting, placed him under the tuition of S^bastien 
Bourdon and Le Brun, with whom he studied 
until he was twenty-three years of age, when he 
travelled to Roine. In that city he passed two 
years, and being in easy circumstances, he occu- 
pied his time in contemplating, rather than in 
copying, (he works of the principal masters ; and 
lie possessed so retentive a memory, that on return- 
ing to his apartment, he could trace sketches of the 
pictures which had most attracted bis attention. 
The woi-ks of Nicolas Poussin were the objects of 
his particular admiration, and his best pictures 
are those of an easel size, painted in the style of 
that master. On his return to Paris he met with 
immediate employment, and was engagefj in 
several considerable works for Loiiis XIV., in the 
palace of the Tuileries and at Versailles. In 1663 
he was made a member of the Academy at Paris, 
and painted for his picture of reception 'The Pro- 
gress of Painting and Sculpture.' In the church 
of St. Barthelemy is one of his best public works, 

70 



representing the 'Marriage of St. Catharine.' He 
died in Paris in 1679. Many French and Dutch 
artists have engraved after him. He has also left 
a great number of etchings from his own designs ; 
they are slightly but spiritedly executed, in the 
style of a painter. They amount to one hundred 
and thirteen, and are described in Robert-Dumes- 
nil's ' Peintre-Graveur Fran^ais,' vol. 3. They are 
signed N. L. I. F. or N. L., and among them are 
the following : 

Set of Twelve subjects, the Virgin and Holy Families. 

The Infant Jesus embracing the Gross. 

The Judgment of Paris. - 

Apollo and Daphne. 

Cleobis and Biton drawing the Chariot of their Mother 

to the Temple of Juno. 
Two large Landscapes. 

LOISEL, — , a French engraver, resided at Paris 
about the year 1645. He executed part of tlie 
plates for the folio volume of plans and views 
published by Beaulieu. 

LOISY, Jean db, a son of Pierre de Loisy the 
elder, was born at Besanyon in 1603. He engraved 
'Les Portraits des S. S. Vertus de la Vierge con- 
templees par feue S. A. S. M. Isabelle Claire 
Eugenie, Infante d'Espagne,' published in 1635. 

LOISY, PlEBRE DE, the elder, a French en- 
graver, was born at Besanjon, and flourished in 
the early part of the 17th century. 

LOISY, Pierre db, the younger, a son or 
nephew of Jean de Loisy, was born at Besan5on 
about 1630. Among his works are several religious 
subjects, the portrait of Philip IV., King of Spain, 
and others. 

LOLI, Lorenzo, a painter and engraver, was 
born at Bologna in 1612, and died in 1691. He 
is sometimes called ' Lorenzino del Signer Guido,' 
from his having been a favourite disciple of that 
master. He painted some pictures forthe churches 
at Bologna, of which the most admired is the ' St. 
Anthony of Padua,' in Santa Caterina di Strada 
Maggiore. There are by this artist several etchings 
after Guido and Sirani, whose school he also at- 
tended, as well as from his own designs. He 
sometimes signed his prints with his name, and 
sometimes Z. LL. F., Lo. 'F., Laur. Lol, &c. 
The following are his best prints : 

The Flight into Egypt ; after Guido Bern. 

The Holy Family, with St. John, in which St. Joseph is 
leaning on a Pedestal ; afte^- the same. 

The Holy Family, with St. Elizabeth and St. John ; 
after G. A. Sirani. 

The Virgin with the Infant, to whom an Angel presents 
a Basket of Flowers ; after the same. 

The Assumption of the Virgin ; after the same. 

St. Jerome ; after the same. 

The Virgin with the Infant sleeping ; after Elisahelta 
Sirani. 

Mary Magdalene, with a Crucifix ; after his own design. 

The Virgin appearing to St. Francis and St. Angustine ; 
after the same. 

Fame flying over a Globe ; after G. A. Sirani. 

Perseus and Andromeda ; after the same. 

Cupid breaking his Bow ; after his own design. 

Infant Bacchanalians ; after the same. 

A similar subject ; after the same. 

LOLMO, Giovanni Paolo, (or Ldlmo,) was bom 
at Bergamo, and died about 1695. In the church 
of Santa Maria Maggiore at Bergamo is a picture 
of ' St. Sebastian and St. Roch,' painted in 1587, 
and in the Berlin Gallery is a 'Madonna.' 

LOMAZZO, Giovanni Paolo, a painter and writer 
on art, was born at Mi'an in 1538, and was a scholar 
of Gaudenzio Ferrari, and Giovanni Battista della 



.liombard 



TAINTEBS AND ENGRAVERS. 



Londerseel 



Cerva. Of his works as a painter little is known ; 
and it is probable he did not paint much, as he 
became blind when he was thirty-three years old, 
and was chiefly occupied as an author on various 
subjects. In 1584 was published at Milan his 
' Trattato dell' Arte della Pittura, Scultura, ed Archi- 
tettura'; in 1687 his 'Rime'; and in 1590 his 
' Idea del Tempio della Pittura.' He died about the 
year 1600. The following works by him remain: 

Milan. Brera. Portrait of the Painter. 

„ Ch. Roechinetti. The History of Melohizedek. 

„ Capuchin Conv, A PietEt. 

Piacenza. S. AgostiTio. Several pictures. 

LOMBARD, Lambekt. See Susteeman. 

LOMBARDELLI. See Della Marca. 

LOMBAEDI, Giovanni Domenioo, called Omino, 
was born at Lucca in 1682, and was a scholar of 
Pietro Paolini, whose style he followed and im- 
proved by studying the works of the best Venetian 
colourists, and the style of the Carracci. He has 
left two laterals in the choir of the Olivetani, 
representing ' St. Bernard succouring those afflicted 
with the Plague.' There are two other pictures by 
hiui in San Romano, painted with such force of 
colour and relief, that they approach the best style 
of Gueroino. His reputation would have stood 
higher if he had always painted with equal care, 
and had not degraded his talents by painting 
pictures at all prices. He died in 1752. 

LOMBARDO, Antonio, was a painter of the Par- 
mese school, who flourished at the end of the 17th 
century. He is supposed to have been a pupil of 
Giovanni Maria Conti, whom he assisted in decor- 
ating with frescoes the oratory of Santa Croce at 
Parma, and painting several figures in the church 
of Sant' Illario. 

LOMBART, PiEBBE, a French designer and en- 
graver, was born in Paris about 1620. He is said 
to have learned the principles of design under 
Simon Vouet, but it is not known who instructed 
him in engraving. After acquiring some reputa- 
tion at Paris he came to England, some time be- 
fore the Restoration, as he engraved a portrait of 
the Protector ; a frontispiece to Ogilby's ' Virgil,' 
published in 1654 ; a title to a small octavo, in 
1658 ; and Sir Robert Stapleton's portrait for his 
'Juvenal,' before 1660. His latest known work 
bears the date 1672, after which he returned to 
Paris, and died there in 1681. During his stay in 
this country he was chiefly employed by the book- 
sellers, for whom he executed a great number of 
subjects, as well as portraits, which are his best 
works. The following are his principal plates : 

POETRAITS. 

A set of twelve plates, half-length, two of the Barl of 
Arundel and Earl of Pembroke, and ten of Ladies, 
called ' The Countesses ' ; after Van Dyck. 

Charles I., on horseback; after the sam". After the 
death of that monarch, the head of Cromwell was 
substituted for that of the King, but the latter was 
restored after the ilestoi-ation. 

Oliver Cromwell, with his Page ; after Walker. 

Robert "Walker, the painter ; after the same. 

Sir Samuel Morland ; after Lely. 

Anne Hyde, Duchess of York ; after the same. 

Brian Walton, Bishop of Chester. 

Jeremy Taylor, Bishop of Down. 

De La Fond, called ' Le Gazetier de HoUande ; ' after 
H. Gascard. 1667. 

Samuel Malines ; after Claret. 

Sir Henry Wootton. 

Dr. Charlton. 

John Ogill y. 

The Emperor Charles V. 



Dr. Donne. 

■William Caitwright. 

Charles Emmanuel II., Duke of Savoy. 



1674. 



VARIOUS SUBJECTS. 
St. Michael vanquishing Satan ; after Eapliael. 
The Virgin and Infant Jesus ; after Annihale Carracci. 
The Nativity, or Adoration of the Shepherds ; after N. 

Foussin. 
The Last Supper ; after the same. 
The Angel appearing to St. Joseph ; after Philippe de 

Champaigne. 
The Crucifixion ; after the same. 
The Holy Family ; after C. Le Feme. 

LOMI, Alessandro. See Loni. 

LOMI, Aubelio, was born at Pisa in 1556, and 
was first a disciple either of his father Giovanni 
Battista Lomi, or else of Bronzino, but he afterwards 
studied under Lodovico Cardi, called Cigoli, and is 
considered as the head of the Pisanese school. His 
fresco works in the cathedral at Pisa partake of 
the style of both Bronzino and Cigoli. Of his 
numerous works in Florence, the most worthy of 
notice are his picture of 'St. Anthony of Padua,' 
at the Franciscans, and his ' Last Judgment,' in the 
church of Santa Maria di Carignano. Less strik- 
ingly efEective, but esteemed by tlie Pisanese as 
his chef-d'oeuvre, is his ' St. Jerome,' in the church 
of the Gampo Santo at Pisa, which is marked with 
his initials and the date 1595. He died in 1622. 

LOMI, Baccio, was an Italian painter, born at 
Pisa, who flourished about 1585. He was a pupil 
of Taddeo Zucohero, whose style he followed. His 
chief work is an ' Assumption ' in the chapter- 
house of the cathedral of Pisa. 

LOMI, Obazio. See Gentileschi. 

LOMMELIN, Adrien, an engraver, was born at 
Amiens about the year 1636, and was instructed in 
engraving at A-ntwerp, where he passed the greater 
part of his life. He has left plates of a number of 
the works of Rubens, but very indifEerently exe- 
cuted. The portraits he engraved, after Van Dyck, 
however, are not without merit. The following 
are his principal plates : 

poetbaits after van dyck. 
Charles I. 

Ferdinand of Austria, Governor of the Low Countries. 
Jacob Le Roi, Seigneur of Herbaix. 
J. C. de La Faille, Senator of Antwerp. 
Alexander de La Faille, Jesuit. 
Zegher van Hontsum, Canon of Antwerp. 
Adrian Stevens, Ecclesiastic. 
J. Malderus, Bishop of Antwerp. 
Jan De "Wael, painter, of Antwerp. 
Jan Baptist de Bisthoven, Jesuit ; one of his best prints. 

SUBJECTS AFTER RUBENS. 
Abigail appeasing David with her presents. 
The Adoration of the Magi. 
The Circumcision. 
The Baptism of Christ. 
Christ washing the Feet of His Apostles. 
Christ appearing to Mary Magdalene. 
The Triumph of Charity. 
Time discovering Truth. 
The Assumption of the Virgin. 
St. Cecilia. 
The Judgment of Paris. 

SUBJECTS APTEE OTHER MASTERS. 
Christ taken in the Garden ; after Van Dyck. 
The Virgin and Infant, with the Four Doctors of the 
Church ; after Diepenheck. 

LONARDINO. See Ferrari, Leonardo. 

LONDERSEEL, Assuebus van, an engraver 
on wood and copper, was born at Amsterdam in 
1548, and died after 1699. He executed several 

71 



liOnderseel 



A BIOGRAPHICAL DICTIONARY OF 



Longhi 



small woodcuts in a very neat style, resembling 
that of Virgil Solis, as well as some Bible illustrations 
and some small outs for a ' Herbal,' by Matthias de 
L'Obel. He also executed the woodcuts for ' The 
Voyage and Travels o£ Nicolas de Nicolay into 
Turkey,' published at Antwerp in 1576. On copper 
he engraved a series of ornaments for jewellers, in 
the style of the German Little Masters. He usually 
marked his prints with one of these monograms : 

LONDEESEEL, Jan van, a Elemish engraver, 
was born at Bruges in 1582. There are by this 
artist several plates of landscapes, and other sub- 
jects, engraved in a stiff, formal style, after Marten 
De Vos, Coninxlo, Vinckeboons, Goltzius, and Hen- 
drik Arts. His prints are executed with the graver, 
and some of them possess considerable merit. He 
usually signed them with his name abbreviated, 
/. Land, or J. Londer fee. Among others the 
following are by him: 

faith, Hope, and Charity; represented by allegorical 

figures ; from his own designs. 
The Five Senses, emblemabically represented ; the same. 
A set of Landscapes, with figures ; after J. Savary. 
Four Landscapes, with biblical subjects; after G. De 

Hondecoeter. 
Four Landscapes, with the same ; after G. van Coninxlo. 
Kine Landscapes, with the same ; after D. Vinckeboons. 
A View of the interior of St. John Lateran ; after 

Hendrik Arts. 

LONDONIO, Francesco, an Italian -painter and 
engraver, was born at Milan in 1723. He was in- 
structed by Ferdinando Porta, and at first attempted 
historical painting, but abandoned that branch for 
landscapes with animals, in which he was much 
more successful. His pastoral subjects are highly 
esteemed at Milan, Genoa, and Napies, where they 
are found in the best collections. He also etched 
about seventy plates of landscapes, with figures 
and cattle, from his own designs, having been in- 
structed in this branch by Benigno Bossi. They 
are executed in a spirited style, though his fidelity 
to nature seems to have led him to a selection of 
the ugliest objects. In the Brera at Milan are five 
examples of his art. He died in 1783. 

LONG, John St. John, an engraver, was born 
in Ireland in 1797. He received some assistance 
from John Martin, and acted as an assistant to 
Ottley. He then took to painting, iind in 1825 
exhibited at Suffolk Street ' Elijah comforted by an 
Angel,' 'The Temptation,' and 'Abraham enter- 
taining an Angel.' His last occupation was that 
of quack doctor. He died in London in 1834, and 
was buried in Kensal Green Cemetery. 

LONGHI, Alessandeo, a Venetian painter and 
engraver, born at Venice in 1733, was the son of 
Pietro Longhi. He was a scholar of Giuseppe 
Nogari, and is chiefly known as a portrait painter. 
In 1763 he published a volume of the ' Lives of the 
modern Venetian Artists,' with portraits etched by 
himself. He etched several other plates of various 
subjects. He died in 1813. Among others, there 
are the following prints by him : 

PORTRAITS OF PAINTERS. 
Giacomo Amiconi. 
Antonio Balestra. 
Sebastiano Kicci. 
Giovanni Battista Piazzetta. 
Giovanni Battista Tiepolo. 

SUBJECTS. 
A Venetian Masqnerade. 
A Gondolier dancing with a Lady. 
72 



A Quack Doctor on bis stage. 
A Moor beating a Drum. 
The Philosopher Pythagoras. 

LONGHI, Antonio. See Veneziano. 

LONGHI, Barbara, thedaughter of Luca Longhi, 
was born at Ravenna in 1552, and was st^l living 
in 1619. The Castellani Collection possessed a pic- 
ture by her dated 1689. There also exist by her : 
Paris. Louwe. Virgin and Child. 

Ravenna. Academy. St. Monica. 

„ „ St. Judith. 

„ „ The Sacristy of San Vitale. 

„ „ The Healing of St. Agatha. 

I, „ St. Dominick. 

„ . „ St. Catharine and St. Agues. 

LONGHI, Francesco, the son and scholar of 
Luca Longhi, was born in 1544, and died in 
1618. He painted history and portraits in the style 
of bis father, though greatly inferior to him. One 
of bis best pictures is in the church of the Car- 
melites at Ravenna. Other werks by him are : 
Kavenna. San Vitale. Annunciation, 

„ „ Virgin and Saints. 

„ S. Gio. Battista. Madonna and Saints. 

LONGHI, Giuseppe, an Italian painter, and one 
of the most distinguished engravers of recent 
times, was born at Monza in 1766. His father 
was a silk mercer, and intended his son for the 
Church I but, through his own determination, 
Giuseppe was finally placed with the FlorenT 
tine engraver, Vincenzo Vangelisti, professor in 
the Brera at Milan, and the Florentine painter, 
Giulio Travallesi. He studied afterwards, for 
some time, in Rome, where he became acquainted 
with Raffaello Morghen. Longhi soon obtained a 
reputation for himself by his print from the ' Genius 
of Music,' a picture by Guido, in the Chigi Palace. 
After his return to Milan he was chiefly employed 
in miniature painting, until he was ordered by 
Napoleon to make an engraving from Groa's por- 
trait of him. About the same time (1798) he 
was appointed to succeed Vangelisti as professor 
of engraving in the Academy of the Brera, to 
which, during Longhi's professorship, many dis- 
tinguished engravers of the present century in 
Italy owe their education. Among his principal 
works are, ' The Vision of Ezekiel,' ' The Sposalizio, 
or Marriage of the Virgin,' and a ' Holy Family,' 
all after Raphael ; ' The Entombment,' and ' St. 
Jerome,' after D. Crespi ; ' The Reading Magda- 
lene,' after Correggio ; ' The Madonna del Lago,' 
after Leonardo da Vinci ; ' Galatea,' after Albani ; 
and many heads after Rembrandt. It would 
occupy too much space to enumerate all the pro- 
ductions of Longhi's graver worthy of being 
specified. In the fine series of portraits pub- 
lished at Milan, under the title ' Vite 6 Ritratti 
di Illustri Italiani,' he engraved the portraits of 
Napoleon, with tbe iron crown on his head, as 
King of Italy ; Michelangelo Buonarroti ; and 
Enrico Dandnlo, Doge of Venice: all superb in 
execution. But his ' Fasti di Napoleone il Grande ' 
must not be omitted. This beautiful work, after 
the designs of Appiani, was executed in part by 
Longhi, and the whole of it, as far as it exists, 
under his direction. Six of the plates were en- 
graved entirely by him, in what the Italians call 
the semilibero manner ; five of them represent 
' The Battle of Marengo ' ; tbe sixth, ' Time with 
the Pates ' : the rest are by Michele Bisi, Giuseppe 
Benagiia, and tbe two brothers Rosaspina, all 
worthy disciples of this great master. This work 
is especially deserving of notice, as having been 



LosgU 



TAiNTERs And engravers. 



Lonsing 



executed at the expense of the Emperor Napoleon. 
It is said that, not being completed at the time o£ 
his abdication, its further progress was forbidden, 
and the plates destroyed. He commenced in 1827 
the engraving of the ' Last Judgment,' after Michel- 
angelo, from a drawing by Minardi, but died with- 
out finishing it. The ' Madonna del Velo,' after 
Raphael, he also left unfinished, but it was com- 
pleted in 1834 by his pupil the Cavaliere Toschi. 
Longhi died of apoplexy at Milan in 1831. Among 
his other works are : 

Bonaparte at Arcole ; after Grot. 

The Good Samaritan ; aper Bemtrandt. 

The Philosopher ; after the same. 

The Old Man ; aft^r the same. 

The Laughing Negro ; aftei' the same. 

St. Joseph carrying the Infant Jesus ; after Guido Beni. 

The Triumph of Scipio ; after Matteini. 

The Virgin ; after Carlo tlolci. 

The Eepose in Egypt ; after Procaedni. 

The Beheading of St. John the Baptist ; after G. Dm. 

Louis XIV. ; after Bermc. 

Eugene Beauharnais ; after Girard. 

Lady Burghersh and Child ; aftfr Sir TJtomas Lawrence. 

Pan pursuing Syrinx ; after his own design. 

Portraits of Appiani, Washington, Giovanni Longhi, 
Carlo Portia, and Francis I. of Austria. 

LONGHI, LucA, was born at Ravenna in 1507. 
Tliere are several of his historical works in the 
churches of Ravenna, Perrara, and Mantua. In 
the church of San Benedetto at Perrara is a 
picture by him representing the ' Circumcision ' ; 
but his principal works. Madonnas with Saints, 
are in the churches of San Vitale, Sant' Agata, 
and San Domenico at Ravenna. His compositioiis 
are generally confined to a few figures, but his 
pictures are highly finished, and very agreeably 
coloured. He also distinguished himself as a por- 
trait painter. He died at Ravenna in 1580. In the 
Hermitage at St. Petersburg is a ' St. Catharine,' 
and in the Brera at Milan a ' Madonna and Saints.' 

LONGHI, PiETEO, a genre painter and engraver, 
was born at Venice in 1702, and was instructed by 
Antonio Balestra and Giuseppe Maria Crespi. Of 
his paintings there are several in the Academy at 
Venice, among which is a portrait of the architect 
Temanza, and the representation of a tall lady at 
her toilet. There is one etching by him, repre- 
senting ' Country Girls dancing.' He died in 1762. 
Bartolozzi, Cattini, Faldoni, and others, engraved 
after his works. 

LONGMATE, Barak, an engraver, was bom in 
Westminster in 1737. His plates were chiefly 
heraldic, and he edited an edition of CoUins's 
'Peerage,' 1779-84. He died in 1793. 

LONGMATE, Barak, the younger, son of Barak 
Longmate, succeeded his father as an engraver. 
He was born in 1768, and died in 1836. 

LONGRAPF, — , a Dutch engraver, flourished 
about the year 1698. He engraved a set of orna- 
mental subjects for goldsmiths, which are executed 
with the graver in a very neat style. 

LONGUEIL, Joseph de, an engraver, was born 
at Givet in 1736. He was instructed in engraving 
at Lille, and studied afterwards under Le Bas and 
Aliamet in Paris. He died in Paris in 1792. He 
engraved several vignettes for the ' Henriade ' of 
Voltaire and the ' Contes ' of La Fontaine. His 
talents were not confined to book-plates ; he exe- 
cuted some subjects after various masters, among 
whicli are the following : 

Two Allegorical Subjects ; after Cochin. 

Heroic Fidelity ; after Moreau. 

Two Ilural Subieots ; after Li^icii and Aviry. 



A pair of Dutch Merry-makings ; after Ostade. 
The Fishermen ; after Vemet. 
View in the Environs of Naples ; after Mettai. 
A Sea-storm ; after the same. 

LONI, Alessandro, (or Lomi,) was bom at 
Plorence in 1655, and was a scholar and imitator 
of Carlo Dolci. He was chiefly employed in copy- 
ing the pictures of his master, which he did with 
a precision that renders it difficult to distinguish 
them from the originals. He died in 1702. 

LONJUMEAU, Pierre Joseph Gaillabd db. 
See Gaillabd de Lonjdmeau. 

LONS, DiRCK EvERSEN, a Dutch engraver, was 
living from 1612 to 1622. He has left an etching 
of the ' Holy Family, with St. Elizabeth and St. 
John,' after A. van Nieulandt. There are also four 
landscapes by him, each having a large windmill. 

LONSDALE, James, a portrait painter, was born 
in Lancashire in 1777, but came to London at an 
early period of his life. He studied under Romney 
and at the Royal Academy, and afterwards pur- 
chased the house in Berners Street vacated by the 
death of Opie, and there he settled for the remainder 
of his life. He was one of the founders and chief 
supporters of the Society of British Artists, and 
exhibited with them almost regularly from 1824 to 
1837. He was a man of independent mind and 
manners, and perhaps his neglect of the sitaviter in 
modo was the reason that his practice was chiefly 
confined to male sitters. He had a masculine style 
of painting, 'and showed great discrimination of 
character in his portraits ; and as he painted some 
of the really great men of his time, his pictures are 
hkely to be appreciated long after the works of 
more fashionable portrait painters are forgotten. 
He died in London in 1839. He exhibited at the 
Royal Academy in 1818 a painting of ' Talma as 
Hamlet' ; and for the Duke of Norfolk he exe- 
cuted a historical picture of ' King John signing 
Magna Charta.' In the National Portrait Gallery 
are portraits of Lord Brougham, Sir Phihp Francis, 
Joseph Nollekens, R.A., William Sharp, Abraham 
Rees, and Queen Caroline. 

LONSING, Feans Jozef, was bom at Brussels 
in 1743. He was intended for the*military pro- 
fession, and entered as a cadet in one of the Belgian 
regiments in the service of Austria, called the 
Walloons. Being in garrison at the citadel of 
Antwerp he showed a love of art, and under the 
patronage of Prince Charles of Lorraine, governor 
of the Low Countries, he frequented the academy 
which that prince had organized, and in 1759 
obtained the principal prize. After this he entered 
the school of Martin J. Geeraerts, a distinguished 
painter of bas-reliefs, who had been a scholar of 
Theobald Michau. In this school, Lonsing made 
such progress that Prince Charles and Count de 
Cobentzf'l sent him to Italy, with a pension, to 
perfect his studies. At Rome he entered the school 
of Raphael Mengs, and there made acquaintance 
with Sir "William Hamilton, for whom, in 1772, 
he engraved several prints for the ' Scholre 
Italicae Picture,' among which 'The Hunt of 
Meleager,' after Giulio Romano, is noteworthy. 
He afterwards pursued his art at Paris, Lyons, 
and Bordeaux ; and he died at Leognan, near the 
latter city, in 1799, while engaged in painting 
the mansion of a rich merchant. His pictures 
are chiefly portraits, some of which have been 
engraved ; his easel pictures are rare and much 
sought after ; the greater part of his works are at 

Bordeaux. His general style is a mixture of the 

73 



Loo 



A BIOGRAPHICAL DICTIONARY OF 



XiCO 



Italian and Flemish, which gives his pictures a 
peculiar air, difEering from every other master, yet 
reminding the observer of the vi^orks of older date. 
In the Museum at Bordeaux are portraits of himself 
and the Duke de Duras. 

LOO, Charles AuiotE Philippe van, (or Van- 
loo,) was bom at Rivoli in Savoy in 1719, and 
instructed by his father, Jean Baptiste van Loo. 
In 1747 he became a member of the Academy at 
Paris, and was afterwards appointed court painter 
to the King of Prussia. In 1770 he returned to 
Paris, and became professor at the Academy, and 
in 1790 rector's adjunct. He died in Paris in 
1796. At Potsdam there is a painting by him of 
' Psyche watched by Cupid with a Lamp,' an ex- 
cellent performance in chiaroscuro. Other pictures 
by him are at Sanssouci. His works have been 
engraved by Larmessin, Ch6reau, and Petit. 

LOO, Chaeles ANDEfi van, (or Vanloo,) usually 
known as Carle van Loo, a painter and sculptor, 
was born at Nice in 1705. He was a son of Louis 
van Loo, and was instructed by his brother, Jean 
Baptiste, with whom he went to Rome, where he 
studied under Benedetto Luti, and learned sculpture 
under Le Gros. In 1719 they returned to Turin, 
and thence to Paris, where in 1723 he obtained the 
first prize for drawing, and in 1724 the first for 
painting, with ' Jacob purifying his House in order 
to make a Sacrifice to God.' After having in 1727 
again visited Rome, he obtained the first prize for 
design at the Academy of St. Litke, and was 
knighted by the Pope. After this he returned to 
Paris, and became a member of the Academy in 
1735, a professor in 1737, director of the Royal 
Art School in 1749, knight of the Order of St. 
Michael in 1751, rector of the Academy in 1754, 
court painter in 1762, and director of the Academy 
in 1763. He died of apoplexy in Paris in 1765. 
His best works are : 

Glasgow. GalUry. Group of four iBgares person- 

ifying the Seasons. 
Paris. Lov/vre. ^neas carrying his father 

Anchises. 

„ „ Marriage of the Virgin and St. 

Joseph. 

„ ' „ Furtrait of Marie Leszczinska, 

Queen of France. 

„ ,. Iphigenia. 

„ „ Marsyas flayed by order of 

Apollo, 

„ Petits Peres. The History of St. Augustine. 

LOO, Ernest van, a Flemish landscape and por- 
trait painter, was born in 1825. He studied in the 
Academy of Ghent, and was employed on decora- 
tive work. He died at Ghent in 1860. 

LOO, Feanqgis van, (or Vanloo,) was born at 
Aix in 1711. He was a pupil of his father, Jean 
Baptiste van Loo, but he died at Turin in 1733 
from the efiects of a fall from his horse. 

LOO, Jakob van, a portrait painter, was bom at 
Sluys in 1614. He was the son of Jan van Loo. 
From 1652 to 1660 he was at Amsterdam, and 
painted there portruils and figures of a small size for 
the landscapes of the elder Wynants and Hobbema. 
Subsequently he settled in France, where he was 
naturalized, and in 1663 was received into the 
Academy upon his portrait of Michel Corneille the 
elder, executed in the style of Van Dyck. He died 
in Paris in 1670. Among his works are : 
Berlin. Gallery. Diana and Nymphs. 

Glasgow. Gallery. Susannah and the Elders. 

Paris. Louvre. Portrait of Michel Corneille, 

the elder. 
Petersburg. Ilermitaye. The Concert. 

74 



LOO, Jan van, born at Loo, near Ghent, about 
1585, appears to have been the first artist of this 
family. There are by him two paintings in the 
Museum at Copenhagen, viz.: 

A Company of Drinkers and Gamblers. 
A Glass-Bead Manufactory. 

LOO, Jean Baptiste van, (or Vanloo,) bom at 
Aix, in Provence, in 1684, was first instructed by his 
father, Louis van Loo, and at an early age studied 
after the antique and the works of the great 
masters. He had acquired considerable reputation 
by some pictures he painted for the churches and 
public edifices at Toulon, when the siege of that 
place, in 1707, obliged him to return to Aix. At 
Toulon he married Marguerite Le Brun, the sister of 
Michel Le Brun, the miniature painter. After this 
he visited Nice, Monaco, and Genoa, and then went 
to Turin and worked two years for the Duke of 
Savoy and the Prince of Carignan. Being patron- 
ized by the latter he was enabled to go to Rome, 
where he attended the school of Benedetto Luti. 
In 1719 he accompanied the prince to Paris, and 
in 1737 he came to England, where, according 
to Walpole, his first works were the portraits of 
Colley Gibber and Owen MacSwinney, whose long 
silvery hair was extremely picturesque, and con- 
tributed to give the new painter reputation. He 
was favoured with the patronage of Sir Robert 
Walpole, by whom he was introduced to the Prince 
and Princess of Wales, whose portraits he painted. 
Van Loo soon bore away the chief business of 
London from every other painter. His likenesses 
were very striking, though not often flattering. 
His draperies and other accessories were usually 
painted by Van Aken and Van Loo's scholars, 
Eokhardt and Root. He became a member of the 
Academy of Paris in 1740. In 1742 he found his 
health considerably impaired, and he was advised 
to try the effect of the air of his native country, 
Provence, where he died at Aix in 1746. His first 
paintings are designed with correctness, but the 
numerous portraits which he had to execute were 
detrimental to his success in historical subjects. 
He restored some of the paintings of Giulio Romano 
and Primaticcio, and also etched a plate of ' Diana 
discovering Endymion in a Forest,' apparently from 
his own painting in the Louvre, which formed his 
reception piece at the Academy. Among his best 
works are : 

Brussels. Gallery. Diana and Endymion. 

Darmstadt. Gallery, Portraits of Louis XT. of 
France, and his Queen, Marie 
Leszczinska. 
„ „ The Slaughter of Zedekiah's 

Children. 
P ixis. Louvre. Diana and Endymion. 

„ „ Institution of the Order of the 

Holy Ghost by Henry III. 

Petersburg Hermitaye. The Triumph of Galatea. 
Rome. <S. M. delta Scala. The Flagellation. 

LOO, Jules C£sar Denis van, (or Vanloo,) a 
French landscape painter, the son of Carle van 
Loo, was born in Paris in 1743. He became an 
academician in 1784, and exhibited at the Salon 
from 1785 to 1817. He died in Paris in 1821. 

LOO, LoDis VAN, (or Vanloo,) was born at 
Amst3rdam about 1641, and was instructed by his 
fiither, Jakob -van Loo. He went to France, and 
obtained the first prize at the Academy, into which 
he would have been admitted had not a duel 



Loo 



PAINTERS AND ENGEAVEES. 



liCpez 



compelled him to retire to Nice. He settled at 
Aix in 1683, where several frescoes by him are 
still to be seen. There is by him at Toulon, in 
the chapel of the Black Penitents, one of his best 
productions, ' St. Francis.' He died at Nice in 
1713. 

LOO, Louis Michel van, (or Vanloo,) was bom 
at Toulon in 1707, and instructed by his father, 
Jean Baptiste van Loo. After having in 1725 ob- 
tained the first prize at the Academy with ' Moses 
•treading upon Pharaoh' s Crown,' he went to Eoine. 
On his return to Paris he became a member of the 
Academy in 1733 ; after this he was appointed court 
painter to Philip V. of Spain, and received in 1748 
the Order of St. Michael. After the death of Philip 
lie went to Paris, and was elected director of the 
Eoyal School of Arts for tlie Nobility. He died in 
Paris in 1771. There is by him in the Louvre, 
'Apollo pursuing Daphne ' (1733). 

LOO, PiETisR VAN, a Dutch painter of landscapes,- 
fruit, and flowers, was born at Haarlem in 1731. 
He commenced by painting choice specimens for 
the florists of his native city. He died in 1784. 

LOOFF, PlETKR, a Dutch engraver, flourished 
about the year 1630. He engraved some portraits, 
among which is one of A. van den Bremen. He 
also executed a print of Frederick Henry, Prince of 
Orange, drawn in a triumphal car. 

LOON, — VAN, a painter of birds, fruit, and 
flowers, was bom at Amsterdam in 1711, and died 
in 1787. 

LOON, H. VAN, a Flemish engraver, was probably 
a relation of Theodorus van Loon. He chiefly 
resided in Paris, where he engraved some plates 
fbr a work entitled 'Les Forces de I'Europe,' pub- 
lished in Paris in 1695. They consist of fortifica- 
tions, plans of towns, &c. 

LOON, Peter van, a Flemish marine and his- 
torical painter, was born at Antwerp in 1600, and 
died there in 1660. 

LOON, Theodorus van, was born at Louvain 
about 1595. It is not said by whom he was in- 
structed in his native country, but he went to Italy 
when he was young, and at Eome became acquainted 
with Carlo Maratti, whose style he particularly 
admired, and with whom he lived in habits of 
friendship. On his return to Bnissels he painted a 
fine picture of the ' Nativity ' for the Abbey of Dil- 
linghem, near that city, which gained him great 
reputation. He died in 1630. In the church of 
St. Gery, at Brussels, there is a series of pictures 
of the ' Life and Passion of our Saviour,' which are 
much admired ; but his most esteemed performances 
are seven pictures of the ' History of the Virgin,' 
at Aerschot, near Mechlin, which appear rather 
productions of the Eomanthan the Flemish school, 
and are entirely in the style of Carlo Maratti. In 
the Brussels Gallery is an ' Assumption ' and an 
'Adoration of the Shepherds.' 

LOOS, — , a flower painter of Hamburg, who 
flourished in the first half of the 18th century, and 
gained a great reputation. He died in 1760. 

LOOS, Fbiedeich, an Austrian landscape painter, 
was born at Gratz in 1797, and died in 1856. In 
the Vienna Gallery is a landscape by this artist. 
LOOSE, Joannes Josephus de. See De Loose. 
LOOTEN, Jan, (or Loten,) who was born about 
1618, probably at Amsterdam, painted in England 
during the reign of Charles II., and died here in 
1681. His pictures generally represent rocky and 
tliickly-wooded landscapes, and occasionally views 
of a quieter character, in which the figures were 



sometimes painted by Nioo'nas Berchem. They are 
well executed and true to nature, but are somewhat 
spoiled by a too dark colouring. The Berlin Gallery 
has a 'Landscape with a Stag Hunt,' dated 1659. 
In the Cassel Gallery is a ' Hunting Scene ' by him. 
Three 'Landscapes' are in the Dresden Gallery; 
and the National Gallery contains one— a ' River 
Scene,' with figures. Looten's works are also seen 
in private galleries in England, notably at Combe 
Abbey, Warwickshire, where there are no less than 
five. There also exist of his paintings : 

Copenhagen. Museum. A Fair ia a Swiss Village. 
Rotterdam. Museum. A Forest Landscape. 1858. 

Vienna. Liechtenstein Gall. A Landscape. 1673. 

LOPEZ, Cristobal, a pupil of A. Sanchez Coello, 
became painter to John IIL of Portugal. He 
painted many portraits of that prince and his 
family, and some good devotional pictures for the 
chapel at Belem. He died at Lisbon in 1594. 

LOPEZ, Cristobal, son of Josef Lopez of 
Seville, painted largely for the South American 
market, and left in fresco, in the church of All 
Saints, a giant ' St. Christopher ' and a ' Last 
Supper.' He died in 1730. 

LOPEZ, Diego, a Spanish painter, was born at 
Toledo about 1465. He studied under Antonio 
del Eincon, and became an excellent painter of 
frescoes and historical subjects. Fiom 1495 to 
1608 he was engaged in decorating the cathedral 
of Toledo, and in 1519, in company with Alonzo 
Sanchez, he decorated the theatre of the University 
of Alcala de Henares. He died about 1530. 

LOPEZ, Francisco, was a scholar of Beoerra, 
who painted creditably at Madrid in the reign of 
Philip II. (1656-1698). 

LOPEZ, Francisco, was a pupil of Bartolommeo 
Carducoi, whom he assisted in pictures executed 
in 1695 for the church of San Felipe el Real at 
Madrid, which was destroyed by fire in 1718. He 
was appointed painter in ordinary to Philip III. in 
1603, and painted a series representing the victories 
of Charles V. in the King's dressing-room at the 
Pardo. He also etched the third, sixth, and seventh 
plates for Vincenzo Carducci's '.Dialogues on 
Painting.' 

LOPEZ, Gasp ABO, born at Naples about 1677, 
was an excellent painter of flowers, and therefore 
called ' Gaspare dei Fiori.' He studied under J. Bap- 
tiste Du Buisson, Andrea Belvedere, and at Eonie, 
Venice, and Dresden. He settled subsequently at 
Florence, where he became court-painter to the 
grand-duke. He was murdered there in 1732. In 
the Vienna Gallery is a flower-piece by him. 

LOPEZ, Jaime, surnamed El Mudo, born at 
Madrid, was a Spanish painter, who flourished in 
the 15th century. He decorated the Hermitage of 
our Lady of Prado. 

LOPEZ, JosEP, a painter, bom about 1650 at 
Seville, was a disciple of Murillo, who followed 
the style of that master, but confined himself 
chiefly to painting representations of the Virgin. 
A ' St. Philip ' by him is in the convent of La 
Merced Calzada at Seville. 

LOPEZ, Pedeo, a Spanish painter, was a scholar 
of El Greco. He painted, among many others, the 
magnificent picture of the ' Adoration of the Kings ' 
in the convent of the Trinitarians at Toledo ; it bears 
his name, and the date 1608. 

LOPEZ CABALLERO, Andrea, a Spanish 
painter, born in 1647, was a Neapolitan by birth, 
but studied at Madrid under Antolinez. He devoted 

75 



Lopez Caro 



A BIOGRAPHICAL DICTIONARY OF 



Iiorenzetti 



himself chiefly to portrait painting, though in 
Madrid is a picture of ' Christ and the Maries.' 

LOPEZ CARO, Francisoo, a Spanish painter, was 
born at Seville in 1598. He was a pupil of Juan 
de Las Roelas, and devoted himself to portrait 
painting. He died at Madrid in 1662. 

LOPEZ Y PALOMIKO, Feancisoo, was a Spanish 
painter, who flourished in the 18th century. He 
studied at Madrid, and in 1759 became a member 
of the Academy of San Fernando. He excelled 
chiefly in portraiture, though he also painted some 
genre pictures. 

LOPEZ Y PIQUE R, Bbrnakdo, was born at 
Valencia in 1801. He was a pupil of his father 
Vicente Lopez y Portana, and was distinguished 
for his portraits. He died at Madrid in 1874. 

LOPEZ Y PORTANA, Vicente, a Spanish 
painter, was born at Valencia in 1772. In the 
Madrid Gallery is an allegorical picture and several 
portraits, among which is that of the painter, 
Francisco Goya. He died at Madrid in 1850. 

LOPICINO, Giovanni Battista, (or Ldpicini,) 
an Italian painter, who flourished at Florence 
about 1625, was a pupil of Oigoli. At Pistoja, in 
tlie church of Ban Domenichino, are several figures, 
and in the Vienna Gallery is a picture representing 
' Martha and Mary.' 

LOQUEYSSIE, Emilie von, a painter of portraits 
and miniatures, was born at Dresden in 1787, and 
gained a considerable reputation. 

LORCH, Melchiob, (or Lomch, or Lorichs,) a 
Danish painter and engraver, was born in 1527 at 
Flensburg in Schleswig. He worked first with a 
goldsmith at Lubeck, and then set out on his 
travels, and visited Germany, the Low Countries, 
and Italy. An opportunity of going to Turkey 
presenting itself, he availed himself of it, and so 
far gained the confidence of the Sultan as to 
engrave his portrait. After his return he stayed 
some time at Copenhagen, and then visited Con- 
stantinople a second time. He was made court- 
painter at Copenhagen in 1582. He is said by 
some authors to have died at Rome in 1586, but 
others state that he was living in 1594. His 
woodcuts are executed in a bold, free style ; and 
his copper-plates are engraved with great neatness 
and delicacy. He sometimes signed his prints 
with his name, and sometimes marked them with 

the monogram ]fi^[j ., with the date. The fol- 
lowing are by him : 

COPPER-PLATES. 

Portrait of Martin Luther. 

Portrait of Albrecht Durer. 1550. 

Aristoteles Stagirites Fhilosophus; with the cipher. 

1561. 
St. Jerome at prayer. 1546. 
A "Woman's Head. 1551. 
Two Portraits of the Grand Signior and his favourite 

Sultana; very scarce. 
The Crane. 1549. 
The Basilisk. 1548. 
Apollo. 
Portrait of Angre de Busbec. 1557. 

WOODCDTS. 

A set of 122 Prints of the Habits, Customs, &o. of the 
Turks ; dated from 1570 to 1581. 

A Sibyl. 1571. 

A woman standing, pressing her breasts, with a variety 
of animals below, with au inscription at the top, ffiflSf 
Satutni conjui qut Jtlatcc ©torum ; dated 1565. 

A Lady in full dress. 1551. 

The Deluge ; a large print, in two sheets. 
76 



LORDON, PiEERB Jer6me, a French painter, 
was bom at Guadeloupe in 1780. He was a pupil 
of the Polytechnic School, and became a sub- 
lieutenant in the Artillery, but abandoned arms 
for art. He was a friend of Prud'hon, and became 
his most famous pupil. He died in Paris in 1838, 
Among his works are : 

The Deliverance of Cimon. 1810. 

The Expulsion of Hagar. 1812. 

Hagar in the Desert. 1814. 

The Annunciation. 

St. Mark. 

Death of Semiramis. {Bijon Museum.) 

Henry IV. after the Battle of Courtras. 

LORENTE, Felix, was a Spanish painter, bora 
at Valencia in 1712, whose best works are to be 
found in the churches of that city. He died there 
in 1787. 

LORENTINO, Agnolo di, called Lobentino pi 
Aeezzo, flourished in the 15th century. At Arezzo, 
his native town, on the door of the church of San 
Domenico, is a ' Madonna and Saints ' by this artist, 

LORENTZEN, Christian August, was born at 
Sonderborg in Denmark in 1749, and received his 
first instruction in art at the Academy of Copen- 
hagen. He then travelled through Holland and 
France, after which he returned to his own country, 
where he gained a considerable reputation, fie 
died in 1828. 

LORENZ, Friedeich Gottlob, a landscape 
painter, born at Dresden in 1722, was a pupil of Louis 
de Silvestre and Jobann C. Turner. He died about 
1790. 

LORENZ, J. D., was a German engraver, who 
worked about 1765, and among whose works are : 

The Vision of Jacob ; after Bocksberyer, 

St. Sebastian ; after Diirer. 

The Last Supper ; after Betnlrandt. 

LORENZETTI, Ambeogio, was the son of one 
Lorenzo of Siena, and the younger brother of 
Pietro Lorenzetti, with whom he frequently worked 
in concert. The dates of his birth and death are 
both uncertain, and the first records known of him 
commence in 1323. According to Tizio, his 
earliest frescoes were those painted in 1331 in the 
cloisters of San Francesco, Siena. Ghiberti very 
highly praised them, and when seen by him they 
represented the lives and martyrdoms of certain 
Franciscan friars ; but their remains, which are now 
preserved in one of the chapels of the church, 
hardly seem to merit his encomiums. He is 
recorded to have executed certain frescoes illus- 
trative of the Creed and the Life of St. Catharine, 
in the church of Sant' Agostino, Siena, but they 
have now almost completely disappeared. In 1335 
he went to Cortona, and painted frescoes in the 
church of Santa Margherita, which are now lost. On 
his return to Siena he painted in the cathedral, and 
aided his brother Pietro in the frescoes at the 
Spedale. From 1337 to 1339 he was occupied 
in decorating the Sala della Pace of the Palazzo 
Pubblico, Siena, with three immense frescoes, 
which represent allegorically the ' Advantages of 
Peace ' and of ' Justice,' and the ' Evils caused by 
Tyranny ' (or, as they are often called, ' The Results 
of Good and Bad Government '). These paintings 
are now damaged by time, especially the one last 
named ; but enough remains to fully justify the 
praises bestowed upon them by Ghiberti, who saw 
,them in their prime. In 1340 Ambrogio completed 
for one hundred and thirty-five gold florins an altar- 
piece for the cathedral of Siena, called ' La Tavola 



Iiorenzetti 



PAINTERS AND ENGRAVERS. 



Lorenzo 



di San Cresoenzo,' which is lost. The last record 
known of this artist is a payment made to liim for 
work done for the Sala de' Nove in 1345, which has 
also disappeared. It is not unlikely that he died 
of the plague in 1348, at the age, as stated by 
Vasari, of ei2;hty-three. Among extant works by 
him are the following: 

Florence. Academy, Presentation in the Temple. 1342. 
„ „ Two panels with scenes from the 

Lives of St. Nicholas and St. 

Proculus. 
Siena. Academy. Madonna del Donzelli. 1344. 

LORENZETTI, Giovanni Battista, a native of 
Verona, flourished about 1640. He painted several 
frescoes in the churches of Verona. 

LORENZETTI, Pietro, called by Vasari Pieteo 
Ladkati, whose father's name was Lorenzo, was 
born in the latter part of the 13th century, and first 
appears as an artist in 1305, when he received one 
hundred and ten livres for painting part of an 
altar-piece at Siena, called ' La Tavola dei Nove.' 
In 1326 he painted an altar-piece for the ' casa 
deir opera ' of the cathedral of Siena, where can still 
be seen four panels belonging to it, with SS. Mary 
Magdalene, Catharine, Francis, and Romualdo. The 
church of Sant' Ansano, outside Siena, possesses an 
altar-piece with his signature, and the date 1329. 
It is a ' Madonna and Child, with four Angels, 
between SS. Anthony and Nicholas.' In 1333 he 
painted the ' Madonna ' above the new portal of 
the catl.edral, which in 1357 had to be restored by 
Luca di Tome ; and in 1335 he executed an altar- 
piece called ' di San Savino,' for the same building. 
In that same year Pietro, in conjunction with his 
younger brother Ambrogio, painted the ' Marriage 
of the Virgin' on the front of the Spedale of 
Siena, which was destroyed in 1720. A long series 
of frescoes have recently been rescued from white- 
wash in the church of San Francesco in Siena, 
which admirably show Pietro's style and finish. 
They represent different incidents in the Passion, 
from the ' Entry into Jerusalem ' up to the ' Resur- 
rection,' also the 'Miracle of the Stigmata of St. 
Francis,' and the episode of the ' Death of Judas.' 
These frescoes are remarkable for their vigour and 
harmony, and show Pietro to have possessed great 
talents both as a colourist and a draughtsman. 
The Campo Santo, Pisa, contains some frescoes by 
him (for some time ascribed to Orcagna), which, 
although very considerably damaged by damp and 
by time, still show how great his ability as an artist 
was. These frescoes illustrate different legends 
of the lives of the saints and hermits in the The- 
baide, and are admirable in the diversity of their 
incidents, and in the truth and force with which 
they are depicted. The date of Pietro's death is 
uncertain, but it is probable that he died in 1348, 
when the plague devastated Italy. Among his 
extant works are the following,: 

Arezzo. Fieve. The Virgin and Child, with Saints. 

Berlin. Gallery. Madonna and Child, with Saints, 

and five other examples. 

Oortona. S. Marco. A Crucifix. 

Floreace. Uffizi. The Thebaide in Egypt. 

„ „ Madonna and Saints. 1340. 

London. N'at. Gall. A Legendary Subject. 

Monte Polciano. Ms- ) Coronation of the Virgm. 

encordia. j ° 

Siena. Academy. Two panels with Scenes from the 

Carmelite Annals, and five other 
examples. 
Rome. Museo Oris- Eight small panels illustrative of 
iiano. the Martyrdom of St. Stephen 
and other Saints. 



LORENZETTI, Sano, or Ansano di Pietro, a 
native of Siena, flourished in the 15th century. In 
the Palazzo Pubblico are several frescoes by this 
artist, representing the ' Coronation of the Virgin,' 
and a ' Madonna,' painted in 1459. 

LORENZI, Francesco, an Italian painter, was 
born at Verona in 1719. He was a pupil of J. B. 
Tiepolo. His ' Holy Family ' at Brescia and hia 
frescoes at Verona show great sweetness of colour 
and outline. He died in 1783. 

LORENZI, Lorenzo, an Italian engraver, was a 
native of V'olterra, who flourished about 1760. He 
was a pupil of Cigna, and engraved part of the 
plates from the pictures in the cabinet of the 
Marquis Gerini, Among his principal works are : 

The Eternal Father between Adam and Eve ; after 
Furini. 

The Virgin and Child ; after Annilale Carracci. 

Landscape ; after Titian. 

Psyche and Cupid ; after Manozzi, 

LORENZINI, Fra Antonio, or Gianantonio, a 
Bolognese painter and engraver, was born in 1666, 
and was a scholar of Lorenzo Pasinelli. He is 
little known as a painter, as he devoted himself in 
the early part of his life entirely to engraving. 
In 1699 he was employed at Florence, in conjunc- 
tion with Theodor Verkruis, Mogalli, and others, 
to engrave the pictures in the gallery of the grand- 
duke, sometimes found collected in a single volunio 
under the title of ' Gallery of the Grand-Duke of 
Tuscany,' in a set containing one hundred and 
forty-seven subjects, engraved on one hundred 
and sixty-seven plates. He died in 1740. Nag- 
ler gives a list of seventy-six engravings by him. 
His plates are almost entirely etched, and the 
following are the principal : 

St. Anthony of Padua working a Miracle ; after Fa- 



The Martyrdom of St. Ursula ; after the same. 

St. John preaching in the Wilderness ; after the same. 

The Ascension ; after L. Can'acci. 

The Virgin and Child ; after Agostino Carracci. 

St. Dominick taken up into Heaven ; after Guido. 

St. Philip Neri kneeling before the Virgin ; after 0, 

Maratti. 
St. John, surrounded by Angels ; after Correyyio, 
The Annunciation ; after Paolo Veronese. 
The Baptism of Christ ; after the same. 
The Baising of Lazarus ; after the same. 
Noah building the Ark ; after Giacomo Bassano. 
St. Augustine, with a glory of Angels ; after Tintoretto. 
Joseph sold by his Brethren ; after Aiidrea del Sarto. 
Joseph governing Egypt ; after the same. , 
David with the Head of Goliath ; after Guercino. 
Christ with the Disciples at Emmaus ; after the same. 
St. Peter delivered from Prison ; after the same. 
The Holy Women at the Sepulchre ; after Fietro da 

Cortona. 
Venus and Cupid ; after Carlo Cigmini. 

LORENZO, Don, called II Monaco, a Camal- 
dolese monk of the convent of the Angeli at 
Florence, was born about 1370, and probiibly in- 
structed by Agnolo Gaddi, though his style re- 
sembles that of Spinello Aretino, as well as of Fra 
Angelico. His figures are expressive of religious 
feeling, but somewhat cold. As a miniaturist he 
is most successful in his smaller works. He died 
in 1426. His best performances are : 

C The Coronation of the Virgin, 

I with side pictures of the 

Cerreto. Camaldolesej Adoration of the Magi and 

Abbey. j of the Shepherds, and scenes 

from the life of St. Bernard. 

^ 1413. 

Certaldo. Sig. Landi. The Coronation of the Virgin ; 

of a small size. 

77 



Lorenzo 

Empoli. 



A BIOGRAPHICAL DICTIONARY OP 



Loth 



Florence. Monte Oliveto. 
„ *S'. Trinita, 

„ UJizi. 



„ Academy. 

London. Nat. Galleiy. 

Paris. Mtisie de Cluny. 
„ Louvre. 



Church. The Virgin and Child, with 
Saints. 1404. 

Madonna, with Saints. 

The Annnnciation. 

Adoration of the Magi. 

Christ on the Cross. 

The Virgin. 

St. John. 

The Annunciation. 

The Laterals of the 'Corona- 
tion of the Virgin 'at Certaldo. 

Christ on the Mount of Olives. 

The Three Maries at the Sepul- 
chre. 

St. Lawrence, St. Agnes, and St. 
Margaret. 

LORENZO, Bicri di. See Bicct. 

LORENZO, FxoiiisNzo di. See Fiokenzo. 

LORENZO, Francesco, called Lorenzo di 
Verona, was born at Verona in 1719. He painted 
Mstorieal and allegorical subjects and landscapes. 

LORENZO, PiERo DI. See Piero. 

LORENZO DEL SiGNOK Gdido. See Loli. 

LORENZO DI BICCI. See Bicci. 

LORENZO Di NICC0L6. See Geeini. 

LORENZO DI PIETRO, called II Vecchietta, 
was born at Gastiglione di Valdoroia, in the province 
of Siena, about 1412. He was a painter, a gold- 
smith, a sculptor, and an architect ; but he did not 
succeed well in any one of these branches of art. 
Siena possesses in the Palazzo Pubblico and in the 
sacristy of the Spedale remains of frescoes by 
him, which have been recently freed from a 
covering of whitewash. An altar-piece by him is 
in the cathedra] of Pienza, and the gallery of the 
Uffizi possesses a signed work by his hand. The 
dates on Lorenzo di Pietro's paintings extend from 
1441 to 1457. He died in 1480. 

LORENZO DI VITERBO, was a painter of the 
15th century, who executed a famous fresco repre- 
senting the ' Marriage of the Virgin,' in a chapel 
of the Servite Church at Viterbo. 

LORENZO VENEZIANO. See Vbneziano. 

LORI, Gabriel. See Lory. 

LOKICHS, Melchior. See LoRCH. 

LORIONE. This name is affixed to a shght 
etching of ruins in a landscape, with several 
figures. It appears to be the work of a painter. 

LORME. De. See De Lorme. 

LOERAIN, Cladde. See Gell^e. 

LORRAINE, XTean Baptiste de, a French en- 
graver, ujentioned by Basan, was born in Paris in 
17^7, and died at the end of the 18th century. 
He engraved some plates of portraits, and other 
subjects. 

LORY, Gabriel, (or LoRi,) a Swiss painter and 
engraver, was born at Berne about 1763. He 
worked first at Berne, and about 1806 at Herisau, 
from whence he went to assist Osterwald in 
Neufch§,tel. He died in 1840. He was a superior 
landscape painter, and among his productions 
are : 

Several collections of Swiss Views ; executed in conjunc- 
tion with Lafond and Zehnder. 

A collection of Russian Views ; executed conjointly with 
his son Geoi'g, who was born in 1795. 

Eomantic Journeys over the Simplon ; the same. 

The Bernese Bathing Girl. 

LOSCHER, Andreas, was born at Schafienstein 
in Bavaria. He spent some time in Venice and 
Rome, and afterwards went to Augsburg, where he 
devoted himself to portrait painting. He died in 
1762. 
. 78 



LOSGIil, Bernardino, Ihe son of Jacopo Loschi, 
was born at Parma in 1489. He painted an altar- 
piece, now in the Gallery of Modena, representing 
the ' Virgin and Child, between SS. Anthony and 
Nicholas, with four Angels,' signed by him in 1515. 
He was also the author of many paintings and 
frescoes in the churches and the castle of Carpi, 
where he died whilst in the service of Alberto Pio, 
in 1540. 

LOSCHI, Jacopo, was born at Parma in 1459. 
He painted in 1488 a standard and an altar-piece 
for San Giovanni, Parma ; and in 1496 he produced 
the ' Virgin and Child ' for the Servi at Carpi, a 
picture that afterwards became famous for its 
miracles, but which has been lost since 1707. The 
Gallery of Parma possesses a ' Madonna and Child,' 
signed by him in 1471 ; and in the Gall ry at 
Modena is a 'Magdalene.' Many of the churches 
in that city possess paintings by him and by h's 
f atCer-in-law, Bartolommeo Grossi. Loschi died at 
Carpi in 1604. 

LOSENKO, Anton Pavlovich, a Russian his- 
torical painter, was born at Gluchov in 1737. He 
studied at the Academy of St. Petersburg, and 
afterwards travelled through France and Italy. He 
returned to St. Petersburg, where he gained great 
reputation, and became Director of the Academy. 
He died there in 1773. 

LOSSOW, Fkiedrich, was bom at Munich in 
1837, and entered the Academy of that city, where 
from 1860 he studied the technicalities of the art 
under Piloty. For the most part, however, he was 
his own instructor, and distinguished himself as a 
painter of aniinals and of humorous pieces, which 
appeared in the ' Miinchener Bilderbogen ' and in 
the 'FHegende Blatter.' He died at Munich in 
1872. The following works by him may be men- 
tioned : 

The Story of the Little Eoe. 

The Fable Book. 

The House Dog. 1860. 

Dog with Puppies. 

Eat-Oatching. 1861 and 1862. 

Dog and Monkey Travelling Performance. 1866. 

Skye Terrier in a Child's Carriage. 

LOSSOW, Karl, was born at Munich in 1835, 
and studied at the Academy of that city. On 
visiting Italy in 1856 he became acquainted with 
the Hereditary Prince George of Saxe-Meiningen, 
who employed him in his Villa Carlotta at Lake 
Como. He died at Home in 1861. Among his 
paintings for Prince George are the following : 

Horand courting Hilda, the daughter of King Hagen, 

on behalf of Hettel, King of the Danes ; scene from 

' GudruD.' 
Hagen carried off by Greif , and how he maintained the 

Fight with the elder Greif. 
Three Cartoons taken from Uhland's ' Chapel.' 
Heine's ' King's Child,' and a Hunting Song. 
A Cartoon representing the Taking of the Town of 

the Malli by Alexander the Great. 

LOTEN, Jan. See Looten. 

LOTH, Franz, a German painter, was born at 
Munich in 1641. He was a brother of Johann Karl 
Loth, with whom he visited Venice, where he resided 
for several years. In 1699 he returned to Munich, 
where he died in 1701. 

LOTH, JoiiANN Karl, called in Itjly Carlotto, 
was born at Munich in 1632. He was the son 
of Johann Ulrich Loth, under whom he studied 
for a short time, and then went to Venice, where 
he worked under Pietro Liberi. After painting 
some historical pictures at Venice, he went to 



Loth 



PAINTERS AND ENGRAVERS. 



Louis 



Vienna, where he painted portraits of the Emperor 
and other distinguished personages. In the church 
of the Lesser Hospital at Venice is a picture of a 
' Dead Christ'; in the church of San Giovanni Cri- 
Bostoino is an altar-piece, representing the ' Death of 
St. Joseph'; and other works are to be found in 
the galleries of Augsburg, Bordeaux, Brunswick, 
Cassel, Dresden, Munich, and Vienna, He died at 
Venice in 1698. 

LOTH, JoHANN Ulrioh, was born at Munich 
about 1590, and was first instructed by his father, a 
painter on glass, and afterwards by Pietro Candido ; 
he probably studied also under Carlo Saraceno at 
Venice during 1610-13. After returning to Munich, 
he became about 1620 court painter to the Elector 
Maximilian. He died at that city in 1662. He 
painted in oil, water-colours, and miniature. His 
best works are considered to be : 



Augsburg. Gallery. 

Munich. PetersHrche. 

„ MeiliggeistMrche. 



Several pioductious. 
The Last Supper. 
The Descent of the Holy 
Ghost. 



LOTH, Onofrio, a painter, was born at Naples in 
1662. He was a pupil of Ruoppoli, and painted 
fruit and flowers. He died at Naples in 1717. 

LOTTER, Tobias Conkad, a German engraver, 
was bom at Augsburg in 1717, and died in 1777. 

LOTTES, Chkistian, a German engraver, was 
born at Nuremberg in 1701. He worked also at 
Augsburg, and died in 1740. 

LOTTI, Cosmo, was a painter and mechanician 
of Florence, in the service of Philip IV. of Spain. 
He furnished the marine and woodland scenery for 
Lope de Vega's pastoral drama, ' Selva de Amor.' 

LOTTO, Lorenzo, was born about 1480, pro- 
bably at T'reviso. He is said to have learned his 
art from Andrea Previtale, and to have gone in 
early life to Venice, where, according to Vasari, he 
became the journeyman and friend of Palma 
Veochio, and also studied under both Giovanni 
Bellini and Giorgione. His earliest known paint- 
ings are a ' Holy Conversation' in the Borghese 
jPalace, Rome, and an altar-piece belonging to the 
church of San Domenico, Recanati, both having 
the date of 1608. The church of San Floriano at 
Jesi has an 'Entombment,' painted by him in 1512, 
and of about this date is the altar-piece of the 
church of San Pietro Martire, at Alzano, represent- 
ing the 'Death of St. Peter Martyr.' In 1613 
Alessandro Martinengo of Bergamo chose Lotto 
from amongst the Bergamese artists to paint the 
altar-piece for the church of San Stefano, and 
agreed to pay him five hundred ducats in gold for 
it Lotto took three years to complete this immense 
work, which was first exhibited in 1516, and then 
consisted of a central panel with a ' Virgin and 
Child enthroned, attended by Angels, and adored 
by SS. Domiiiick, Alexander, Barbara, Roch, Mark, 
Stephen, John the Baptist, Augustine, and Sebas- 
tian'; a triangular tympanum with an 'Angel bearing 
the Orb and Sceptre ' (both of which are now in 
theohurchof SanBartolommeo atBergamo)f and a 
predella containing the ' Resurrection,' the ' Stoning 
of St. Stephen,' and a ' Miracle of St. Dominick,' 
which is now in the Piccinelli Collection at Seriate, 
near Bergamo. Existing records prove that at this 
same period Lotto painted a standard for the 
Brotherhood of Mercy at Bergamo, designed many 
of the cartoons for the ' tarsias ' in Santa Maria 
Maggiore, and furnished the two large altar-pieces 
of the churches of San Spirito and San Bernardino, 
Bergamo. In 1524, at the request of the Suardi 



family, he decorated the chapel of St. Barbara, at 
Novate, near Trescorre, with frescoes illustrating 
the lives of St. Barbara and another saint, which, 
although much injured, can be still seen. Soon 
afterwards were completed the fresco of the 
' Visitation' in the church of San Michele Arcangelo, 
Bergamo, and the ' Glory of St. Dominick ' in the 
church of the same name at Recanati. In 1525 
Lotto left Bergamo and travelled towards Venice, 
where he remained for some years. He is known 
to have been in Treviso in 1544, and to have there 
valued an altar-piece painted by Francesco Beca- 
ruzzi. In 1660 he was at Ancona, where he painted 
the altar-piece of the ' Madonna and Angels, with 
four Saints,' for the church of Santa Maria deli a 
Pace, and also agreed to paint seven canvases for 
the church of Loreto, which are now to be seen in 
the governor's palace in that town. Lotto died 
at Loreto soon after 1654. This painter's most 
celebrated altar-pieces arc to be seen in the churcljes 
of the Carmine and SS. Giovanni e Paolo, Venice, 
the cathedral of Asola, and at Monte San Giusto, 
near Ancona, where the church possesses a 'Cruci- 
fixion,' containing twenty-three life-size figures. 
Besides these the following are extant : 



Bergamo. 



Zochis-Car' 
rara Coll. 



S. Bartolonimeo. 

S. Bemardim). 
S. Michele. 



Berlin. 



S. Spirito. 
Gallery. 



Brescia. Tisi Gallery. 

Florence. Uffizi. 

„ Pitti Pal. 

Hampton Court. Pal. 

London. A'at. Gallery. 



51 


Bridgewater Gal 


Madric 


Gallery. 


Milan. 


Brera 


Munich. Gallery. 
Paris. Louvre 



Petersburg. , Hermitage. 

Bome. QuiHnal. 

„ Boryhese Pal. 

„ Rospiyliosi Pal. 

Vienna. Gallery. 



Maxriage of St. Catharine. 

1512. 
Adoration of the Sleeping 

Christ. 1533. 
Tirgin surrounded by Saints 

and Angels. 1516. 
Virgin and Child. 1521. 
Frescoes: The Annunciation, 

Visitation, Marriage of the 

'Virgin. 
Virgin surrounded by Saints 

and Angels. 1521. 
Christ parting from his Mother. 

1521. 
SS. Christopher and Sebastian. 

1531. 
His own Portrait. 
Portrait of an Architect. 
Portrait of a Young Man. 
Nativity. 

Holy Family. 1534. 
The Three Ages. 
Portrait of Andrea Odoni. 

1527. 
Portraits of Agostino and 

Niccolo della Torre. 1515. 
A Family Group. 
Madonna and Child, with 

Saints. 
Marsilio and his Bride, with a 

figure of Amor. 1523. 
A Pieta. 
Three Portraits. 
Marriage of St. Catharine. 
The 'Woraan taken in Adultery. 
Holy Family. 
Penitence of St. Jerome. 
Portrait of a Man. 
Marriageof St. Catharine. 1524. 
The Virgin and St. Onofrio; 

1508. 
Chastity. 
The Virgin adored by SS. 

Catharine aud James. 



LOTYN, Jan, a native of Brussels, was a flower 
painter employed a long time by Queen Mary 11. 
of England, after whose death he returned to his 
native city, where he died after 1695. 

LOUIS, Leonard FRANgois, a portrait painter, 

was born at the Hague in 1698, and was a pupil of 

Pieter van Kink and Jan VoUevens, He died at 

the Hague in 1786. 

' 79- 



Iiotuid 



A BIOGRAPHICAL DICTIONARY OF 



LSwenstern 



LOUND, Thomas, a landscape painter in oil 
and water-colours, was born in 1803. He was 
engaged in the brewing trade at Norwich, and 
pursued art as a recreation. His works appeared at 
the Royal Academy from 1846 to 1855. He died at 
Norwich in 1861. There is a water-colour drawing 
of ' Framlingham Castle ' by him in the South 
Kensington Museum. 

LOUTHERBOURG, Philippe Jacques de, was 
born at Strassburg in 1740. He was the son and 
pupil of a miniature painter, who settled in 
Paris, where his son was placed under the tuition 
of Tisohbein and Francesco Casanova, and became 
a very popular painter of battles, hunts, sea- 
pieces, and landscapes, with figures and cattle, 
in which last he at that time appears to have 
imitated the charming style of Nicoiaas Berchem. 
His works were universally admired, and in 1768 
he was made a member of the Academy of Paint- 
ing in Paris, and afterwards appointed court painter 
by the king. Though he met with very flattering 
encouragement, he in 1771 quitted France, and 
settled in London, where he passed the remainder 
of Ids life. Soon after his arrival in England he 
was employed to mal^e the designs for the scenes 
and decorations of Drury Lane Theatre, and in 
that province of art he displayed extraordinary 
ability. In 1780 he was elected an Associate of 
the Royal Academy, and in 1781 became an Aca- 
demician. He died at Chiswick in 1812. When 
Macklin projected his Bible, De Loutherbourg was 
engaged to exercise his powers as a historical 
painter ; on which occasion he painted two pictures, 
representing the ' Angel 'destroying the Assyrian 
Host,' and the ' Universal Deluge ' ; the latter was 
considered as his best performance in that depart- 
ment. Besides a great variety of easel pictures, 
De Loutherbourg occasionally employed his talents 
on a larger scale, in commemoration of the most 
remarkable military and naval events of the time. 
Among his most noted paintings are : 

The Review of "Warley Camp. (Royal Collection.) 
Lord Howe's Victoryof the 1st June, 1794. {Greemoich 

Hospital.) 
The Defeat of the Spanish Armada. {J%e same.) 
The Siege of Valeucienues. 
The Lauding of the English in Egypt. 
Victory of Admiral Duncan over the Dutch, 1797. 
The Fire of London, 1666. 
Miranda. 

View of Skiddaw. 

View of a Lead Mine in Cumberland. 
Landscape and Cattle ; thunderstorm. [Glasgow Gallery.) 
Two Landscapes. {Bordeaux Museum.) 

He has left the following and other etchings : 

Six plates of Peasants. 

Six plates of Soldiers. 

The Four Times of the Day. 

LOUVEMENT, FRANgois de, a French engravei, 
was born at Nevers in 1648. He is said by Florent 
Le Comte to have resided some time in Italy, at 
the time when Francois de PoiUy studied at Naples. 
He died about 1690. He engraved several plates 
after the Italian masters, including Lanfranco, 
Solimena, and others, among which are : 

The Stoning of St. Stephen; after Pietro da Cortona. 
St. Francis Xavier interceding for the Plague-stricken ; 
after Ciro Ferri, 

LOUVION, Jean Maeie, a French engraver, was 
born at Versailles in 1740. He studied under 
Fossard, and worked chiefly for the booksellers. 
He died in 1804. 

go 



LOUW, PlETEB, a Dutch painter and engraver, 
was bom at Amsterdam in 1720. He spent most 
of his time in drawing from the best masters. 
In 1743 he was made a member of the Academy, 
and in 1768 one of the Directors. He died be- 
tween 1794 and 1800. 

LOUYS, Jan, (or Loys,) a Flemish engraver, was 
born at Antwerp about the year 1600. He was a 
pupil of Pieter Soutman, at the time when Suyder- 
hoef studied under that master, and he engraved 
several plates after his instructor's designs. The 
following are his principal prints : 

PORTEAITS. 

Philip the Good, Duke of Burgundy ; after Soutman. 
Louis XIIL, King of France ; after Rubens. 
Anne of Austria, his Queen ; after the same. 
Philip IV., King of Spain ; after the same. 
Elizabeth of Bourbon, his Queen ; after the same. 
Francois Thomas of Savoy, Prince of Carignan ; after 
Van Dyck. 

SUBJECTS AFTEK VARIOUS MASTERS. 

The Resurrection of Lazarus; a. fine copy from the 

print by J. Lievens. 
St. Anthony; after Allrrecht Diirer. 
Diana and her Nymphs reposing after the Chase ; after 

Rubens. 
The Interior of a Dutch Kitchen ; after Ostade. 
Peasants amusing themselves ; after A. Both. 
A Dutch Kitchen ; after W. Kalf. 

LOVELL, Peregrine, an engraver who flourished 
about the middle of the 16th century, worked in 
the style of Hollar. There are some small en- 
gravings of Flemish soldiers by him, and speci- 
mens of his work will also be found in Delia Bella's 
Drawing-Book (1634). 

LOVER, Samuel, an Irish miniature and land- 
scape painter, was born at Dublin in 1797. He early 
obtained a reputation for his miniatures, and was 
elected a member of the Hibernian Academy in 
1822. Much of his time was taken up by giving 
entertainments illustrative of Irish character. He 
also achieved a considerable literary reputation 
by his novels, and had a civil list pension of £100. 
Many of his landscapes and portraits were ex- 
hibited at the Royal Academy. During his last 
years he lived in Jersey, where he died in 1868. 

LOWE, JoHANN Michael Siegfried, a German 
painter and engraver, was born at Konigsberg in 
1756. He studied first at Berlin, and afterwards 
went to Dresden. He visited Venice and Vienna, 
and in 1780 went to Russia, where he stayed some 
time, returning to Berlin in 1795. He painted 
portraits and historical subjects, and Was living 
in 1822. 

LOWE, Mauritius, an historical painter, was 
born about the middle of the 18th century. He 
was a pupil of Cipriani, and studied in the schools 
of the Royal Academy, where in 1769 he was the 
first gold medallist for historical painting. Sent 
to Rome, he forfeited the travelling studentship by 
non-compliance with the conditions. He had a 
contest^with the Academy in 1788 as to the recep- 
tion of his picture of the ' Deluge,' and was much 
befriended by Dr. Johnson. Improvident and ill- 
conditioned by nature, his circumstances were 
aggravated by an imprudent marriage, and he 
gradually sank out of public notice. He died in 
Westminster in 1793. 

LOWENSTERN, Christian Ludwig von, was 
born at Darmstadt in 1702. In the Museum of 
that town is a battle-piece by this artist. He died 
in 1755. 



Lowry 



PAINTERS AND ENGRAVERS. 



Lucas 



LOWRY, Robert. See Ladkie. 
LOWRY, Strickland, a portrait painter, 
flourished in the latter part of the 18th century. 
He was a native of Whitehaven, where he practised 
as well as in Dublin, Shropshire, StafEordshire, and 
Worcestershire, obtaining a considerable local 
reputation. He furnished some illustrations for 
Phillips's ' History and Antiquities of Shrewsbury,' 
1779. 

LOWRY, Wilson, was born at Whitehaven in 
1762. He was the son of Strickland Lowry, and 
was by him taken when a child to L-eland. After- 
wards, while still a boy, he worked as a house 
painter at Worcester, and also began to practise 
engraving. At the age of seventeen he was in 
London, and was admitted into the schools of 
the Royal Academy. Few of his earlier plates 
bear his name, having been executed for other 
artists, to whose fame they contributed. He en- 
graved most of the plates on mechanical subjects 
in Rees's ' Cyclopsedia,' Crabbe's ' Technological 
Dictionary,' the 'Philosophical Magazine,' and 
other works of a like kind. His mathematical 
knowledge of drawing, his researches in the laws 
of mechanics, his extensive acquaintance with 
physics and the general properties of matter and 
form, combined with the correctness of an eye that 
never erred, and a hand that could not deviate, 
highly qualified him for such work. Some of the 
finest specimens of his abilities, ae an architectural 
engraver, are to be found in the plates of Murphy's 
'Batalha,' Nicholson's 'Architecture,' the print of 
the House of Commons at Dublin, and Gandon's 
designs. He died in London, after a prolonged 
illness, in 1824, leaving a son and daughter, who 
followed the same profession. 

LOYER, — , was a native of Prance, who 
flourished about the year 1760. Among other prints, 
he engraved some plates of architectural subjects 
from the designs of Dumont and others after 
Marieschi, Bernini, and others. 

LOYER, NicoLAES, a Flemish historical painter, 
was born at Antwerp in 1625, and died in 1681. 

LUARD, John Dalbiac, a subject painter, was 
bom in 1830. He originally held a commission in 
the army, which he left to become a pupil of John 
Phillip. From 1855 he exhibited a few pictures, 
bearing on a soldier's life, at the Royal Academy. 
His health early failed him, and he died at Winters- 
low in 1860, after having shown much promise 
of future excellence. 

LUBIENIECKI, Bogdan, or Teodoe, a Polish 
painter and engraver, was born at Cracow in 1653. 
He was instructed in design by Juriaan Stur, 
a painter of Hamburg ; from thence he went 
to Amsterdam, where he became a scholar of 
Gerard de Lairesse. On leaving that master he 
went to Italy, and resided some time at Florence, 
where he was particularly patronized by the grand- 
duke. On his return to Germany he was invited 
to the court of Berlin, and was made painter to 
the Elector of Brandenburg, and director ^f the 
Academy. He painted history and landscapes in 
the style of De Lairesse, and designed Schliiter's 
' Masks,' which are in the arsenal at Berlin. He 
etched a set of six grand landscapes and figures, 
inscribed Th. de Luhinetzlci fecit., in 1698. Others 
of hie works are marked T. D. L. He returned 
to Poland in 1706, and was still living in 1729. 

LUBIENIECKI, Kezysztof, the younger brother 
of TeodorLubieniecki, was born at Stettin in 1659. 
After receiving some instruction in design, with his 
vol. II. Q 



brother, from Juriaan Stur, he accompanied Theodoi 
to Amsterdam, where he entered the school of 
Adriaan Backer, and followed the style of that 
master, both in history and portraits. He died at 
Amsterdam in 1729. Two of his paintings, ' The 
SnuflE-box and the Pipe ' and ' Table Friends,' aro 
at Copenhagen. 

LUBIN, Jacques, a French engraver, was born 
in Paris in 1637. Prom the resemblance his style 
bears to that of Gerard Bdelinck, he is supposed to 
have been a pupil of that artist. He was living in 
1694. Among other plates, the following are by 
him: 

portraits. 

Henri, Vicomte de Turenue, Marshal of France; after 

Philippe de Ckampaigne, 
Henri Augusts, Comte de Brienne ; after Largilliire. 
Prangois, Oomte de Grignan ; after the same. ' 
Louis, Due d'Humi^res,. Marshal of France : after F. 

Voet. ■' 

Armand Jean du Plessis, Cardinal de Richelieu. 
Jean Pierre Camus, Bishop of Belley. 
Jean Papire Masson, celebrated advocate. 
Jacques Callot, engraver. 
Vincent Voiture, of the Frencli Academy. 
Pierre CorneiUe, dramatic poet. 
Olivier Patru, of the French Academy. 
Robert Aruauld d'Andilly. 
Jean Baptiste Colbert, Minister of State. 
Thirty-eight portraits, including some of the above, in 

Perrault's ' Hommes illustres qui ont paru en France,' 

1696—1700. 

SUBJECT. 
The Entombment of Christ ; after Le Sueur. 

LUBLINSKY, Martin Anton, a painter, was 
born at Leschnitz in Silesia in 1643. He was a 
pupil of Scieta. In the Collegiate Church of 
Olmutz are frescoes by this artist, as also an altar- 
piece, and several pictures are to be found in the 
different churches in Olmutz. He died in 1690. 

LUCA, Santo, a monk, was a native of Florence, 
who lived in the 9th century, and on account of 
his saint-like conduct was called Santo. He is 
said to be the author of several paintings which 
were formerly attributed to Luke the Evangelist, 
as those of the ' Virgin and Child ' in the Madoima 
di San Luca at Bologna, and in Santa Maria Mag- 
giore at Rome. 

LUGA DI TOMB. See TomJ;. 

LUCA FA Presto. See Giordano. 

LUCAN, Margaret Bingham, Countess of, born 
in 1740, was the daughter and co-heiress of James 
Smith, M.P. She married in 1760 Sir Charles 
Bingham, Bart., who in 1776 was created Baron 
Lucan, and in 1795 Earl of Lucan. She painted 
original miniatures, and made clever copies of 
those by Hoskins, the Olivers, and Samuel Cooper. 
There is at Althorp a Shakespeare illustrated by her 
with portraits, views, and various ornaments. She 
died in 1815. 

LUCAS, Auger, a French historical painter, was 
bom in 1685. He was a grandson of Tournieres, 
and was received into the Academy in 1722 upon 
his picture of ' Acis and Galatea,' which was 
formerly at St. Cloud. He died in 1765. The 
Museum of Nantes possesses 'Spring,' 'Summer,' 
' Autumn,' and ' Winter,' by this artist. 

LUCAS, August, a German landscape painter, 
was born at Darmstadt in 1803. He resided for 
some time at Rome, and died in 1863. In the 
Darmstadt Gallery are three landscapes by hira. 

LUCAS, Germain, a French engraver, -flourished 

81 



Lucas 



A BIOGEAPHICAL DICTIONARY OF 



Iiuciani 



from about 1700 to 1746. He engraved, in a very 
neat style, several architectural plates for the 
collection of 'Views of Versailles,' published by 
P. Menant. He had a son who engraved, but his 
prints are not specified. 

LUCAS, Jean Paul, was a French painter, who 
died at Toulouse in 1808. He established the 
Museum in that city, and published a catalogue 
of its contents. 

LUCAS, John, a portrait painter, was born in 
London in 1807. He was a pupil of S. W. Eey- 
iiolds, and began life as a mezzotint engraver, but 
turned early to painting. He obtained a large 
practice as a portrait painter, and was a constant 
exhibitor at the Eoyal Academy from 1828 until his 
death. Among his sitters were the Prince Consort 
and the Duke of Wellington. He died in London 
in 1874. In the National Portrait Gallery is a 
portrait of Miss Mitford. 

LUCAS, John Templeton, a portrait painter, 
and the eldest son of John Lucas, was born in 
1836. He exhibited at the Eoyal Academy, and 
at the Society of British Artists. He was the 
author of a farce called 'Browne the Martyr,' pro- 
duced at the Court Theatre, and of a little volume 
of fairy tales, entitled ' Prince Ubbely Bubble's 
New Story Book,' published in 1871. He died at 
Whitby in 1880. 

LUCAS VAN LEYDEN. See Jacobsz. 

LUCASZ, PlE'i'ER Feans, a landscape painter, 
born at Mechlin in 1606, was a scholar of Gerard 
Seghers. He painted landscapes ornamented with 
small figures, and was patronized by the Archduke 
Leopold, for whom he painted a great number of 
pictures. He died in 1654. The portrait of 
Pliiderpe, a Flemish sculptor, in the Museum at 
Brussels, is by him. 

LUCATELLI. See Locatelli. 

LUCCA, Michelangelo da. See Anselmi. 

LUCCHESE. See Ldoensis, and Eicchi. 

LUCCHESINO, IL. See Testa. 

LUCE, Louis Eene, a French engraver, was 
born in Paris in 1695. He worked first for the 
goldsmiths, but was afterwards appointed engraver 
to the Imprimerie Eoyale. He died in 1774. 

LUCENA, Diego db, of an illustrious family of 
Andalusia, was a scholar of Velazquez, whom be 
imitated in his portraits, both large and small. 
He acquired great credit by his portrait of the 
poet Atanasio Pantaleon, who repaid him with a 
sonnet. He died young in 1650. 

LUCENSIS, Michele, (or Lucchese,) was an 
Italian engraver and printseller, who resided at 
Eome about the year 1550. He engraved some 
prints after Michelangelo, Eaphael, and Polidoro 
da Caravaggio, which he usually marked with the 

monogram jflF' 

LUCENTI, GiROLAMO, a native of Correggio in 
Lombardy resided at Seville in 1608. In that 
year he painted for the chapel of St. Thomas's 
College a pair of landscapes with figures, repre- 
senting the ' Calling of St. Andrew and St. Peter.' 
He also visited the city of Granada, where he exe- 
cuted in 1642 seven small works on the subject 
of the discovery of the manuscripts and relics at 
Sacro Monte. 

LUCHETTO DA GENOVA (or Luchino). See 
Cambiaso, Luca. 

LUCIANI, Antonio, a painter and engraver, was 
born at Venice in 1700. He was a pupil of 
Piocini in landscape and of Feldoni in engraving. 

82 



LUCIANI, Sebastiano, commonly called Sbbas- 
TIANO DEL PlOMBO, from the ofiBce of Keeper of the 
Leaden Seals, conferred upon him by Pope Clement 
VII., was born at Venice in 1485, and was educated 
by his father for the profession of music. Having 
become acquainted with Giorgtone, who was like- 
wise a musician, he was probably induced by him 
to learn the art of painting, and to enter the 
studio of Giovanni Bellini ; in after years he 
became the disciple of Giorgione. Amongst his 
earlier paintings were the altar-pieces of the 
' Incredulity of St. Thomas,' executed for San 
NiCcol6 at Treviso, and the ' Majesty of St. John 
Chrysostom,' executed for San Giovanni Crisostumo, 
Venice. Soon after finishing this last painting 
Luciani went to Rome by invitation of Agostino 
Chigi, who had just finished building his palace of 
the Farnesina, and who desired his aid in its 
decoration. His first work there was a series of 
mythological designs taken from Ovid's ' Metamor- 
phoses,' which attracted the attention and admiration 
of both Michelangelo and Raphael. A friendship 
then sprung up between Michelangelo and Sebas- 
tiano, which produced a marked effect on the style 
and future fortunes of the latter. The frescoes at 
the Farnesina Palace were finished about 1512, 
and it was then that Sebastiano commenced to 
paint portraits in oil. Amongst these may be 
mentioned the ' Fomarina,' now at Berlin, and that 
in the Ufifizi, Florence. A league was now formed 
between Sebastiano and Buonarroti against Eaphael, 
and they both endeavoured to obtain commissions 
from Julius II., that they might compete against 
the acknowledged talents of the latter. Buonarroti 
had felt some uneasiness at the growing fame of 
Eaphael, and he readily availed himself of the 
powers of Sebastiano as a colourist, in the hope 
that, assisted by his designs, he might be enabled 
to enter the lists with his illustrious antagonist, if 
not to drive him from the field. With this view, he 
furnished him with the designs for the ' Pieta ' in 
the church of the Conventuali at Viterbo ; and 
the ' Transfiguration ' and ' Flagellation ' in San 
Pietro in Montorio at Rome, which, as he was 
very tedious in his process, occupied him six years. 
The extraordinary beauty of the colouring, and 
the grandeur of Michelangelo's composition and 
design, in these celebrated productions, were the 
objects of universal surprise and applause. It was 
at this juncture that the Cardinal Giulio de' Medici 
commissioned Eaphael to paint his immortal picture 
of the 'Transfiguration,' and being desirous of 
presenting an altar-piece to the cathedral of Nar- 
bonne, of which he was archbishop, he engaged 
Sebastiano del Piombo to paint a picture of the 
same dimensions, selecting for the subject the 
' Eaising of Lazarus.' On this occasion he was 
again assisted by the powers of Buonarroti, by 
whom it was composed and designed. The picture 
was publicly exhibited at Rome, in competition 
with the ' "Transfiguration ' ; and it is no mean 
proof of its extraordinary merit, that, notwith- 
standing the transcendent beauty of Raphael's 
chef-d'oeuvre, Sebastinno's performance excited 
universal admiration. This celebrated work of art 
was removed, by the Eegent of France, from the 
cathedral at Narbonne into the Orleans collection, 
of which it was once one of the most important 
ornaments. It is now in the National Gallery. 
After the death of Raphael, Sebastiano was reputed 
the most distinguished artist at Rome. He was 
particularly favoured by Clement VII., who re- 



Lucidel 



PAINTERS AND ENGRAVERS. 



Lucy 



munerated his services by appointing him to a 
lucrative office, which occasioned him, in the latter 
part of his life, to relax in his labours as a painter. 
On the death of that Pope he continued to hold 
the post of Frate del Piombo under Paul III. His 
last undertaking was the chapel of theChigi family, 
in Santa Maria del Popolo, which he left incomplete: 
it was afterwards finished by Francesco Salviati. 
He died at Rome in 1547. The following are 
some of his principal works : 

Berlin. Gallery. Pieti. 

„ „ Portrait of a Man (formerly called 

Aretino). 
„ „ Portrait of a Nobleman. 

Bordeaux. Museum. Virgin and Dead Christ. 
Burgos. Cathedral. Virgin and Infant Christ. 
Edinburgh. Ifat. Gall. Bacchus and Ariadne. 
Florence. Fitti Pal. Martyrdom of St. Agatha. 
„ „ Portrait of a Young Man. 

Lendinara. S. Biatjio. The Visitation. 
London. Nat. Gall. Resurrection of Lazarus. 1519. 
„ „ Portraits of the Artist and Car- 

dinal Ippolito de' Medici. 
,, „ Portrait of an Italian Lady, as 

St. Agatha. 
Madrid. Gallery. Christ bearing His Cross. 

„ „ Christ in Hades. 

Naples. Museum. The Child Jesus sleeping. 

„ „ Portrait of Adrian VI. 

„ Holy Family. 

Paris. Louvre. The Visitation. 

Parma^ Gallery. Portrait of Clement VII. 

Petersburg. Serimtaye. Christ bearing His Cross. 
„ „ The Descent from the Cross. 

„ „ Portrait of Cardinal Pole. 

Home. FarnesiTia. Fresco : Subjects from the story 

of Galatea. 
„ S. M. del Popolo. Birth of the Virgin. 
,, S. Fietro in Mon- 1 mi, m ^ i.- ur \ 
torio \ Transfiguration (fresco). 

„ „ The Flagellation (oil, on the wall). 

„ „ St. Bernard. 

„ Doria Pal. Portrait of Admiral Andria Doria. 

Treviso. S. Niccolb. Incredulity of St. Thomas. 

Venice. S. Giovanni \ St. John Chrysostom surrounded 

CHsostomo. } by Saints. 

Viterbo. S. Francesco. The Dead Christ. 

LUCIDEL. See NedfohItbl. 

LUCIEN, Jean Baptiste, a French engraver in 
the crayon manner, was born in Paris in 1748, and 
died in 1806. He produced some academy figures 
and heads as studies for pupils, and some beautiful 
vignettes after Cochin for an edition of 'Tele- 
machus.' Besides these he engraved the following 
plates : 

The Eape of Cephalus ; after Fietro da Cortona. 

St. Cecilia ; after Guercino. 

Italian Girls ; after the same. 

The Vintage ; a, ter the same. 

Children dancing ; after the same. 

The Persian Beauty ; after the same. 

The Kising of Aurora ; after Pierre. 

Italian Musicians ; after Rouchardon. 

Fauns and Cupids ; after Cipriani. 

The Young Sister ; after Grmze. 

Andromache weeping over the ashes of Hector ; after 
Angelica Kauffmann. 

Napoleon I. ; afte}- Le Barlner. 

Bas-relief for the Arc de Triomphe de la Federation ; 
after Moitte. 

LUCINI, Antonio Francesco, an engraver, was 
born at Florence in 1605. He was instructed by 
Stefano della Bella, and engraved some plates in 
the style of that master, as well as in that of Callot. 
He usually marked his plates with the cipher 
..MLF. Tliere is by him a copy of Stefano della 
Bella's print of the ' Festival on the Arno ' ; as well 
as the following : 

o 2 



Sixteen plates of Scenes during the Siege of Malta by 

the Turks in 1565 ; a/tej- Mateo Perez de Alesio. 
Portrait of B. Tremblet, the sculptor. 

LUCKX, Chbistiaan, a Flemish flower painter, 
was born at Antwerp in 1623, and in 1639 became 
a pupil of Philips de Maeher, with whom lie re- 
mained three years, and afterwards of Frans 
Francken III., under whose guidance he painted 
some small historical pictures, such as ' Lot and his 
Daughters,' ' The Adoration of the Kings,' ' Christ 
bearing His Cross,' ' Christ's Appearance to St. 
Theresa,' and 'St. Ignatius.' In 1645 he beonme 
a master in the painters' guild at Antwerp, and 
henceforward devoted himself to still-Iife and 
flowers. There is no record of him after the bap- 
tism of his son in 1653. The Madrid Gallery has 
a flower piece by him. 

LUCQUIN, Henriquetta, whose maiden name 
was GiROUARD, was born at Lisbon in 1819. She 
became a pupil of Gosse, and exhibited portraits 
and historical subjects at the Salon from 1841 to 
1865. She died in 1866. 

LUCY, Charles, a portrait painter, was born in 
London in 1692. He studied at Rome and Bologna, 
and for eight years was a pupil of Cignani. 

LUCY, Charles, an historical painter, was born 
at Hereford in 1814. He commenced life as an 
apprentice to his uncle, who was a druggisl, but 
he soon abandoned that business, and proceeding 
to Paris, entered the Boole des Beaux-Arts, where 
he attended principally the classes under Paul 
Delaroche. Subsequently he returned to England, 
and became a student in the Royal Academy. 
After oscillating for some time between England 
and France, he settled down at Barbison, near 
Fontainebleau, where he resided nearly sixteen 
years. From 1838 until the time of his decease 
scarcely a year passed without one or more of his 
works appearing on the walls of the Royal Academy. 
In 1843 he sent to the "Westminster Hall competi- 
tion a cartoon of ' Caractacus and his Family before 
the Emperor Claudius,' and in 1844 another cartoon 
of ' Agrippiiia interceding for the Family of Carac- 
tacus.' In 1845 he sent to the same exhibition 
' An Abstract Personification of Religion ; ' and in 
1847 ' The Embarkation of the Pilgrim Fathers in 
the Ship Mayflower,' for which he received a 
premium of £200. He also painted for Sir Joshua 
Walmsley several portraits of distinguished states- 
men and others, which have since been bequeathed 
to the South Kensington Museum. He devoted 
himself almost entirely to historical subjects, chiefly 
connected with the Puritan era of English history, 
several of which have through engravings become 
popular both here and in America, where some of 
his works have found a home. He died in London 
in 1873. The most important of his exhibited 
works are : 

The Interview of Milton with Galileo 1840. 

An Illustration of II Penseroso. 1843. 

The Parting of Burns and his Mary. . 1844. 

The First Love of Napoleon Bonaparte. 1845. 

Salvator Mundi. 1847. 

The Landing of the Pilgrim Fathers. 1848. 

The Death of Mrs, Claypole. 1849. 

Evangeline in the Church. 1849. 

The Parting of Charles I. with his Children. 1850. 

The Eoyal Captives of Carisbrooke. 1851. 

The Parting of Lord and Lady Rusfiell. 1852. 

Nelson in the Cabin of the Victory. 1S54. 

The Burial of Charles I. 1857. 

Cromwell resolving to refuse the Crown. 1857. 

Bonaparte in Discussion with the Savants. 1858. 

Prayers for the Dead— All Saints' Day. 1859. 

83 



Ludeke 



A BIOGRAPHICAL DICTIONARY OF 



Luini 



Lord Saye and Sele before Jack Cade. 1860. 

The Reconciliation of Sir Joshua Reynolds and Gains- 
borough. 1863. 

Cromwell with his Family at Hampton Court. 1863. 
(Glasgow Corporation Galleries.) 

Garibaldi at the Tomb of TJgo Foscolo. 1865. 

The Intercepted Embarkation of John Hampden and 
his Friends. 1867. 

The Forced Abdication of Mary Stuart, Queen of Scot- 
land, at Loehleven Castle. 1868. 

Noontide Eepo.se. 1869. 

Portrait of the Right Hon. W. E. Gladstone. 1869. 

Ohsirlotte Corday returning to Prison after her Con- 
demnation. 1871. 

Columbus at the Monastery of La Rabida. 1872 

Shakespeare before Sir Thomas Lucy. 

LtJDEKB, Petek Ludwig, a painter, was born 
about 1760. He studied landscape painting, and 
tben proceeded to Italy. In 1786 he went to Rome, 
but in the next year returned to Berlin. 

LtJDERS, David, a portrait painter, was born 
at Hamburg about 1710. He was first instructed 
by PfeifEer at that city, but went afterwards to 
Paris, where he studied under Lemoine, and then 
to Italy, and subsequently to England and St. Peters- 
burg. Among his best portraits are : 

The Prince of Wales. 1751. 

The Family of the Russian Ambassador. 

Count Tschernitschev. 

LUDIUS, was a Roman painter in the time of 
Augustus, who, according to Pliny, was the first to 
adorn the walls of rooms with landscapes, which 
he embellished with figures variously occupied. 
He was the first Roman artist who painted in 
fresco, and he was chiefly employed in decorating 
the walls of the villas and country-houses with 
views of gardens, woods, and water-courses, with 
graceful figures. 

LUPFGLI, Giuseppe Maria, was a native of 
Pesaro, who flourished about 1680. He was a pupil 
of Siraone Contarini, and painted portraits and 
historical subjects. 

LUGANO, Lo Zoppo di. See Discepoli. 

LUGARDON, Jean L:Sonaed, a French. historical 
painter, was born at Geneva of French parentage 
in 1801. He studied under Gros and Ingres, and 
exhibited at the Salon from 1827 to 1857. Three 
landscapes by him were in the Exposition Univer- 
selle of 1867. He died in 1875. 

LUGRENCBLIS. This name is afSxed to a 
bold, spirited etching of a Bacchanalian subject, 
in the style of Benedetto Castiglione. It is inscribed 
Lugrencelis inv. et scul. 

LUHNE, Joachim, was born at Hamburg about 
1620, and studied under A. Backer, whose style he 
imitated with success, hut he afterwards studied 
the works of Carlo Lotti, and adopted from him a 
darker colouring. In 1673 he was master, and in 
1692 head of the Guild at Hamburg. He died 
there in 1717. Among his works are : 

Brunswick. Museum. His own Portrait, those of his 
family, and that of the mathe- 
matician Hertel. 1672. 

Hamburg. ^™- 1 ^j^^ „j HamUrg. 

LUIGI, Andkba di. See Alovigi. 

LUIKEN, Gaspae, (or Ldyken,) o, Dutch en- 
graver, supposed to have been the brother of Jan 
Luiken, was born at Amsterdam about the year 
1670, and is known to have been living in 1710. 
He executed many works in conjunction with Jan 
Luiken. Those executed by him alone are very 
inferior, and consist chiefly of book-plates, in 

84 



which he was almost entirely employed. Among 
them are the following : 

Twelve plates of the Months of the Year. 

Four plates of the Seasons. 

St. Francis Xavier preaching before the Emperor of 
Japan. 

The Miracle of the Loaves. 

LUIKEN, Jan, (or Luykbn,) was born at Am- 
sterdam in 1649. He was a scholar of Martinus 
Zaagmolen, and for some time applied _ him- 
self to painting, but not succeeding to his ex- 
pectation, he turned his thoughts to engraving, 
in which he became eminent. He usually engraved 
after his own designs, and he received, from his 
crowding his compositions with an infinite number 
of figures, the name of ' The Dutch Callot.' He 
died in 1712. His principal work is the set o£ 
plates he engraved for the Biblical works published 
by Mortier. Only a few of the plates of the so- 
called ' Mortier's Bible ' are by Luiken, but there 
is another series published by Mortier and Covens, 
consisting of 62 very elaborate engravings of 
occurrences in Bible history, the whole of which 
are by him, and exhibit uncommon powers of 
invention and freedom of execution. Out of 
upwards of 900 engravings, the following may be 
selected : 

Ten plates of the Commandments. 

Seventeen plates for the ' History of Finland.' 

Seventeen plates for the ' Voyages orientaux de M. 
ThSvenot.' 

One hundred and five plates for the ' History of the 
Martyrs.' 

The Prophet Jonah preaching to the Nluevites. 

The Assassination of Henry IV. of France. 

The Massacre of St. Bartholomew ; on two sheets (in 
conjunction with Gaspar Luiken). 

A great variety of emblematical subjects, fairs, public 
ceremonies, book ornaments, &c. 

LUINI, Ambbogio, a brother and pupil of Bernar- 
dino Luini, flourished in the earlier part of the 16th 
century, and was a good artist, as is shown by his 
frescoes of the Madonna at Saronno. 

LUINI, AuEELio, son of Bernardino Luini, was 
born at Milan about 1530, and was still living in 
1584. In the Brera at Milan is a picture of the 
' Martyrdom of St. Vincent the Deacon.' 

LUINI, Beenardino, called erroneously by 
Vasari Beenaedino del Lupino, was born at Luino 
on the Lago Maggiore between 1460 and 1470. 
He was a pupil of Stefano Scotto, but in the middle 
part of his career he became an imitator and fol- 
lower of Leonardo da Vinci. His early works 
bear no trace of Leonardo's style, and his late 
productions evince much originality, with Leo- 
nardo's manner for a basis. Several of his best 
works have for a long time been attributed 
to the hand of Leonardo. He worked in the 
churches of Milan and the neighbouring towns. 
Milan, Saronno, and Lugano still possess his best 
pictures, which for sweetness and depth of feeling 
are unrivalled. He was still living in 1530. It is 
impossible for one artist to approach nearer to the 
style of another than Luini does to that of Leo- 
nardo. There is the same taste in his composition 
and design, the same peculiarity of colour and 
extraordinary relief ; and it requires an intimate 
acquaintance with the works of Leonardo to dis- 
criminate between them. To form a just idea of 
the powers of Luini, it would be necessary to 
study his series of pictures of the ' Life of the 
Virgin,' at Saronno, in which the Virgin is repre- 
sented with a beauty, dignity, and modesty which 



Luini 



PAINTERS AND ENGRAVERS. 



Lundgren 



„ Palazzo Cappord. 
Hampton Court. Pal, 

»» J) 

Legnano. Church. 
London. Xat. Gall. 



Milan. 



Brera. 



resemble the works of Raphael. He was not less 
distinguished in his fresco paintings, of which the 
principal are the ' Christ crowned with Thorns ' in 
the Gollegio del S. Sepolcro, and those in the choir 
of the Monastero Maggiore at Milan. The follow- 
ing are among Luiiii's extant works : 
Corao. Cathedral. Adoration of the Magi (m tempera) . 

n 1) Adoration of the Shepherds [in 

tempera). 
Darmstadt. Gallery. Virgin and Child. 
Florence. Ufizi. The Daughter of Herodias with 

the Head of John the Baptist. 
Madonna kissing the Child. 
Flora. 

St. Catharine. 
Altar-piece. 
Christ and the Doctors. 

Lugano. & Maria 1 m, „ . / j. ^ 

%?i .^n^cZi. P^® P'^'^i™ O**''")- 1529. 
„ „ Madonna with two Children. 

„ „ Last Supper. 

*5""T'' ■l^*''*y'^''°«"' °f St. Maurice and 
{Mo7iastero >■ gt Catharine {fresco). 
Maggiore.)} " ' 

Christ at the Column (fresco). 
gt. Catharine borne to the tomb 

by Angels. 
Madonna and Child in a Rose 

Arbour. 
. Madonna enthroned, with SS. 
Anthony and Barbara (fresco). 
1521. 
Birth of Adonis. 
Sacrifice to Pan. 
Metamorphosis of Daphne. 
Young Girls playing. 
The Drunkenness of Noah. 
Christ crowned with Thorns, 
adored by the Confraternity of 
the Holy Cross. 
The Eedeemer. 
St. Catharine. 
Virgin and Infant. 
Holy Family. 
Sleep of the Child Jesus. 
„ ,, Salome receiving the Head of 

John the Baptist. 
„ „ The Forge of Vulcan. 

„ „ Two Pictures of Children. 

,, „ The Nativity. 

„ „ Adoration of the Magi. 

„ „ Christ. 

Pavia. Chartreuse. The Virgin and Child plucking 
a Flower. 
„ „ St. Sebastian and St. Christopher. 

Petersburg. Hermitage, Virgin and Child. 
„ „ St. Catharine. 

„ „ Portrait of a young Lady. 

„ „ St. Sebastian. 

Sciarra Pal. Modesty and Vanity. 



Modena. 
Munich. 
Naples. 
Paris. 



Amlrosiana, 



Gallery. 

Gallery. 

Museum. 

Louvre. 



Eome. 
Saronno. 



Vienna. 



-^^f ™^^| The Marriage of the Virgin. 



Gallery. 



SS.Eochand Sebastian. [Frescoes.) 
Adoration of the Magi. 1525. 
The Presentation in the Temple. 
St. AppoUonia with an Angel. 
St. Catharine with an AngeL 
The Daughter of Herodias. 
St. Jerome. 



LUINI, EvANGELiSTA, a younger brother of Ber- 
nardino Luini, flourished in the 16th century. He 
chiefly devoted himself to the painting of ornament. 

LUINI, LuiGi Cesaee, was a native of Valesia, 
in Lombardy, who flourished in the 16th century. 
He was a pupil of Gaudenzio Ferrari, and painted 
several frescoes afVarallo, near Como. 

LUINI, ToMMASo, a painter, was born at Rome 
about 1697. He was a pupil of Andrea Sacohi, 
and an imitator of Caravaggio, so that he was 



called " Caravaqgino." At San Carlo al Corso are 
several frescoes by this artist. He died about 1632. 

LUISMON, JoHANN Anton. See Eismann. 

LUIZ, was a Portuguese painter of the 15(h cen- 
tury, who painted between 1442 and 1446 several 
historical pictures in the monastery of Naxera. 

LUKE, Saint. The well-known tradition that 
the Evangelist Luke was a painter rests on the 
authority of Nicephorus, of the Menology of the 
Emperor Basil, and of other late writers. None of 
these are of historical authority, and the New 
Testament makes no mention of a fact so likely to 
have been recorded. 

LUMLEY, George, an amateur, has left several 
portraits engraved in mezzotint. He was a 
solicitor, and resided at York, where he died 
in 1768 at the age of 60. Among his works are 
the following : 

Thomas Comber, Dean of Durham. 
Lady Mary Fenwiek ; after Dahl. 
Sir "Walter Hawksworth, Bart. 
Sir Mark Millbauke, Bart. 

LUNARDUS, a wood engraver, flourished about 
1520. He executed some cuts of frontispieces and 
book ornaments from his own designs. 

LUND, Jens Petersen, a Danish painter and 
etcher, was born in Sonderjylland, and received 
his first instruction at the Academy at Copenhagen. 
In 1756 he received the gold medal, and then 
visited France and Italy, remaining in Rome for 
some time. He returned to Copenhagen in 1775, 
where he painted landscapes and architectural 
pieces, and died in 1790. 

LUND, JoHAN LuDviG Gerhard, a Danish 
painter, was born at Riel in 1777. In 1796 he 
entered the Academy of Copenhagen, where he 
remained three years, and then went to Dresden. 
In 1800 he went to Paris, and entered the atelier 
of David. In 1802 he went to Rome, where he 
painted his picture of 'Andromache,' and others. 
He returned to Copenhagen in 1810, and became a 
professor of the Academy. In 1814 he painted the 
' Return of Habor from the Battle,' and in 1819 
the 'Magdalene at the Sepulchre.' The picture of 
the ' Walk to Emmaus ' is in the church at Fiihnen. 
He died in 1867. 

LUNDBERG, Gustave, was a French portrait 
painter, who exhibited at the Salon between 1743 
and 1767. He was a member of the Royal Academy 
of Painting and Sculpture. 

LUNDBYE, JoHAN Thomas, a Danish landscape 
and animal painter, was born at Kallundborg in 
1818, and died at Flensburg in 1848. Among his 
pictures are : 

Copenhagen. Gallery. A Milking Place at Vognserup. 
„ „ A Cow Shed. 

„ „ Open Country in the North of 

Zeeland. 
„ „ Oxen in the Carapagna. 

LUNDENS, Gbreit, was a Dutch painter, who 
flourished about 1666. He painted conversation 
pieces in the style of Metsu, Ostade, and other 
Dutch painters. His works are found in the 
Dresden and Hanover Galleries. 

LUNDGREN, Egron, a Swedish landscape and 
subject painter in water-colours, was born at Stock- 
holm in 1816. He was educated in Paris under 
Cogniet, and afterwards travelled much in Italy, 
Spain, Egypt, and India, in which last counti-y he 
accompanied the staff of Lord Clyde. Through 
meeting John Phillip at Seville, he came to 
England in 1853, where he subsequently chiefly 

85 



Lunghi 



A BIOGRAPHICAL DICTIONARY OP 



Luti 



lived, becoming in 1864 an associate, and in 1867 
a member of the Water-Oolour Society. He 
published ' Letters from Spain ' and ' Letters from 
India,' and died at Stockholm in 1876. Amongst his 
chief works are : 

The Feast of Corpus Christi at Eome. 1841. (StocTc- 

holm JVational Gallery. ) 
Kneeling Pilgrims. 1845. {Stockholm JVational Gallery.) 
Dominican Friars in the Library of Siena. 
A Barber's Shop at Seville. 
A Spanish Posada. 
Indian Nautch Girls. 
The Travelling Companions. 1873. 
Eafaela. 1875. 

LUNGHI, Antonio, was bom at Bologna about 
the year 1685 (or, according to Zani, 1677), and was 
a scholar of Giovanni Giuseppe dal Sole. He 
painted historical subjects, of which the principal 
are in the churches at Bologna. In Santa Maria 
Maddalena is a picture of ' Christ appearing to Mary 
Magdalene,' and in San Bartolommeo an altar- 
piece representing ' St. Rita.' He died in 1757. 

LDNY, Thomas, a marine painter, was born in 
1758. His works appeared at the Royal Academy 
between 1780 and 1802. There is a picture by him 
at the Foundling Hospital of 'Vessels attacking 
Land Batteries.' He died at Toignmouth in 1837. 

LUPIGINI, Giovanni Battista. See Lopicino. 

L UPTON, 'Thomas Gopf, a mezzotint engraver, 
was born in London in 1791. He was the son of a 
working goldsmith in Clerkenwell, and at an early 
age he showed so much taste for drawing that in 
1805 his father placed him under the tuition of 
George Clint, A.R.A., the mezzotint engraver, and 
portrait and historical painter. On the expiration 
of his apprenticeship he began work on his own 
account as an engraver of portraits, but finding 
that he could not obtain a sufficient number of 
impressions of works executed on copper to make 
them remunerative, he made several experiments 
on plates of nickel, the Chinese alloy called 
tutenag, and steel, in the hope of discovering 
something that would be more durable than copper. 
He finally selected steel, and on a plate of this 
metal he engraved after George CUnt a portrait of 
Munden, the comedian, which proved a great 
success. In 1822 he received the gold Isis medal 
of the Society of Arts, as an acknowledgment of 
the value of his application of soft steel to the 
process of mezzotint engraving, and he was suc- 
cessful in establishing the use of plates of that 
metal. He worked both on steel and copper, and 
produced some good plates after Sir Thomas 
Lawrence, Sir Martin Shee, Thomas Phillips, and 
other eminent portrait painters of his day. He 
also re-engraved a selection of fifteen plates from 
Turner's ' Liber Studiorura,' which were published 
in 1858. Lupton died in London in 1873. Among 
his more notable works are : 

The Infant Samuel ; after Sir Joshua Reynolds. 

The Milk Girl ; after Gainshorouyh. 

Belshazzar's Feast ; after John Martin. 

The Bddystone Lighthouse ; after Turner. 

Sunrise— "Whiting Fishing off Margate ; after the same. 

Newcastle-on-Tyne ; "j 

after Turner, for the ' Rivers of 
Eiicjland and TFales.' 



Warkworth Castle , 
Dartmouth Castle ; 
Staagate Castle ; 
Whitby ; 
Scarborough ; 
Sheeruess ; 
Dover ; 
Bamsgate ; 
Portsmouth : 
86 



after Turner, for the 
Studiorum.' 



Liher 



■ after Turner, for the ' Forts of England.' 



Solway Moss ; 

Dunblane Abbey ; 

Watercress Gatherers ; 

Ben Arthur ; 

Dumbarton ; 

Ploughing, Eton ; 

Calais Pier ; after Turner. (This plate, after several 
alterations, was abandoned, and eventually sold in 
Turner's sale at Christie and Manson's in 1873.) 

Wellington at Quatre Bras ; aftn' Haydon. 

The Poacher detected ; after Kidd. 

Fawcett and Kemble in the characters of Captain Copp 
and the King ; after Georye Clint. 

The Widow ; after JRichter. 

The Idle Servant ; after W. Maas. 

Dutch Boers ; after D. Teniers. 

The Passage Boat; after Aelhert Cuyp. 

A Group of Cattle ; after the same. 

poetbaits. 

George IV. ; after Wivell. 
Lord Byron ; after Thomas Fhillips. 
Wordsworth ; after Haydon. 
Lord Cottenham ; after Briggs. 
Sir Walter Scott ; after G. Lindsay. 
Lord Brougham ; after Lonsdale. 

LUSUPJER, Cathemne, was a pupil of Hubert 
Drouais, and painted portraits in his style. She 
died in Paris in 1781, at the age of 28. In the 
Louvre is a portrait by her of Jean Germain Drouais 
drawing, on the right-hand corner of which is 
inscribed, " JEtaiis sum xv Jjusurier pint." 

LUTERO, Giovanni di. See Dossi. 

LUTI, Benedetto, was born at Florence in 
1666, and was for some time a scholar of Antonio 
Domenico Gabbiani. On leaving that master he 
was favoured with the patronage of the grand- 
duke ; and expressing a strong desire to visit 
Rome, his protector promoted his wishes by sup- 
plying him with the means, and accommodated 
him with apartments in his palace in the Campo 
Marzio. He there studied under Ciro Ferri, and 
from the works of the great masters. It is to 
be regretted that this able artist sliould have 
occupied so much of his time in crayon drawing, 
so transient in its nature, as he possessed powers 
for superior performances. One of his earliest 
works at Rome was his picture of the ' Death of 
Abel,' wliich was publicly exhibited on the festival 
of St. Bartholomew, when it excited universal 
admiration by the sublimity of the composition 
and the characteristic expression in the head of the 
murderer. He was commissioned by Clement XI. 
to paint his fine picture of 'The Prophet Isaiah' 
in St. John Lateran, and other works, for which 
the order of the Cross was conferred on him. He 
was also knighted by the Emperor, and ennobled 
by the Elector of Mentz. He died at Rome in 
1724. The following paintings by him are in 
public galleries : 



Cassel. 


Gallery. 


The Virgin reading. 


Darmstadt. 


Gallery. 


Moses receiving the Command- 
ments on Mount Sinai. 


Dresden. 


Gallery. 


Head of Christ. 


j» 


J) 


The Virgin. 


Florence. 


Vffizi. 


Moses on the Bank of the Nile. 


)» 




His own Portrait. 


Genoa. Spinola Fat. 


The Virgin. 


Munich. 


Gallery. 


St. Charles Borromeo. 


Paris. 


Louvre. 


The Magdalene. 


Petersburg. Sennitage. 


The Sleep of the Infant Jesus. 


» 


» 


The Magdalene. 


)} 




A Young Man. 


Pisa. 


Cathedral. 


St. Eanieri. 


Rome. Colonna Palace. 


The Glory of St. Martin. 


Rotterdam. 


Museum. 


St. Anthony. 



Lutke 



PAINTERS AND ENGRAVERS. 



Lutzelburger 



There are two etchings by this artist, which have 
become scarce : 

The Oriicifixion, with St. John and the Magdalene at 

the Foot of the Cross. 
A Landscape ; after Guercino. 

LUTKE, Peter Ludwig, a German landscape 
painter, was born at Berlin in 1759. He was 
originally a merchant, but in 1785 he devoted 
himself to painting, and going to Italy, studied 
under Philipp Hackert in Rome from 1786 to 1787. 
He decorated a room wholly with his landscapes 
in the Marble Palace in Potsdam. In 1787 he was 
created member of the Academy, and in 1789 
professor of landscape painting. He died at 
Berlin in 1831. A picture of ' Baias ' by him is 
. in the National Gallery of that city. 

LUTMA, Abrahait. There is an engraved 
portrait of Rubens, after Van Dyok, by this artist, 
but there is no account of him. 

LUTMA, Jacobus, was of the same family as 
Janus Lutma. He etched and finished with the 
graver a set of plates of ornamental shields and 
foliage ; they are executed in a neat style, from 
the designs of Janus Lutma the elder. He also 
engraved a plate of three portraits in a frame, 
inscribed, Jan Lutma d'Oude inv. Jac. Lutma 
fecit aquaforti et exc. 

LUTMA, Joannes, or Janus, the younger, a 
Dutch engraver and goldsmith, was born at Am- 
sterdam in 1629, and was a son and probably pupil 
of Janns Lutma the elder, who was a goldsmith. 
Janus the younger died at his birthplace in 1689. 
There are by him a set of four portraits represented 
as antique busts, which are executed in a peculiar 
manner, with a punch or chisel, and a mallet~; this 
he called ' opus mallei ; ' also two portraits of his 
father and himself, engraved in the style of Rem- 
brandt, and some views of ruins, &o. in a style 
executed with the point, and assisted with the 
mezzotint tool. In the Amsterdam Museum is a 
portrait of Paulus van Vianen, a goldsmith. 

LUTTEREL, Edward, was born at Dublin 
about the year 1650. He came early in his life 
to Loudon, and was trained to the law in New 
Inn ; but having a disposition for the arts, he 
. abandoned the profession, and applied himself 
to taking portraits in crayons. He studied under 
Ashfield, and practised in crayons successfully. 
He possessed an inventive mind, and observing 
the admiration excited by the new art of en- 
graving in mezzotint, he was desirous of dis- 
covering the process, and contrived the means of 
laying the grounds with a roller, which succeeded 
to a certain degree, but not to his satisfaction. At 
this time, the mezzotints of Blooteling were in 
great repute, and Lutterel persuaded his friend 
Lloyd, a printseller, to bribe a person of the name 
of Du Blois, who used to lay the grounds for 
Blooteling, and who was then returning to Holland, 
to discover the mystery. He afterwards connected 
himself with Isaac Becket, and they became the 
earliest BngUsh engravers in mezzotint. He died 
about 1710. The best of his portraits, which were 
his principal works, was that of Le Piper, the 
painter. The following, also, are by him : 

CRAYON DRAWINGS. 

Samuel Butler. (Kational Portrait Gallery.') 

William Sancroft, Archbishop of Canterbury. (The 

snme.) 
George Morley, Bishop of 'Winchester. (The same.) 



ENGRAVINGS. 
Charles II. ; after Lely. 

Barbara, Duchess of Cleveland ; after the same. 
Arthur, Earl of Essex ; after the same. 
Robert Paston, Earl of Yarmouth. 
Oliver Plunket, Archbishop of Armagh^ 
Anthony, Earl of Shafresbury ; after Greenhill. 
■William, Viscount Stafford ; after his own design, 
George, Lord Jeffreys, Lord High Chancellor. 
Hamet Ben Hamet. 
Robert Cony, M.D. 

LUTTGENDORP, Ferdinand von. Baron, a 
painter and etcher, was born at Wiirzburgin 1785. 
He studied under Seidel and Hauber at the Academy 
of Munich, and from 1805 to 1809 at that of Vienna. 
He gave lectures at the University of Erlangen, 
and subsequently resided at Prague, Vienna, Pres- 
burg, and Munich, where he died in 1858. His 
best works are : 

Portrait of General Moreau. 

His own Portrait. (Herr H. Majsch, Vienna.) 

Thirteen altar-pieces for different churches in Hungary. 

He also etched 125 portraits of the Hungarian 
Reichstag. 

LUTZ, Peter, a German painter and line en- 
graver, was born at Munich in 1797. He studied 
painting at the Academy of his native city and 
under Johann Peter von Langer, but in 1821 he 
turned his attention to engraving, and became a 
pupil of Karl Hess. He died in 1867. The fol- 
lowing are his chief plates : 

La Madonna di San Francesco ; after Coi'reggio. 

Ecce Homo ; after Raphael. 

The Virgin and Child ; after the same. (Heads from the 
' Madonna di San Sisto.^) 

Two Angels ; after the same. {Also from the ' Madonna 
di San Sisto.') 

Christ bearing His Cross; after the same. (From the 
* Spasimo,^) 

The Virgin in Glory, with Four Saints ;. after Bayna- 
cavallo. 

The Virgin and Child ; after Barocci. 

St. Agnes ; after Bomenichino. (Reduced from the en- 
graving by Sir Robert Strange.) 

Ganymede ; after Titian. 

Judith ; after A. Riedel. 

Roman Woman of Albano ; after the same. 

The Virgin and Child ; after R. von Langer. 

The Magdalene in the Desert ; after ,T. P. von Langer. 

Lady Jane Grey in Prison ; after the same. 

Tyrolese "Woman ; after G. Bodm^, 

LUTZELBURGER, Hans, called also Hans 
Franck, one of the greatest of German engravers 
on wood, was born probably at Augsburg about 
1495. Like Holbein, he appears to have gone 
from Augsburg to Basle in 1522, and he died there 
in 1526. His best known woodcuts are those from 
the designs of Holbein — especially the figures of 
the Old Testament and the ' Dance of Death.' The 
whole series of the former and forty-one out of the 
fifty-eight cuts which compose the latter are by 
him. They were first printed in 1630, but were 
not published until 1538. He is believed also to 
have assisted in engraving ' The Triumph of the 
Emperor Maximilian,' after Hans Burgkmair ; and 
his name of Hans Franck is supposed to be 
identical with that of ' Jan Franck,' who lived at 
Nuremberg, and worked for Albrecht Diirer. He 
marked his woodcuts with his name, or H. L. 
FUR. (= Furmschndder, form-cutter). Among 
his other works after Holbein are : 

Fight between Peasants and naked Robbers in the 
Forest ; after Solbdn. 1 522. 

The Title-page, containing Figures of St. Peter and St, 
Paul, for the German New Testament printed at Basle 
by Adam Petri in 1522. 

87 



Lutzenkircheu 



A BIOGRAPHICAL DICTIONARY OF 



Lyveng 



The Title-page, containing the Baptism of Christ, for the 
German New Testament printed at Basle by Thomas 
Wolff in 1523. 
Portrait of Erasmus. 
The Sale of Indulgences. 
Jesus Christ and the Pope. 
An Alphabet:— The Little Dance of Death. 
„ Dance of Peasants, &o. 

„ Children Playing. 

„ Ornamented Initials. 

Death and the "Woman. (Albertina Collection, Vienna.) 

1525. 
LUTZENKIROHEN, Petee Joseph, born at 
Cologne in 1776, was a painter and an engraver in 
mezzotint. He studied at the Academy of Diissel- 
dorf, but afterwards returned to his native city, and 
eventually, in 1810, established himself at Frank- 
fort, where he died in 1820. Among his paintings, 
which are signed with his name or P. L., are the 
portraits of Merlo and of Dr. J. G. L. von Pempel- 
f urt (engraved by Bierweiler). His best plates are : 
Thomas feeling the Wounds of the Saviour y after Liiea 

Giordano, 
Mary with the Child Jesus ; after Leonardo da Vinci. 
Bust of an old Man ; after Ary De Vms. 
Bust of Baron von Stein. 

LUTZOW, Karl Hindrick D'Unkeb Henning. 
See D'Unkeb Henninq LiJTZOW. 

LUXAN MARTINEZ, Josef, was born at Sara- 
gossa in 1710, and was brought up by the family 
of Pignatelli, and sent to Naples in 1730 to study 
under Giuseppe Mastroleo. After five years he 
returned to his patrons, and practised portrait 
painting. In 1740 he married the daughter of 
Juan Zabalo, a painter, and went to Madrid on 
being made painter to the King. The Inquisition 
of Saragossa named him inspector of pictures, 
and he had the principal share in maintaining a 
school of design, afterwards promoted to the rank 
of a Royal Academy. He died at Saragossa in 1785. 
The Cathedral, Santa Engracia, and other churches, 
were adorned with his works, which are commended 
by Cean Bermudez for their agreeable colouring. 

LUYCX, FeANS, almost forgotten in his native 
country, and better known beyond it as Leux, or 
Van Leux, was born at Antwerp in 1604, and 
became a master painter in 1620. He studied 
under Rubens, after whose death ho went to 
Vienna, where he was appointed court painter to 
the Emperor Ferdinand III., and director of the 
royal collections. He returned to Antwerp in 1652, 
but went again to Vienna in the same year. The 
date of his death is not recorded. There are by him 
in the Vienna Gallery an ' Allegory on the Vanity 
and Instability of Human Affairs ' and a portrait of 
the Cardinal Infant of Spain, Charles Ferdinand, 
brother of Philip IV., and in the Liechtenstein 
Gallery is ' Christ appearing to Mary Magdalene.' 

LUYKEN. See Luiken. 

LUYKS, Nicolas, a German historical and por- 
trait painter, was born in 1600, and died in 1658. 

LUZZI, LoEENZO, a native of Peltre, who 
flourished about 1511, is not to be confounded with 
Pietro Luzzi. There is a picture by him in the 
Berlin Gallery of the ' Virgin and Saints.' 

LUZZI, Pietro, called Mobto da Feltre, who 
was born about 1474, was the son of a surgeon, 
who in order to practise his profession went in 
1476 to Zara, and thus caused his son to be called 
also Zaeato. He is known to have been at Rome 
in 1495, at Florence in 1506, and at Venice in 1608, 
although none of the pictures painted by him in 
either city are now in existence. He commenced to 
paint at Feltre in 1516, soon after that city had 

88 



been nearly destroyed in the wars between the 
Emperor Maximilian and Venice. Records remain 
to prove that he executed the frescoes and the altar- 
piece of the Town-Hall and Loggia, all of which 
are now missing. The Casa Bartoldini and the 
Crico Palace, Feltre, are both decorated with fres- 
coes that Messrs. Crowe and Cavalcaselle assign to 
Luzzi. In the church of the Ognissanti at Feltre is 
a fresco with the 'Transfiguration of Christ, between 
SS. Anthony and Lucy,' which is said to have been 
painted by Luzzi in 1622. The story of his having 
been killed in battle at Zara in 1519 must of course 
be abandoned. His extant works comprise : 
Berlin. Gallery. Madonna. 

Feltre. Palazzo \ The front decorations, represent- 

Crico. ) ing Nymphs and Cupids. 

„ Casa Bartoldini. Decorations of the facade: 
Judith, Quintus Curtius, and 
Komulus and Remus, in the 
style of Giorgione. 

„ S. Stefano. The altar-piece. 

„ Town-Sail. Several paintings. 

„ S. Giorgio. Several different treatments of 

the Madonna. 

„ Ognissanti. The Transfiguration of Christ. 

Villabrana. Church. The Virgin and Child, with Saints. 

LYEN, Jacques Francois, was a French portrait 
painter, who exhibited atthe Salon from 1737tol747. 

LYMANN, Johannes Samuel, a Danish line en- 
graver, was born at Copenhagen in 1742. He 
studied in the Art Academy of his native city, and 
in 1758 gained the large gold medal for an engrav- 
ing of ' David cutting ofE the Head of Goliath,' 
after his own design. Most of the plates which he 
executed are portraits. He died in 1769. 

LYNCH, James Henry, a lithographic artist, exe- 
cuted principally portraits, which he exhibited atthe 
Royal Academy from 1866 to 1866. He died in 1868. 

LYNB, RiCHAED, was a painter and engraver, 
who lived in the second half of the 16th century, 
and was retained by Archbishop Parker on his 
establishment. There is a portrait of this prelate 
by him at Lambeth Palace, dated 1672. 

LYONET, PiETBE, a draughtsman, carver, and 
engraver, was born at Maestricht in 1708. He re- 
ceived a superior education, and was first a lawyer. 
One of his first and best carvings was ' Apollo and 
the Muses.' Subsequently he became acquainted 
with Karel De Moor and Limborch, under whom 
he produced excellent craj'on portraits. At a later 
period he drew and engraved insects with extraor- 
dinary accuracy, and by these works he obtained 
much repute. He died at the Hague in 1789. 

LYS, Jan van deb. See Van deb Lis. 

LYSARDB, Nicholas, was an historical painter, 
who was in the service of Henry VIII. and Edward 
VI., and subsequently became sergeant-painter to 
Queens Mary and Elizabeth. There is a portrait 
at Hatfield House of one of the French kings, 
which is ascribed to him. He died in 1570. 

LYSONS, Rev. Daniel, an antiquarian draughts- 
man, was born in 1760. Many of the illustrations 
in his well-known ' Environs of London ' (1792-6) 
and 'Magna Britannia' are by him. He was rector 
of Rodmarton from 1804 to 1833, and died at his 
seat, Hempsted Court, Gloucestershire, in 1834. 

LYSONS, Samuel, an antiquarian draughtsman, 
was born at Rodmarton in 1763. He studied for the 
bar, but devoted himself to antiquarian pursuits, 
and became keeper of the records at the Tower. He 
illustrated his 'Roman Ruins at Woodchester' 
(1797) and ' ReliquiiB Britannic^ Romanse' (1813). 
He died at Cirencester in 1819. 

LYVENS, Jan. See Livensz. 



Maag 



PAINTERS AND ENGBAVERS. 



Macerata 



M 



MAAG, JoHANN Nbpomuk, engraver, was a 
native of Munich, where he flourished in the last 
century. He engraved several portraits, amorg 
which was one of William of Ockham, He died 
at Munich in 1800. 

MAAN. See Db Man. 

MAAS. See Maes. 

MAAT, Jan. See Blankehhoff, 

M ABUSE. See Qossaert. 

MABUSEE, Nicolas Ranieri, an Italian paintei, 
who flourished in the 17th century. He was a 
pupil of Manfredi at Rome, and painted historical 
pictures. His four daughters were also artists, 
and met with considerable success at Venice. 

MacARDELL, Jambs, an admirable mezzotint 
engraver, who was born about the year 1710 at 
Dublin, and is justly regarded as one of the ablest 
of workers in his branch of art. He was appren- 
ticed to James Brooks, with whom he came to 
London when he was seventeen. He died in 
London in 1765. The number of his plates is 
very considerable, and the greater part are from 
portraits of persons of distinction by the principal 
painters of his time. He also scraped a few plates 
from historical subjects by Vandyok, Murillo, 
Rembrandt, &c., some of which are extremely 
fine. The following may be considered as his best 
plates : 

PORTRAITS. 

Mary, Duchess of Aucaster ; after Hudson. 

George, Lord Anson ; after Reynolds. 

Dr. Ashton ; aftei- the same. 

William Benn, Lord Mayor ; after Hudson ; scarce. 

Timothy Beunet ; after Budd ; scarce. 

The Countess of Berkley ; after Rei/nolds. 

Vice- Admiral Boscawen ; after the same. 

Archibald Bower ; after Knapton ; scarce. 

George, Duke of Buckingham, and his Brother ; after 

Vandyck; from the picture at Kensington ; very fine. 
Mary, Countess of Coventry ; scarce. 
The Countess of Essex ; after Reynolds. 
Francis du Quesnoy, called Fiamingo, sculptor ; after 

Vandyck, 
Lady Fortesoue ; after Reynolds. 
Dr. Franklin ; after Wilson ; scarce. 
Mr. Garrick and Mrs. Cibber, in Jaffler and Belvidera in 

Venice Preserved ; after Zoffany. 
Elizabeth, Duchess of Hamilton ; after Cotes. 
Daniel Locke ; after Hoyarth ; fine. 
Caroline, Duchess of Marlborough ; after Reynolds. 
John Pine, painter ; after Hogarth ; with and without 

hands; scarce. 
Bubens's "Wife ; after Vandyck ; fine. 
Kachel, Countess of Southampton; after the same; 

yery fine. 
Lord John and Lord Bernard Stuart ; after the same ; 

very fine. 
James, Earl of "Waldegrave ; after Reynolds ; scarce. 
Mary, Countess of Waldegrave ; after the same; fine. 
General Washington ; after Pond ; scarce. 

SDBJECTS AFTER VARIOUS MASTERS. 

The Virgin and Infant Jesus ; after Vandyek. 

The Infant Moses found in the Nile by Pharaok's 
Daughter ; after the same ; very fine. 

Time clipping the Wings of Love ; after the same ; 
very fine. 

The Interior of a Chamber, in which is a Woman read- 
ing, and a Child in a Cradle ; after Rembrandt ; fine. 

The Angel and Tobit ; after the same. 

The Tribute Money ; after the same. 



Rembrandt's Mother reading ; after the same. 

The Student in Mathematics ; after the same. 

Rubens, his Wife, and Child ; after Rubens. 

The Virgin, with a Glory of Angels ; after Murillo ; 

fine. 
St. Jerome kneeling before a Crucifix ; after the same ; 

fine. 
St. Francis da Paolo ; after the same. 

MACARB, Pierre Joseph, a French still-life 
painter, who was born at Valenciennes in 1758. 
He was a pupil of Watteau, whose style he 
imitated. He died in 1806. 

MACCHI, Flouio, is mentioned by Malvasia as 
a native of Bologna, and a worthy disciple of 
Lodovico Carracoi. He flourished about the year 
1620, and painted several pictures for the churches 
at Bologna. In Sant' Andrea del Mercato is a 
picture by him of the ' Crucifixion,' with two 
wings ; and in La Morte, a ' Raising of Lazarus. ' 
But his most admired work is a fine fresco of the 
' Annunciation,' in the church of II Spirito Santo, 
which has been frequently mistaken for a work of 
Lodovico. Florio Macchi is mentioned by Orlaadi, 
in the ' Abecedario,' as an engraver, but his prints 
are nowhere specified. His brothers, Giovanni 
Battista (died 1628) and Giulio Gesaee, were 
also pupils of Lodovico Carracci. 

MACGHIETTI, GiROLAMO, (or Maglietti,) called 
Del Crocifissajo, was born at Florence about 
1535. He was called ' del Crocifissajo,' from his 
having been an extensive painter of crucifixes. 
After studying some time under Michele Ridolfo 
del Ghirlandaio, he became a scholar of Giorgio 
Vasari, whom he assisted for six years in the Ducal 
palace at Florence. Pie afterwards visited Rome, 
where he studied ' two years, and then went to' 
Spain, and after that to Naples. On his return to 
Florence, he acquired considerable reputation by 
his pictures of the 'Adoration of the Magi,' in 
San Lorenzo, of the ' Martyrdom of St. Lawrence,' 
in Santa Maria Novello, and of 'Medea and the 
Daughters of Pelias,' in the Grand Ducal Palace. 
His best works are at Naples, Pisa, and Benevento, 
but those in the last-named place perished in an 
earthquake in 1668. The year of his death is 
unknown, but he was still living in 1564. 

MACCO, Alexander, historical painter and 
etcher, was born at Ansbach, in Bavaria, in 1770. 
He studied at Munich, and afterwards at Rome. 
He then travelled to Paris and through Germany, 
spending some time at Berlin, Prague, Hamburg, 
and Vienna. His works were in the style of 
David. 

MACBDO. See Clovis. 

MAC!^B, Charles, a French engraver, born in 
Paris about 1631. He was employed by Jabaoh 
in engraving from his collection of pictures ; he 
also engraved twelve landscapes after Castiglione. 
He died after 1665. 

MACBRATA, Giuseppino da, was born at 
Macerata about the year 1600, and is said to have 
been a pupil of Agostino Carracci. His style 
betrays the principles of the Bolognese school, 
as is evident in his works in the two colleges at 
Fabriano — in the ' Annunciation,' painted in*oil, at 
San Niccolo ; and in his frescoes in San Venanzio 
representing some of the miracles of the Aposlles. 

89 



MoCormell 



A BIOGEAPHICAL DICTIONARY OF 



Macip 



In the church of the Carmelites at Macerata is a 
picture by him of the ' Virgin and Infant, with a 
glory of Angels, and SS. Nicola and Girolamo'; 
and at the Cappuccini, ' Christ giving the Keys to 
St. Peter,' both of which are stamped with the 
character of the school of the Carracci. The latter 
is BO like Guide's picture of the same subject, in 
the church of the Pilippini at Fano, that it may 
almost be considered as a copy. It is signed Jos. 
Ma. faciehai. 1630. 

MoCONNELL, W., known as an illustrator of 
books, died in 1867. Amongst his work may be 
mentioned the illustrations to Sala's 'Twice round 
the Clock.' 

McCULLOCH, Horatio, a Scotch landscape 
painter, born at Glasgow, of humble parentage, in 
1806. He received his art instruction from a 
landscape painter named Knox, and worked dili- 
gently for some years on the scenery of Western 
Scotland. Removing to Edinburgh, he was in 
1834 elected an Associate, and in 1838 a member 
of the Scotch Academy. Here he was a frequent 
exhibitor, but only once appeared at the London 
Academy, namely, in 1844. His art, though merit- 
orious, and fairly true to the scenery of his native 
country, is somewhat conventional, and but little 
known south of the Tweed. His pictures are 
very plentiful, however, in Scotland. He died at 
Edinburgh in 1867. Three of his works — ' Inver- 
lochy Castle,' 'A Lowland River,' and an ' Evening 
Landscape ' — are in the Scottish National Gallery. 

MACDUFF, Archibald, an English etcher and 
sketcher, bom about 1750, who probably did not 
follow art as a profession. Amongst his etched 
plates are : 

The Temptation of Adam ; after Barry. 
Job and his Friends ; after the same. 
The Birth of Tenus ; after the same. 
King Ijear ; after the same. 
Holy Family ; after Maphael. 

MACHADO, CiRiLLO, painted at Lisbon, and 
was a professor at the Academy there early in 
the present century. He distinguished himself 
principally in portraiture, and is further known for 
his knowledge of architecture and science. An 
attack of apoplexy made hira unfit for work in 
1827. His best works are in the Palace at Mafra, 
and in that of the Marquis de GouW, but an altar- 
piece for the church of the Heart of Jesus, and 
paintings of the Apostles for the church of Goletto, 
may also be mentioned. 

MACHEK, Anton, was bom at Podlaczicz, in 
Bohemia, in 1771. He was apprenticed by his 
father, who was a musician in the private chapel 
of the Bishop of Koniggratz, to a cabinet-maker, 
but showing a talent for art, he was sent to Prague. 
There he studied under Wenzel Bluma, and a year 
after under Ludwig Kohl. He afterwards re- 
turned to Koniggratz, where he painted two altar- 
pieces for the chapel in Grast, and several works 
for the Bishop's residenoa. In 1798 he went to 
Vienna and studied at the Academy for a year. 
He then travelled through the country, supporting 
himself by portrait painting. In 1806 he settled 
in Prague, where h« died in 1844. 

MACHEEEN, Philipp van, a marine painter, 
lived at Middelburg towards the end of the 17th 
century. In 1672 he entered one of the vessels of 
war of the republic, for the express purpose of 
seeing»a naval combat, a subject which he delighted 
to represent. He also made several voyages in 
Danish and Swedish vessels for the same purpose. 
90 



His works are rarely seen with his name, nor are 
there any further particulars recorded of him. 
Balkema says he died at Amsterdam, and Immerzeel, 
at Rotterdam. 

MACHIAVELLIjZenobio DB',an excellent early 
Florentine artist, who is mentioned by Vasari as 
the best of Benozzo Gozzoli's pupils. He assisted 
Benozzo in his frescoes in the Campo Santo at 
Pisa. The Gallery of the Louvre possesses a 
' Coronation of the Virgin,' by Machiavelli, bear- 
ing the date 1473. The Pisa Academy has also a 
'Virgin and Child, with Saints,' by him, and the 
National Giillery of Ireland an ' Enthroned 
Madonna, with Saints.' 

MACHUCA, Pbdbo, a Spanish painter, sculptor, 
and architect of the 16th century, who is spoken 
of in high terms by several writers, but whose 
works are little known. It is said that he lived at 
Granada, and that he there executed several grand 
works both as an architect and as a painter, the 
latter being in the manner of Raphael, whose works 
he had studied in Italy. It is certain that he had 
been to Italy ; for he is named among the Eagles, 
that is to say, the most illustrious artists of the 
time, by Francisco d'Ollanda, whose book was 
finished in 1648. Zani says he flourished between 
1527 and 1548, and probably to a much later 
period. Pachecho, Lazaro Diaz del Valle, and 
Palomino, all speak of Machuca having been in 
Italy. His fame now rests on his works of sculpture 
and architecture in the Alhambra. 

MACHY, Pierre-Antoinb de, bom in Paris 
about 1722, was an excellent painter of architec- 
tural perspectives. He studied under Servandoni. 
There are by him in the Palais Royal, on the large 
staircase, three perspective views ; and a picture of 
the ruins of a Temple is at Valenciennes. Basan, 
Janinet, and Descourtis reproduced his best works. 
He engraved a Triumphal Arch and two archi- 
tectural pieces in bister after his own designs. He 
died in 1807. 

MACINI. See Mancini. 

MACIP, ViCENTB Juan, called also Juan Bau- 
TISTA DB JiTANBS, Or JoANNES, was bom at Fuente 
de Higuera, in Valencia, in 1523. Palomino asserts 
that he was a pupil of Raphael, who died two 
years before he was bom. But he certainly studied 
in Italy, and caught some of the Urbiuate's manner. 
After his return to Spain he settled at Valencia, 
where he established a school of painting. His 
brush was wholly dedicated to religious subjects. 
He designed a series of tapestries for the Arch- 
bishop of Valencia, and was much employed in the 
different churches and monasteries of the neigh- 
bourhood. His most famous picture was a Madonna, 
called ' La Puriseima,' painted for the Convent of 
the Jesuits. Macip died in 1679. The following 
works of his are now extant : 

Madrid. Museum. Preaching and Martyrdom of 

St. Stephen. 
„ „ The Bearing of the Cross. 

„ „ Portrait of Don Jjuis de Cas- 

telvig. 
,, „ The Last Supper. 

Valencia. Cathedral. Baptism of Christ. 
„ „ Conversion of St. Paul. 

,1 „ Holy Family. 

„ Museum. A Christ. 

„ „ Portrait of St. Thomas de 

Villanueva and Abp. Juan 
de Bibera. 
•I „ Assumption of the Virgin. 

,< „ Francis de Paula. 

„ Ch. of Jesuits. The Immaculate Virgin. 



Xclan 
Talacm. 



TilSanoenL 



PADTTEES AXP EXG RAVELS. 



Haclisa 



A jPmin. The Dead Cli-:>i. 

Martrrdom of 5-r- 1t:«. 
_ Bual of a devout 3[<nk. 



The paintings of Maeip'; dangfateis, Dokctea and 
MiT.^AirrA. aie t&ei; nttiihatel to tli«r father. 
Dorotea | .'l^: :«d an exedlenk 'Oncifinon^ in the 
efaoKli i -lie Ss- :j Otuz, Valencia. 

JIclAX, K iBEKr fiiuiixn, a Svocrfl; snbjeet- 
painier, bon< in I f>i$. He \raf otiginal.y an actor, 
and indulged in art s^ a pasiime. From :n.'.^ 
<.r.w.5.r.'.f l.< j x"r,:rif.5 appealed on the xrJIs of ilie 
Acadec-T. and at length, in If-tC', he ;.ticr:<-.i 
paintii^ ?..> a professioD. His ji;1:;^i^ci* -weit r Licf.y 
uhetiaiiTe of Highland lufe and w£ai«. He \r;.< 
a manber of the Koyal Sco".:i«li Ac.*i;<?raT. He 
d;ed at H.ii-.:j*:c,-.d in 155(5. E:s wife was ;ilio 
an aitisi, and tangfat for >'-.i:.T yewns in ^:Lr of tiir 
goTwmmem schools oi c ; > "^-.i. 

MACKESJlT.FREi.ES^cs. awateiKN^! .^uTpainter, 
«^e bom in ITf 7. He was a pnpil if Et jton, and 
was :. t :«■! i-yr ;i< conscieatioas drawir s? i f ancient 
buildings. i;!::>:1t ecrftsi.nsiijaL He exhibited ..; 
the Boyal Aewlany £ar the fiirsi time in 15<ivi. and 
■with the Water-Odour Swirty in l5-j'. heii.g 
dected tieasaiier of that iufdnirio:: in IhSc. He 
i*. paUidied seTeral w^Af. 3E2CEg?T ctifrf ; 
•Etclnngs cf Landscapes,' •Sfrvh.f: * of Gothic 
Aiclutecraie.' and ' Ajehitectnial Antiqiiiiies of 
Ss. S-Tejliem's C3>apel, "Westnii^rsl^T." He al?«> made 
the dnvings &w Biitton's •Saisbury CatliediaL"' 
He died in : n"^ ax the age of £7. 

lIACKESZrE,SA3n:Ki. s S :-..:i poitiait punter, 
vasbom at Oomarty in 1755. He vas <HiginaIIj 
a stooe-carrer, bat c«uiiing to Edinboigfa, he was 
inspiied by Baefaora's vre-rkis. ^r. .1 became a poitnoi- 
painter. He obtained a good |r'raciic>c. and was in 
11^30 elected a member «rf the Sc-onisi Aeadeniy. 
He died in 1'547. 

IIACEEWAX.Datio HAU^watear-odoarpainter, 
waf bom in I5i7. He eshibited drawings at the 
Key.'.! Ac»iseEiy fri'o-j ls57 it' 1S4?, and at SnffiaJk 
&. tjvn; '1 5+i< to i 544. In 15-15 he was elected a 
H8emberoftlK'liKtitBteofPaintBrsi::''kV"i,itr-C-i ;v;;rf, 
to which fnau 154iCi he w;.> a large contributor. 
He poblkbed ' Lessons on Tret» in Wat^'-Cblouis.' 
He died in 1^573. 

MACELXX. Thc MAS. an Erglish engniTv in Uie 
latter part of the 18tfa centnnr. He eiigiaTed 
Gnerdno's 'Peace and War.' aSod die plates for 

MACLB^K, Axjix&XDES, an English eobject 
puider, who exhibited at tli^ Bejal Academy from 
157^ to 1877 ; he died at St. Lee i;«a\i s in the latter 
jear, aft^ Bhowcog mneh promise. 

IIACLKAT, KiixxsrH, a Scotch landscape and 
miniatme painter, bmn in 1802 at Oban. He -»-&> 
a Bi^iluida' by iMrtb, bat was edneafed and Ured 
at Edinborgfa, whoe he became a niauber of the 
S. ~'s" Academy. He died in 1575. 

iUACLEOD. JOEX, a Soctdi s:vjij;J painter, 
jwaclisiTLg at Ediubnigh. w";_os* forte was diogs 
i: 1 hoises. He died in 157'2. 

JilACLISK. Dasibi^ bom at Cork on the 23tb 
Jannaiy. 1811, wsj the s^cn ci a ScLiiisi £itfaer 
and an Lndt mother. S.Kr dosb:? haTC been 
thrown imon the $~:atiii$ of his &niily by incon- 
sistaKaes between bis own fjs$erni'>r> and recorded 
&et^ bat it is known that, in ^t ire of the 8tn»g 
inclination be had already $3:o\rii fiit art, he 
was ]^aced by his father at an early age in the 



office of s ba iki. i: fimi at Coik Bm hi? natural 
bent vras not to l>e fra?ir:neil &» be j ^on ;.fif r 
left il-i ies's. and demoted Lrn.sr^f to r^iiErii: j^. He 
£tsi pnrsaed his studies at ;: e Cott S. Lo 1 of Ait, 
and received iEStruouou in anatomy from Dr. 
Woodroffia. T: tiis branch oif s:i;5y ie devoted 
jT-ea: attention, and tins laid the fc'uriarioa for 
i ii f.]tHre escdOence in figure ars^:::^. He i-iiiei 
mach popularity and many l,ne:Dd<::; 
natsTe city; and a skt:::. of 5ir TV; 
created ; 



por-rut 
ib'r }.im 
Loud oil. 



IE JllS 

er Seen 
s St r.sa-.i. - that he soon secured many 
: I Bi^isji : E5 for portraits. In l--2ii he made aa 
ci.ursi::! into the charming ocur.:y of Wk"£]:\r, 
wijeiie he found ample employment far : 
On his return to Cork he continued li; 
pracjioe until he "i.Aii saved enough lo e: 
to gratify ti? dciire <i proceedinir io 
ArriTingin the n.etrop-. ]:< in July, li5'"27. he e'lcrei 
the sdiools of die Ec\»l AcsiiriT.y. and •::<ii 
became one of their most liisriciniisljeii st~df:,t>. 
He obtained the sliver i:-j<Ma!s in boi]j tLe life and 
the y-iiniiig- schtx^ls. and crowned lus career "br 
oibtairiBi: tie ec'ld medal, in 152;\ for t:s -CLou-e 
of Hercules.' This iistii criori entitled him to tlie 
tniTelKng studentship <i tie Academy, of which 
privilege, howcTO-, he did cot avail huuseU. In 
the year 15^ Madise'f ^>-crks lirsi appeared on 
the walls cf tie Royal Academy: he exhibited 
•MalrcJio affectii^ the Coiini.' a snbject which 
found cirjy'^oyn-^eTjT for Lis bnisli a sieond time 



in 1544>. Sevrril portraits were exhibited by 
bim in the next year (i--;^L''. and aniorcst them 
liHe of the unfortanate Miss Landon (L~ E. L), 
wl.i:>se aoquaintance he had made in the literary 
circles to which he had obtained introduction 
soon after his arrival in Lcsudon. He also pro- 
duced a portrait of Sir John Scaje. the architect, 
to which, for various causes, coiisideiaWe atten- 
tion was drawn. Mac&e was thus induced to C' e- 
tribute TO • Fr.».s*T"s Magarane,' from IK^J t. "I'c-^. 
a series of eii^hty-ca^e sJceiches cf eminent perS' rs 
of the <iay. each portrait bdng aoccnjp.ii.i- .i 
by hnmoioas letter-press fmn the pen of Dr. 
Uaginn. In the year 153o Maclise exhibited 
• Si:ap»- Apple ^v^ipht " at the Boyal Academy. ar;<l 
at. the British Ir.srii roon * Hokanna Un veilii 'i; 
ing his Features tc Zelica,' fnun MoL-res • L.ula 
Bookh.' c^iiaj: to the fame he obtained through 
these pierurcs, he abandoned the practice of por- 
trait painting, and had not Icrf to wait before he 
aTT.air.e.i3 the full la^eir.bership o< the Academy, f ■ r. 
eleoted A-B.A. in ICiOd, iie became E.A. in 1^-0. 
In this yoar lie again visited Paris, and soon after 
b^an to be connected with the decoration of the 
new Hv-ases of Parliameiit. In J'lly, 1-544. six 
artists were c c rai^Mssicne'l to paint sui -; t c! s for the 
House of Lcrd?. Am.isgs;! j'Lese llaclise \v.-,s 
assig^-.oii 'The S^^im cf Chiv.ilry,"' and aftetT^aris 
' The Sf.irit of Juj^tic-e," which had previoBsly been 
alWtte^i TO W. C. Thc-iijas. He .cftcr^Taras jiairited 
the celebrated pictures vf "Tlie Meeting of Wel- 
Hrgion and Blucher after Waterloo,' and the 
companifm saljec-i. ' The Death of ye.son ' ; the 
latter was liiiirhed in the year l5v-i. At iije 
Poiris Exhibitior; cf 15S5 MaoKse w-as a jmor ; for 
tliat hjcli in London in 15t<2 he desiin ,ed the inedaL 
La 15w Uaclise gave soii.e vajc.bje evidence 
before the Oommission on the Boyal Acaaemy. 
Hie death of Sir Chailes £asiUke,*in 18^. ooia- 
sior.ed a vacancy in tie presidercy of the Ac- de;; y. 
and the office w;r.s. on its refusal by Sir £c~\vin 
Lantiseer. oflfeied to Maclise, who also declined it. 

91 



Macnee 



A BIOGRAPHICAL PICTIONARY OF 



Madot 



Similar motives appear to have influenced liim in 
refusing to accept the honour of knighthood. His 
health had been much impaired by his constant 
attendance at the Palace of Westminster, and he 
never wholly recovered the loss, in the latter part 
of 1865, of his sister Isabella, who had always 
lived with him, for he was unmarried. His death 
occurred on the 25th of April, 1870, at his house 
in Cheyne Walk, Chelsea. The shortest account of 
Maolise would be incomplete which did not make 
some mention of the books illustrated by him. 
Chief among these were Moore's ' Irish Melodies,' 
published by Longmans ; Biirger's ballad poem 
' Leonore ' ; and Lord Lytton's ' Pilgrims of the 
Rhine.' Under this category should also be 
classed the series of designs for ' The Story of the 
Norman Conquest,' which was exhibited at the 
Royal Academy in 1857. The drawings in this 
work are fort3'-two in number, and were executed 
in the leisure moments of the twelve years previous 
to their exhibition. The following are some of 
Maclise's principal works : 

Snap-Apple Night. 

Mokanna unveiling his features to Zelica. 

Macbeth and the Witches. 

Merry Christmas in the Baron's Hall. {National 

Gallery of Ireland.) 
Olivia and Sophia fitting out Moses for the Fair. 
The Banquet-Scene in Macbeth. 

The Play-Scene in Hamlet. (In the National Gallery.) 
Malvolio and the Countess. \The same.) 
The Origin of the Harp. 
Scene from ' Comus.' 
Scene from * TJndine.' 
Ordeal by Touch. 
Noah's Sacrifice. 

The Eeturn of Moses from the Fair. 
Oaxton's Printing-Office at Westminster. 
Macready as Werner. 
The Marriage of Strongbow and Eva, 
Orlando and Charles the Wrestler. 
Peter the Great in Deptford Dockyard. 
The Trysting-Place. 
A First Sitting. 
Isabella's Favourite. 
Portraits of Mrs. S. 0. Hall, Miss Landon (L. B. L.), 

Thomas Campbell, Lord Oastlereaghf Miss Hard- 

wicbe, Charles Dickens, and others. 
Interview of Charles with Cromwell. 
Salvator Eosa painting MasauieUo. 
Scene from ' Gil Bias.' 
Alfred in the tent of Guthrum. 
The Story of the Norman Conquest. 
Othello, Desdemona, and Emilia. 
The Sleep of Duncan. 
King Cophetua. 

MACNEB, Daniel, Sir, was bom at Fintry, 
Stirlingshire, in 1806. His father dying when he 
was only six months old, his mother went to 
Glasgow, and there, as he showed a taste for 
drawing, he was apprenticed in 1820 to John Knox, 
a landscape painter. After four years spent in 
Knox's studio, he was employed at lithographic 
work, but at nineteen he removed to Cumnock, 
where he was engaged to paint snufE-boxes. He 
then went to Edinburgh, and entered the studio 
of the engraver Lizars. At the same time he 
enrolled himself a pupil in the Trustees Academy, 
and in 1825 he first exhibited at the Royal Scottish 
Academy. He was elected a member of that body 
in 1829. He gained his reputation exclusively by 
his portraits. In 1832 he returned to Glasgow, 
and there remained till 1876, when, on his election 
as President of the Scottish Academy, he removed 
to Edinburgh, where he died in 1882. He was 
an occasional exhibitor at the Royal Academy. 

92 



MACOUUT, C, is stated by Horace Walpole to 
have been a native of Germany. He resided in 
London several years, where he practised portrait 
painting, both in oil colours and miniature, and 
was a member of the Chartered Society of Artists, 
with whom he exhibited from the year 1761 till 
1767. In the 'Addenda' to the 'Anecdotes' he is 
said to have died in January, 1768. He is also 
stated to have scraped some mezzotints. 

MACRET, Charles Feanqois Adkien, a French 
engraver, was born at Abbeville in 1760, and died 
in Paris in 1783. He was a pupil of N. G. Dupuis, 
and engraved a few plates, of which the following 
are perhaps the most important : 

Christ and the Woman of Samaria; afteii^ Van der 

Werf. 
The Arrival of Eousseau in the Elysian Fields ; after 

Moreau. 
The Eeeeption of Voltaire in the Elysian Fields ; after 

Fauvel. 
The Sacrifice to Cupid ; after Greiize. 
The First Fruits of Self-Love ; after Gonzalez.. 

MACRINO. See Fava, Gianqiacomo. 

MADDEN, Wyndham, an English portrait 
painter, who lived in the latter part of the l8th 
century. There is a mezzotint after him by 
Dickinson. 

MADDERSTAG, Michiel, or Michael, (or 
Maddersteg,) was bom at Amsterdam about 1669, 
and is called by Houbraken the ablest scholar of 
L. Bakhuisen. He was invited to the court of 
Berlin, where he passed the greater part of his 
life. In later years he returned to Amsterdam 
and took to trade. He died in 1709. Two sea- 
pieces by him are in the Berlin Museum. He was 
a shipbuilder as well as a painter, and constructed 
a frigate for King Frederick I. of Prussia, which 
was afterwards brought to St. Petersburg. His 
sea-pieces and storms approach so near to the 
pictures of Bakhuisen in the drawing of vessels, 
the movement of the waves, and the lightness of 
the skies, that they are sometimes mistaken for 
those of that master. 

MADDOX, Willis, portrait and historical 
painter, was bom at Bath in 1813. He executed 
several works for Beckford of Fonthill, and first 
exhibited at the Academy in 1844. He was invited 
to Constantinople, and painted the Sultan. He 
died at Pera in 1853. 

MADER, Gborg, a painter, was born near 
Steinacb, in North Tyrol, in 1824. His, father 
was a miller, and he was apprenticed to the same 
trade, but at a very early age displayed a taste 
for drawing, and at sixteen he went to Innsbruck 
to learn painting. From 1844 till the year of his 
death he was actively engaged in adding to the 
religious art of bis country, the years between 
1867 and 1873 being employed in decorating the 
church of Steinach with frescoes of scenes in the 
life of Christ. Mader died in 1881. 

MADIJN (or Madin). See Mandijn. 

MADIONA, Antoine, an historical painter, bom 
at Syracuse in 1650. He was a pupil of A. Scilla. 
He afterwards went to Rome, and joined Preti, 
whom he accompanied to Malta. He died in 
1719. 

MADOT, Adolphus M., figure painter, was a 
student at the schools of the Royal Academy. He 
executed a large number of drawings on wood for 
a series of papers on ' British Artists,' published in 
the ' Art Journal.' The few small pictures — figure 
subjects — exhibited by him showed signs of future 



Uadou 



PAINTERS AND ENGRAVERS. 



Maffei 



ability, but he died of consumption, at an early 
age, in 1861. 

MADOU, Jean Baptiste, a Belgian lithographer 
and genre painter, born at Brussels in 1796. In 
early life he was engaged in commerce. Then, 
turning his attention to art, he became a pupil of 
Celestin Fran9ois, and studied in the Brussels 
Academy. For several years he devoted himself 
chiefly to lithography, and illustrated many works 
in that fashion. Among these are : ' Un voyage 
pittoresque dans les Pays-Bas' (1821-8); 'Cos- 
tumes Belgiques' (1830); 'Costumes de I'arm^e 
Beige'; 'Physionomie de la soci6t6 en Europe' 
(1837) ; ' Scenes de la vie des Peintres de I'Ecole 
Flamande \ (1840). After 1840, however, he chiefly 
devoted himself to genre painting, in which he 
achieved a high reputation. For several years he 
taught in the Belgian military school. He died 
in 1877. Several of his chief works are in the 
museums of Brussels and Antwerp. 

MADBAZO, Jos6, a Spanish portrait and his- 
torical painter, born at Santander in 1781. He 
was a pupil of Gregorio Ferro, but following 
Charles IV. into France, he received lessons from 
David, and afterwards went to Rome. He returned 
to Spain in 1819, and established a National School 
of Painting. He was Director of the Academy 
and Museum at Madrid. He died in 1859. His 
chief works are : 

Christ before Annas. 
Death of Viriathus. 
Portrait of Ferdinand VII. 
Sacred and Profane Love. 

MAELLA, Mariano Salvador, a Spanish his- 
torical, landscape, and marine painter, born at 
Valencia in 1739. He studied painting under 
Gonzalez and sculpture under Castro. He became 
Director of the Academy of S. Fernando and 
first painter to the king. He died at Madrid in 
1819. Among his pictures are : 

Madrid Museum. The Four Seasons. 

„ „ The Ascension. 

„ „ The Last Supper. 

MAENNL. See Mannl. 

MAES, Aaet van, Aknoolt, painter and en- 
graver, was born at Gouda about 1620. He was 
a pupil of Teniers. He travelled through Italy 
and France, and died in his own country when 
still young. He painted chiefly village festivals 
and peasant scenes. 

MAES, Dirk, painter and engraver, was born at 
Haarlem in 1656. He was a pupil successively of 
Mommers, Berghem, and Hugtenburg, but worked 
in the style of the last. He painted hunting and 
battle scenes, excelling chiefly in his horses. He 
came to England, where he painted the ' Battle of 
the Boyne,' and met with some success. His death 
took place in 1717. 

MAES, GoDEFROY, a Flemish painter, born at 
Antwerp in 1649. He was a pupil of his father, 
Godefroy Maes, who died in 1679, and of Pieter 
van Lint. In 1682 he was appointed Director of 
the Antwerp Academy. The 'Four Quarters of 
the World,' four designs for tapestry, 'The Mar- 
tyrdom of St. Luke and St. George,' an 'Assump- 
tion,' and a ' Fishmarket,' at Venice, are his best 
known works. He died about 1710. 

MAES, Jan, the elder, born at Alkmaar in 1631. 
He was a genre painter, but seems to have been 
an amateur. He entered the Guild of St. Luke 
in 1658. He painted in the style of Nicolas 



Maes, but with far inferior talent. He died in 
1693. 

MAES, Jan, the younger, was born at Haarlem 
in 1655. He was a son of Pieter Maes, and pro- 
bably a pupil of Dirk Maes. He excelled in the 
painting of horses, battles, and encampments. 
He died in 1690. 

MAES, Jan Baptist, a Flemish historical, por- 
trait, and genre painter, born at Ghent in 1794. 
He was the son and pupil of Maes-Canini, with 
whom he is sometimes confounded. He completed 
his studies in Italy, where he stayed from 1821 
to 1826. Amongst his pictures are : 

Amsterdam. Museum. The Good Samaritan. 

Ghent. Academy. Holy Family. 

Hamburg. Museum. Roman Fruit-seller. 

Munich. IVemPinakothek. Roman Peasant praying. 

Rotterdam. Museum. Apollo and the Muses: 

MAES, (or MAAS,) Nicolaas, one of the best of 
the Dutch genre pamters, was born at Dordrecht 
in 1632. He studied under Rembrandt in Amster- 
dam, and in his earlier pictures he followed his 
master somewhat closely. About 1665 he left 
Rembrandt's studio and removed to Antwerp, where 
he lived until 1678. In that year he returned to 
Amsterdam, where he died in 1693. This is all 
we know of his life. The change in the style of 
his later pictures is so remarkable that it has been 
suggested that they are by another painter of the 
same name, a notion that receives some support 
from the fact that the signatures upon them are 
oi'namented with flourishes which never appear on 
his earlier and far better works. It is possible 
that the Maes who returned to Amsterdam to die 
in 1693 was the son of Rembrandt's pupil. Cer- 
tainly no other example of so radical a change in 
a master's style, both of conception and of execu- 
tion, can be pointed to. Maes' early pictures are 
extremely rare. Probably more than two-thirds 
of them are in England. Tlie National Gallery 
possesses at least three of the very highest quality. 
The following are his chief works : 

Amsterdam. Syks Mus. Old "Woman spinning. 

„ „ Another Version of the same 

subject. 

„ „ Girl at a "Window. 

„ Six Collection. The Inquisitive Servant. 

Berlin. Museum. A Philosopher. 

Brussels. Royal Musmm. An old "Woman reading. 

Dresden. Gallery. Two Women in a Kitchen. 

London. Apsley House. Selling Milk. 

„ „ The Listening Girl. 

„ Bridgewater Ho. A Girl threading her Needle. 

„ Buckingham Pal. The Listening Girl. 

„ National Gallery. The Cradle. 

„ „ The Dutch House-wife. 

„ „ The Idle Servant. 

„ „ Portrait of a Girl (237 ; ascribed 

to Rembrandt), 

Petersburg. Hermitage. An Interior. 

MAES-CANNINI, Jan Baptist Lodewyk, a 
Flemish historical painter, born at Ghent in 1794. 
He was a Professor in the Academy of Ghent. He 
died at Rome in 1856. The Ghent Museum 
possesses his chief works ; they are of no great 
merit. 

MAESTRO GIORGIO, II (or El Maestro 
Jorge). See Ingles. 

MAFFEI, Fbancesco, a painter and engraver,^ 
was a native of Vicenza, and at first a scholar of 
Peranda, though he afterwards became a follower 
of the style of Paolo Veronese. He died at Padua 
in 1660. His picture of St. Anna, in the church 

93 



Magadan 



A BIOGRAPHICAL DICTIONARY OF 



IVIagnasco 



of San Miohele at Vioenza, and other works by him 
in the public palace, exhibit a poetical fancy, and 
in colour are quite worthy of the Venetian school. 
It is to be regretted that he adopted a hasty and 
slight mode of execution, as many of his pictures 
have already become nearly obliterated. Of his 
large 'Paradise,' in the church of San Francesco 
at Padua, scarcely a trace remains. He engraved 
his own piotuie of ' The Death of St. Francis ' ; his 
' Trials of Job ' was engraved by P. Monaco. 

MAGADAN y GAMARRA, Jdan Cibilo, was a 
miniaturist of some merit, and first secretary to 
the Royal Academy of St. Ferdinand. He pub- 
Ushed in 1743 a little book on his art, called the 
' Amateur's Precious Torch,' and wrote some notes 
on the various styles of painting, which were 
published two years after his death. Neither of 
these works, according to Cean Bermudez, possesses 
much practical utility or literary merit. Their 
author died in 1752. 

MAGANZA, Alessandbo, the son of G. B. 
Maganza the elder, was born at Vicenza in 1556. 
After receiving some instruction from his father, 
he became a scholar of Giovanni Antonio Fasolo, 
and studied the works of Paolo Veronese and 
Zelotti. His principal works nre the 'Adoration of 
the Magi,' in the church of San Domenico at 
Vicenza ; and the ' Martyrdom of St. Giustina,' in 
San Pietro. He died in 1630 at Vicenza, of grief 
for the loss of his two sons, Gibolamo and 
Maecantonio, and of his grand-children, the sons 
of Giovanni Maganza the younger, all of whom 
died of the plague in the same year (1630). 

MAGANZA, Giovanni Ba'itista, the elder, was 
born at Vicenza in 1609, and was the head of a 
family of artists, who did credit to their native 
town. He was brought up in the school of Titian, 
whose style he followed with some success ; but he 
was more distinguished as a painter of portraits 
than of historical subjects. He was one of the 
reputable poets of the day, and published several 
works under the name of ' Magagno.' He died in 
1589. 

MAGANZA, Giovanni Battista, the younger, 
the son and scholar of Alessandro Maganza, was 
born at Vicenza in 1677. He painted history in 
the style of his father, to whom he showed himself 
little inferior in his picture of St. Benedetto, in the 
church of Santa Giustina at Padua. He assisted 
Alessandro in many of his principal works at 
Vicenza, where he died of the plague in 1617. 

MAGATTA, II. See Simonetti, Dom. 

MAGATTI, PiETBO Antonio, a painter of 
Vaccalo, born in 1687, studied at Bologna under 
Dal Sole, and painted several pictures for the 
churches in Padua. He died at Varese in 1768. 

MAGDALENEN-SMITZ. See Smitz. 

MAGES, Joseph, was bom at Imst, in Tyrol, in 
1728 ; he studied the art of painting at his native 
place, and at Innsbruck, Vienna, Stuttgart, and 
lastlj' at Augsburg, under G. Rotpletz. He was an 
excellent painter of history, both in oil and fresco, 
and was princij)ally employed at Stuttgart, Colmar, 
and Strasburg. He died in 1769. His two chief 
productions are at Augsburg, and consist of a 
' St. Mary of Egypt,' in the Salvatorkirche, and a 
'History of St. Augustin,' on the ceiling of the 
church of the "Holy Cross. 

MAGGI, Giovanni, was born at Home about 
1566, and died about 1620. He painted landscapes 
and architectural views, but is more known as an 
engraver than as a painter. In 1618 he published 



a set of plates of the principal fountains in Rome, 
engraved in conjunction with Domenico Parasachi. 
He had undertaken to engrave the plan of Rome, 
on a very large scale, with all the principal 
buildings ; but from the want of encouragement 
he was not able to carry his object into execution. 
We have by him the following prints : 

A Landscape with Buins and a Waterfall, with figures ; 
J. Mains in. et fee. 1595. 

Figura della Vita humana ; Joh. Mains fee. 1600. 

Tlje Portrait of a Cardinal ; life-size. 

MAGIMEL, Albeet, a French painter, was bom 
in Paris in 1799. He was a pupil of RegnauH 
and Hersent, and afterwards of Ingres. He 
executed some paintings in a chapel in St. 
Eustache, Paris. He died in 1877. 

MAGIOLLI. See Maglioli. 

MAGIOTTO, Domenico, (or Majotto,) a painter, 
was bom at Venice in 1713. He was a pupil 
of Piazetta, in whose style he executed several 
pictures for churches and private houses. He died 
in 1794. 

MAGIOTTO, Feanoesco, (or Majotto,) son of 
Domenico, was born in 1750. He was instructed 
by his father, and painted historical and still-life 
pictures. He died at Venice in 1805. 

MAGISTRIS, Simonb de, was a native of 
Caldarola, in the Papal States, and flourished 
towards the close of the 16th century. He dis- 
tinguished himself as a painter and sculptor. He 
has left a picture in the principal church of Orsino, 
representing ' St. Philip and St. James,' painted in 
1585 ; and at a more advanced period of his hfe 
produced some works at Ascoli, particularly a 
' Madonna del Rosario,' in San Domenico. 

MAGLIAR, Andbea, an Italian engraver, was 
born at Naples about the year 1692. He engraved 
some plates after Francesco Solimena. 

MAGLIAR, Giuseppe, was the son of Andrea 
Magliar, by whom he was instructed in engraving. 
He gave unusual promise of ability, but died very 
young. He engraved a plate representing ' Christ 
appearing to St. V^'illiam,' after Solimena. 

MAGLIOLI, Giovanni Andrea, (Magiolli, 
Majolds, or Maliolus,) worked at Rome from 1580 
to 1610, and engraved a series of excellent plates 
in which marine gods and monsters were introduced. 

MAGNANI, Ceistoforo, was bom at Pizzighet- 
tone, a castle in the vicinity of Cremona, and was a 
scholar of Bernardino Campi. He flourished about 
the year 1580, and painted history and portraits. 
He is said to have possessed so retentive a memory, 
that he could draw a most correct likeness of any 
person he had once seen. He painted some con- 
siderable works in fresco, in conjunction with 
Cavaliere Malosso and Mainardi, and at Placentia 
there is a ' St. James and St. John ' by him. 

MAGNASCO, Alessandeo, called II Lissan- 
DEINO, was born at Genoa in 1681, and was the son 
of Steffino Magnasoo. He studied at Milan under 
Filippo Abbiati, whose style he imitated, though 
he painted on a smaller scale and different subjects. 
These were public processions, military exercises, 
and bambocciate. He is styled by Lanzi the 
' Michelagnolo delle Battaglie ' of the Genoee 
school. There are several of his pictures in the 
Pitti Palace at Florence, where he resided some 
time, being patronized by the Grand Duke Giovanni 
Gastone. He died in 1747. 

MAGNASCO, Stefano, was born at Genoa about 
1635. He was a pupil of Valeric Castello. He 
spent five years at Home, after' which he returned 



Kagrnus 



PAINTERS AND ENGRAVERS. 



mair 



to his own country, and wns employed in the 
painting of altar-pieces. His death is stated by 
biographers to have occurred in 1665, but it must 
have taken place much later in the century. 

MAGNUS, Eduabd, portrait and genre painter, 
was born at Berlin in 1799. After spending some 
time in the study of medicine, architecture, and 
philosophy, he at last devoted himself to painting, 
and entered the studio of Sohlesinger. He ex- 
hibited for tha first time in 1826, after which he 
travelled in France, Italy, Spain, and England. In 
1837 he became a member, and in 1844 a professor, 
of the Berlin Academy. He obtained much re- 
cognition from the State, and died at Berlin in 
1872. Among his best pictures we may mention : 

A portrait of Jenny Lind. 

A portrait group of the Eoyal Family of Prussia. 

A portrait of Mendelssohn. 

And two genre pictures in the Berlin National Gallery. 

MAGNUS, Otto. See Stackelbebg. 

MAGRI (or Del Magro). See Gihaldi. 

MAGUIRE, Adelaide A., an English subject 
painter, born in 1852. Her works, which were 
chiefly scenes of childhood, were exhibited at the 
Society of Lady Artists (of which she was a 
member) and at the Royal Academy. She died, 
unmarried, in 1876. 

MAHMUD. See Yahia ben Mahjsiud. 

MAHSELKIRCHER, Gabeiel, of Munich, who 
flourished about the year 1470, is the author of 
two early pictures in the Schleissheim Gallery. 
They represent ' Christ bearing the Cross,' and the 
' Crucifixion.' 

MAHUE, Guilladme, was born at Brussels in 
1517, and died at the same city in 1569. He was 
a portrait painter of great repute in his time ; but 
his pictures are rare, and we have no particulars 
of his life. 

MAILLE-SAINT-PRIX, Louis- Antoine, was 
born in Paris in 1796, and instructed by Bidault, 
Hersent, and Picot. He was an excellent painter 
of landscapes, and several wall-paintings by him 
are in the church of Etiolles. Among his best 
works may be mentioned : 

A View of the Pont de Breuil. 

The Euins of St. Jean de I'lle. 

The Valley of Oorbeil. 

The Interior of a House at Damascus. 

A Cataract on the Nile. 

MAILLET, Bertband, a French historical 
painter, a native of Lorraine. In 1457 he was at 
work in the Ducal Palace at Nancy. He died in 
1481. 

MAILLET, Joseph, engraver, was a native of 
France, and worked in Paris in the last quarter of 
the 18th century. He engraved several plates 
which showed great promise, but died young, in 
1788. 

MAINARDI, Andrea, called II Chiaveghino, 
was a native of Cremona, and flourished from 1590 
till 1613. He was brought np in the school of 
Bernardino Campi, and was one of his ablest 
disciples. In conjunction with his nephew, Marc 
Antonio Mainardi, he executed several consider- 
able works at Cremona. One of his best pictures 
is the ' Marriage of St. Anna,' in the church of the 
Eremitani. 

MAINARDI, Lattanzio, called ' Lattanzio of 
Bologna,' an Italian painter, born at Bologna, who 
flourished in the latter part of the 16th century. He 
wa« a pupil of the Carracci, but afterwards went 
to Rome, where he was employed by Pope Sixtus V. 



in the decoration of several churches. He lived 
too fast, and died at Viterho at the age of twenty- 
seven. 

MAINARDI, Sebastiano di Baetolo, was born 
at San Gimignano in the 15th century, and, accord- 
ing to Pecori, died about 1515. He was the pupil, 
favourite assistant, and brother-in-law of Domenico 
Ghirlandaio. He painted the fresco of ' St. Thomas 
receiving the Girdle of the Virgin,' in the Baroncelli 
Chapel at Santa Croce, Florence ; and a life-sized 
fresco, ' Virgin and Child in glory,' in a taber- 
nacle in the Via San Giovanni, at Gimignano. 
Other works by Mainardi are : 
Berlin. A Madonna. 

„ Portrait of a Young Man. 

Paris. Louvre, Virgin and Child. (Pictures 

nearly or quite identical at 
Florence, Naples, and Saa 
Gimignano.) 
Rome. Mus4e Cristiano. A Nativity. 
San Gimignano. Col- ) Glorified Virgin adored by six 
leyiale. j Saints. 
„ jS. Agostino. The Four Doctors of the Church. 

1500. 
„ „ Sta. Lucia between SS. Gimig- 

nano and Nicholas of Pari. 
„ Pal. Comun. Two Madonnas. 

MAINERO, Giovanni Battista, was born at 
Genoa about the year 1610, and was a disciple of 
Luciano Borzone. At an early age he distinguished 
himself by the production of some good historical 
pictures of a small size ; but in after years lie 
was chiefly employed in portraiture. He died of 
the pliigue in 1657. 

MAIR, Alexander, (or Matr,) a German en- 
graver on wood and on copper, was born at 
Augsburg, probably about 1659. He was living 
up to 1620. We have by this artist some book- 
plates and frontispieces, executed with the graver 
in a masterly style. He engraved the frontispiece 
to Velser's 'Dissertation on the Antiquities of 
Augsburg,' published in 1696," and that of the 
' Uranometria,' by John Bayer, dated 1603. He 
usually marked his plates with his name or 
initials, or with a monogram. Among them there 
are : 

copper-plates. 

Johann Welser of Augsburg. 
St. Sebastian. 

A frontispiece, with arms leaning against two columns ; 
excellent and very rare. 

WOODCUTS ascribed TO HIM. 

A plan of Augsburg. , , , ,, 

A print with the portraits of the Emperor Eudolph II., 

King Philip II. of Spain, Archduke Ferdinand, and 

Archduke Charles of Austria. 

MAIR, JOH. Ule. See Mayr. 

MAIR, La. See La Mair. 

MAIR, NicoLAUS Alexander, an old_ Ger]nan 
painter and engraver, who was working from 
1492 to 1614, was a native of Landshut, probably 
the town so named in Lower Bavaria. From the 
likeness in his style of engraving to that of Martm 
Schongauer it has been conjectured (hat he was 
taught by the latter, but others believe Wohlgemuth 
to have been his master. He is said to nave been 
the inventor of the process of engravmg known 
as chiaroscuro. Among others we have the fol- 
lowing prints by him, signed with his name or a 
monogram : 

David and Goliath. 

The Nativity. 

Christ Bearing the Cross. 

yo 



Maison-Neuve 



A BIOGEAPHICAL DICTIONARY OP 



Maleuvre 



The Virgin and Child. 

St. Anne. 

The Wise Men's Offering. 

Samson carrying off the Gates of Gaza. 

Samson and DeHlah. 

The Martyrdom of St. Sehastian. 

A Man talking to a Woman, with a Dog snarling at a 

Monkey. 
Death and the three loving couples. 
The Story of Three Brothers. 
The Balcony. 
Holy Family : in chiaroscuro. 

MAISON-NEUVE, a modern French engraver, 
mentioned by Basan. He engraved the French 
Parnassus, from a bronze, and several portraits, 
among which is that of Jacques Theodore Klein. 
MAITBE EOUX. See De' Rossi, Rosso. 
MAJA, Giovanni Stefano, an Italian historical 
and portrait painter. He was born at Genoa in 
1672, and was a pupil of Solimena. He died in 
1747. 
MAJO, Juan de. See Veemeijen. 
MAJOLI, Clements, (or Majola,) was born at 
Ferrara about the year 1625, and studied at Rome 
under Pietro da Cortona. He was a reputable 
painter of history, and some of his pictures in the 
churches of Rome and Ferrara, especially the 
latter, are meritorious productions. In the church 
of San Paolo, at Ferrara, is a picture of ' St. Maria 
Maddalena de' Pazzi'; and in San Giuseppe, 'St. 
Niccolb da Tolentino, supported by an Angel.' 
MAJOLUS. See Maglioli. 
MAJOR, Isaac, a German painter and engraver, 
was born at Frankfort about the year 1576. Early 
in his life he went to Prague, where he became a 
scholar of Rolandt Savery, at that time painter to 
Rodolph II. He was also instructed by Giles 
Sadeler, in whose style he engraved several plates. 
Major died in poverty at Vienna in 1630. We 
have by this artist the following : 
A set of six Landscapes, Views in Bohemia; after 

P. Stephani. 
A set of nine romantic Views, signed : Isaac Major fee. 
A very large Landscape, with the figure of St, Jerome ; 
aftej^ Rolandt Savery. Isaac Majm' scul. I^iemus. 
1622. 
The Emperor Eudolph 11. in a Triumphal Car, with 
Swans and Eagles ; inscribed Ite Trium^hales feltces, 
&c. 
St. Jerome in a Cave ; after Savery. 
Portrait of Admiral van Tromp ; after Faas. 

MAJOR, Thomas, an eminent English engraver, 
was born in 1720. He resided some years of the 
early part of his life in Paris, where he was 
thrown into prison by the Government in reprisals 
for the imprisonment of French soldiers taken at 
Culloden. He there engraved several plates after 
Berehem, Wouwerman, &c. On his return to 
England he distinguished himself by a variety of 
plates from portraits, landscapes, and other sub- 
jects, executed in a neat, firm style. He was for 
forty years seal engraver to the king, and in 
1770 received from the Royal Academy the honour 
of being elected first associate engraver. In 1768 
he published a set of twenty-four prints, entitled 
' The Ruins of Poestum, otherwise Posidonia, in 
Magna Grascia,' after the designs of J. B. Borra. 
He died in Covent Garden in 1799. On some of 
his prints after Berehem and Arnold Mass he has 
put an anagram of his name, Jorma, or Jor sculp. 
The following are his principal plates : 

PORTRAITS. 

John Carteret, Earl Granville. 1757. 
Cardinal Pole. 
96 



VARIOUS SUBJECTS. 

The Departure of Jacob ; aft. r F. Lauri. 

The Good Shepherd ; after Mhrillo. 

Two Landscapes ; after Gaspar Poussin. 

A Landscape, with a Man driving Sheep ; after Rubens. 

Two Flemish Festivals ; after Tenien. 

The Manege ; after Wouwerman. 

The Travellers ; after N. Berehem. 

Two Landscapes : Morning and Evening ; after the same. 

The Four Seasons ; after Ferg. 

A View near Haarlem ; after Van der'Neer. 

A Sea-port ; after Claude. 

A View of Ponte Mole, near Rome ; after the same. 

MA L AGON. See Villafranca. 

MALAINE, Renieb, a Flemish painter of some 
merit, who flourished about the middle of the last 
century. The town of Toumai possesses some of 
bis pictures. 

MALAINE, Joseph Laurent, son of Eenier, 
born at Tournai in 1745. In 1787 he was ap- 
pointed flower painter to the Gobelins. In 1793 
he retired to Alsace, but returned to Paris in 1796, 
where be resumed his favourite study. He died 
in Paris in 1809. 

MALBODIUS. See Gossabrt. 

MALBONE, Edward G., a portrait painter, was 
born at Newport, in America, in 1777. He early 
displayed a talent for art, and while still a boy 
painted a scene for a theatre. At seventeen he 
established himself in Providence as a portrait 
painter. In 1796 he went to Boston, and afterwards 
to New York, Philadelphia, and Charleston. In 
1801 he came to England, and was urged by West 
to remain, but returned to Charleston in the same 
year. There he painted miniatures, but his health 
giving way, he abandoned bis profession and went 
to Savannah, where he died in 1807. 

MALCOLM, James Peller, an English topo- 
graphical draughtsman and engraver, born at Phila- 
delphia in 1767. He came to England about 1788, 
and studied in the schools of the Academy. He 
also received instruction from Benjamin West and 
Wright of Derby. Not succeeding with the brush, 
he turned to engraving. He worked for the 
' Gentleman's Magazine,' and had much employ- 
ment on topographical subjects. He died in 
London in 1815. Specimens of his work are to be 
found in Nichols' ' History of Leicestershire ' ; 
' Excursions through Kent ' ; ' History of Carica- 
turing' (1808); 'Anecdotes of the Manners and 
Customs of London in the 18th century ' (1808-11) ; 
Granger's ' Biographical History of England.' 

MALDEGHEM, Jean Baptiste, a Flemish 
landscape and animal painter, born in 1803. He 
studied in the Bruges Academy, and died at 
Brussels in 1841. 

MALDEGHEM, Romain Eug^ine van, was born 
at Denterghem, in Flanders, in 1813. He attended 
the Academy at Bruges in 1825, and afterwards 
that of Antwerp. From 1838 to 1842 he travelled 
in Italy and the East. On his return he settled at 
Brussels, but in 1852 became Director of the 
Academy at Bruges. After a life of much success, 
he died at Brussels in 1867. Perhaps his most 
important picture is ' Charles V. in his cell.' 

MALEUVKE, Pierre, a French engraver, was 
born in Paris in 1740. He was a pupil of Beau- 
varlet, and visited London, where he was for some 
time under Sir Robert Strange. On his return to 
Palis he engraved some portraits and other 
subjects. The following are his most important 
plates : 



Kali 



PAINTERS AND ENGRAVERS. 



Slalton 



PORTRAITS. 
Oustavus Adolpbus, King of Sweden. 
Count d'Aianda. 
M. d'Alembert. 
M. de Lalande. 

SUBJECTS. 

The Satyr and the Peasant ; after Dietrich. 
The Spoiled Child ; after Greuze, 
• A Sea-storm ; after Bakhuisen. 
Boors regaling ; after Brouwer. 
The Bath of Diana ; after Marillier. 

MALI, HuBERTUS, born at Mauren, Wiirtem- 
berg, in 1818. He was an elder brother of Christian 
Friedrich Mali (a living artist), and studied paint- 
ing under P. F. Peters the elder, at Nymwegen ; 
subsequently he worked at Hoheneck, near Lud- 
wigsburg. His landscapes are poetic in conception 
and crisply painted. He was drowned while 
bathing near Altenaer, in 1839. His works are 
mostly at Mannheim and Stuttgart. 

MALI, JoHANN, a landscape painter, and second 
brother of Christian Friedrich Mali, was born at 
Broekhuizen in 1828, and instructed by P. P. 
Peters the younger, at Stuttgart. He afterwards 
studied at Munich. His works are mountain 
landscapes, of a generally sombre character. He 
died at Munich in 1865. 

MALINCONICO, Andrea, was bom at Naples 
about the year 1600, and was one of the ablest 
scholars of Cavaliere Massimo Stanzioni. Of his 
works in fresco little is known, but the churches 
at Naples possess several of his oil paintings ; of 
these the most esteemed are the ' Four Evangelists ' 
and the 'Doctors of the Church.' Andrea's son, 
Nicola, was a good painter of flowers and fruit. 

MALLEIN, G., (or Mallbyn,) was born at 
Dordrecht in 1753. He settled at Rotterdam, and 
was chiefly employed as a decorator. He died 
in 1816. 

MALLERY, Karel van, a Flemish designer and 
engraver, was born at Antwerp in 1576. Judging 
from his style, it is probable that he formed his 
manner from the prints of the Wierixes, or that 
he was instructed by them. His work with the 
graver is very highly finished, though his drawing 
is not always correct. He must have been ex- 
tremely laborious, as his prints are very numerous. 
The Abb6 de Marolles possessed three hundred and 
forty -two prints by him. The following are his 
principal prints : 

The Infant Jesus, with two Angels, in a landscape ; 

C. de Mallery fee. 
The Adoration of the Magi. 
The Holy Family, with Mary Magdalene. 
St. Francis. 
Several heads of Christ, the Virgin, Saints, the Apostles, 

and other devotional subjects ; from his own desiyns^ 

and after Anthony Salaert, and other masters. 
The History of the Silkworm ; in six plates ; after 

Stradan. 
A set of plates of Horses, for a book entitled ' La 

Oavalerie Fran^oise.' 1602. 
Four plates of the Miller, his Son, and the Ass ; after 

Ambrose Franck ; scarce. 

MALLERY, Philip van, was born at Antwerp 
about 1600. He was an engraver, and worked in 
the stylo of the Wierixes. If not a son of Karel 
van Mallery, he was at least his pupil. He worked 
chiefly at Prague, and there engraved the portrait 
of Archbishop Johann Gohelius. Several small 
historical subjects, published about 1650, are also 
by him. The engravings of his work, 'Typus 
Mundi' (Antwerpije, 1627), are signed with his 
name or monogram. 

VOL. II. H 



MALLET, Jean Baptists, a French historical 
and still-life painter, was born at Grasse in 1759. 
He was a pupil of Simon Julien at Toulon, and 
afterwards of Prud'hon and M^rim^e. Among his 
pictures are the 'Education of Henri IV.,' and 
' Nature and Honour.' 

MALLEYN. See Mallein. 

MALLIUS, Lucius, one of the best painters of 
the Roman Empire, who flourished in the time of 
Macrobius, A.D. 396. 

MALO, Vincent, (or Vincenzio,) was born at 
Cambray about the year 1625. He was at first a 
pupil of Rubens. After the death of that master 
he became a scholar of David Teniers the elder, 
who had been brought up in the same academy. 
He afterwards went to Italy, where he passed the 
remainder of his life, and distinguished himself 
as a painter of battles and landscapes ; he also 
executed some altar-pieces for the churches at 
Genoa. He died at Rome before the year 1656. 

MALOGAVAZZO, Coriolano, born at Cremona 
about the year 1555, was a disciple of Bernardino 
Campi, whom he assisted in some of his great 
works in the church of San Gismondo. He is 
better known as the coadjutor of that artist thnii 
by any original productions of his own. His 
principal work is his picture in the church of San 
Silvestro, at Cremona, representing the ' Virgin 
and Child, with St. Francis and St. Ignatius,' 
which, according to Lanzi, is supposed to have 
been designed by Bernardino. 

MALOMBRA, Pietro, was born at Venice in 
1656, and studied the works of Salviati and Palma. 
He has left four excellent pictures of the miracles 
wrought by St. Francis de Paula, in the church 
dedicated to that saint at Venice. He is still 
better in his historical subjects of an easel size, 
and painted with great success architectural view.s 
of the principal places in Venice, enriched with 
groups of immerous figures. He was also a dis- 
tinguished portrait painter. He died at Venice in 
1618. 

MALOSSO, II. See Trotti. 

MALPE Jean, painter, was born at Ghent in 
1764. He studied in the Academy of his native 
town, and then spent some time in Paris. He 
afterwards returned to Ghent, and devoted himself 
to portrait painting in miniature. He died in 
1818. 

MALPIEDI, DoMENioo, an Italian painter, and 
pupil of Barocci, was born at 8. Ginesio. He 
flourished from 1590 to 1606, and executed several 
pictures for the churches in the neighbourhood of 
his birthplace. One of these, the ' Martyrdom of 
St. Ginesio and St. Eleuthera,' shows that he kept 
pretty close to tlje style of his master. 

MALPIEDI, Francesco, a brother of Domenico 
M., and also a pupil of Barocci. 

MALTESE, Francesco, called after his birth- 
place, Malta, was a painter of still-life, who especi 
ally excelled in his rendering of carpets and musical 
instruments. Two of his pictures are in the 
Gallery at Munich, and some are to be met with 
in England. He lived about 1670, or later, but no 
particulars of his life have been recorded. 

MALTON, James, an English topographical 
draughtsman in the second half of the 18lh century. 
He died in Maiylebone in 1803. The South Ken- 
sington Museum has a drawing by him of ' Cupel 
Street, Dublin.' He published ' Picturesque Views 
of the City of Dublin' (1791-6); 'Essay on 
British Cottage Architecture' (1798); 'The 

97 



Malton 



A BIOGRAPHICAL DICTIONARY OP 



Mander 



Young Painter's Maulstick' (1800); 'Designs for 
Rural Retreats ' (1801). 

MALTON, Thomas, topographical draughtsman, 
was born in 1726. At one time he kept an uphol- 
sterer's shop in the Strand. In 1749 he was in 
Dublin, driven there, it is said, by money diffi- 
culties into which he had drifted in London. He 
resided there many years, making a scanty living 
as a teacher of perspective. He was an early 
exhibitor at the Royal Academy, and in 1776 we 
find him back in London, where he advertises a 
course of lectures on perspective. He died at 
Dublin, 18th February, 1801. His drawings are 
what were known as ' tinted drawings,' begun in 
Indian ink. So far as they can be tested they are 
very accurate. The South Kensington Museum 
possesses four of them. 

MALTON, Thomas, architectural draughtsman, 
was a son of the above. He was born in 1748. 
In 1774 he received a premium from the Society 
of Arts, and in 1782 the gold medal of the Royal 
Academy for a design for a theatre. He entered 
the office of Gandon, where he remained for three 
years, being then dismissed for irregularity. He 
exhibited at the Royal Academy from 1774 to 1802. 
He also produced some engravings in aqua-tint 
from the chief buildings of London. He died in 
Long Acre, 7th March, 1804. 

MALTON, William, another son of Thomas 
Malton, senior, did some work as an architectural 
draughtsman. 

MALWEL, Jean, (Malouel, or Maluel,) who 
was born in the latter half of the 14th century, is 
recorded as ' painter and valet-de-chambre ' to 
Philip the Hardy and to Jean Sans Peur, Dukes 
of Burgundy, from 1397 to 1415. He worked 
for the now destroyed Chartreuse of Dijon, and in 
1415 he painted a portrait of Jean Sans Peur, 
which was carried by special messenger to John 
II. of Portugual. It is believed that none of his 
works have survived. 

MAN, Corn, de (or Maan). See De Man. 
MANAIGO, SiLVESTEO, was born at Venice about 
the year 1670, and was a scholar of Gregorio 
Lazzarini. His compositions evince both taste and 
ability ; but he worked for money only, and became 
negligent and a mannerist. His most creditable 
picture is ' Christ driving the Money-changers from 
the Temple,' in the church of San Felice, at 
Venice. 

MANASAR, Daniel, a German engraver, who 
resided at Augsburg early in the 17th centurj'. 
He chiefly engraved architectural plates, which are 
carried out entirely with the burin, in a neat but 
stiff style. Conjointly with Wolfgang Kilian, he 
engraved the plates for a work entitled ' Basilicse 
SS. Udalrici et afrse Augustee Vindelicorum His- 
toriae,' published at Augsburg in 1626. His prints 
are usually marked D. M. F. 

MANBY, Thomas, an English landscape painter, 
who practised in the second half of the 17th 
century. He spent much time in Italy, whence he 
brought back a collection of pictures. He died in 
London about 1691. 

MANCHE, Bdouakd, a Flemish genre and his- 
torical painter, born at Brussels in 1819. He died 
in Paris in 1861. One of his chief works is a 
' Descent from the Cross.' 

MANCHELLI, Miohelb, was born at Genoa in 

1560, according to Domenici. He studied at 

Naples, under Marco di Pino, and acquired some 

reputation as an historical painter. One of his 

98 



best works is a picture in the church of Sant' 
Agnello at Naples, representing the 'Virgin and 
Infant, with St. John, Mary Magdalene, and St. 
Lucia ' ; it was painted in 1586. 

MANCHINO DAI PAESI, II. See Dal Sole, 
Ant'. 

MANCINI, Bartolommeo, a follower of Carlo 
Dolce, of whom little is known. 

MANCINI, DOMENICO, a Venetian artist living 
in the early part of the 16th century, of whose life 
or death no details are known. He is the author 
of the centre panel in an altar-piece now in the 
sacristy of the cathedral of Lendinara, representing 
a ' Virgin and Child enthroned, with an Angel play- 
ing a viol.' It is signed and dated 1511. 

MANCINI, Francesco, (or MAciNi,)was born at 
St. Angiolo in Vado in 1706, and was a pupil 
of Carlo Cignani. He went to Rome, and there 
painted the ' Miracle of St. Peter,' his chief per- 
formance ; it is now in the Palazzo di Monte 
Cavallo, and a mosaic fills its place in St. Peter's. 
Mancini became a member of the Academy of St. 
Luke, and died in 1768. 

MANCIOL. See Leckekbetjen. 

MANDEL, JoHANN August Bduaed, engraver, 
was bom in 1810, at Berlin. He was a pupil of 
Buckhorn, and worked in pure line. In 1837 he 
became fellow of the Berlin Academy, and in 1842, 
after a visit to Paris, was appointed Professor of 
Engraving. He was a frequent exhibitor at the 
Salon, where he obtained all the regulation honours. 
His last important work was a plate from the 
' Madonna di San Sisto,' published after his death, 
which took place in 1882. Among his best works 
we may name : 

Charles I. ; after Vandyck. 

Titian's portrait of himself. 

Christ weeping over .Terusalem ; after Scheffer. 

Ecce Homo ; after Guido. 

Bindo Altoviti ; after Raphael. 

Madonna della Seggiola ; after the same. 

Frederick the Great ; after Stock. 

Frederick William IT. ; after Otto. 

MANDER, Karel van, the elder, a well-known 
painter and writer on art, was bern at Meulebeke, 
in Flanders, in 1548. He was of a noble family, and 
received an education suited to his rank. At an early 
age he discovered a lively genius for poetry and the 
belles-lettres, and a decided disposition for painting. 
To cultivate the latter, on finishing his literary 
pursuits, he was placed under the tuition of Lucas 
de Heere, a painter aftd poet of Ghent, with whom 
he studied some time, and about 1569 became a 
disciple of Pieter Vlerick, an historical painter of 
some eminence at Courtrai. He had acquired 
considerable reputation by some pictures he had 
painted for the churches in Flanders, when he 
determined in 1573 to visit Italy, and passed three 
years in Rome, where he was assiduously em- 
ployed in drawing from the remains of antiquity. 
He formed an intimate acquaintance with Bar- 
tholomew Spranger, and in conjunction with that 
artist, was employed for some of the public 
places and private collections at Rome, fie ac- 
companied his friend Spranger to Vienna, where 
he met with flattering encouragement, and 
received an invitation to enter the service of 
the Emperor; but his attachment to his native 
country prevented him from accepting this mark 
of distinction. About 1578 he returned to Flan- 
ders, whence after many vicissitudes he made 
his way northwards to Haarlem, and finally to 



Slander 



PAINTERS AND ENGRAVERS. 



Amsterdam, where he ended his days. At Haariem 
Van Mander form.ed an intimacy with Cornelis 
Cornelisz and Hendrik Goltzius, and in con- 
junction with the latter he established an academy, 
which had numerous scholars. But our chief debt 
to Van Mander is for his account of the Italian 
and Flemish schools from 1366 to 1604. In his 
hours of leisure he also wrote verses. He trans- 
lated the ' Iliad ' of Homer ; the ' Georgics ' and 
the ' Bucolics ' of Virgil ; and the ' Metamorphoses ' 
of Ovid. He finished his ' Lives of the Painters ' 
at Zevenbergen, between Haarlem and Alkrnaar, 
where he remained for a year. Van Mander's 
final migration to Amsterdam took place in 1604. 
There he fell sick ; and although he endeavoured 
to vanquish his pain by his courage, he was 
obliged tosend for a doctor. Prom that moment 
his situation became perilous ; for he found " it 
was two against one," says Michiels. The man 
of skill expedited the business by a debilitating 
regimen, and the patient died of weakness (1606). 
He was crowned with laurel in his cofiSn ; three 
hundred friends and amateurs followed his body 
to the grave ; a multitude of panegyrists feelingly 
deplored his loss ; and his celebrity still lives in 
his book. His pictures, which are rare, are poor 
enough. 

MANDER, Kaeel van, the younger, a painter, 
was a son of Karel van Mander the elder, and 
was born a! Courtrai about 1579. He was a 
scholar in his father's studio at Haarlem, where 
he painted portraits and historical subjects. He 
was afterwards attached to the tapestry works of 
Spiering at Delft, from whence he was sent for 
in 1606 to execute some hangings for Christian 
IV., King of Denmark. He died in Holland in 
1623. 

MANDER, Karel van, was the son of Karel 
van Mander the younger. On his father's death 
he went with his mother to Copenhagen, where he 
was well received by the king. He studied, it is 
believed, in Italy, and was afterwards appointed 
painter to the Danish court. In 1635 he visited 
Amsterdam, and there painted the portrait of the 
poet Vondel. Of his paintings there are at Copen- 
hagen, 'The Tartar Ambassador at Copenhngen 
in 1665,' ' The Remorse of St. Peter,' portraits of 
Admiral Giedde, and others. Van Mander died 
at Delft in 1672. 

MANDIJN, Jan, (Mandin, Madijn, or Madin,) 
was born at Haarlem in 1500. He painted con- 
flagrations, wild and rocky landscapes, and dia- 
hleries, in the style of Jerom Bos. His chief 
residence was at Antwerp, and there he died in 
1560. 

MANENTI, ViNCENZio, was born at Canimorto, 
in the province of Sabina, in 1600. He was the 
son of Ascanio Manenti, an obscure artist, by 
whom he was instructed in the first principles of 
design. He afterwards studied at Rome, under 
Giuseppe Cesari and Domenichino. There are 
several of his pictures in the churches of his 
province ; and Lanzi speaks favourably of his ' St. 
Stefano,' in the cathedral at Tivoli, and of his ' St. 
Saverio,' in the Jesuit's church. He died in 
1674. 



Maafredi 

son of Anton Manes, and painted battle scenes. 
He died in 1880. 

MANES, Joseph, was born at Prague in 1821 
He was a son of Anton Manes, and received his 
first mstruction from his father. He painted por- 
traits and historical scenes, and died in 1871 

MANES, Wenzel, brother of Anton Manes, was 
born at Prague in 1796. He studied at the 
Academy, and devoted himself to landscape and 
portra.it painting, though we find some altar-pieces 
from his hand. He died in 1868. 
,3J^^¥^' ^^°^'^""' painter, was born in Paris in 
laa2. His first master was Thomas Couture, in 
whose studio he spent some six years. After 
leaving Couture he travelled in America, England 
the Netherlands, Germany, Italy, and Spain, and 
after his return to Paris retained for a time a 
manner he had caught from Velazquez. In 1860 
he exhibited his 'Buveur d'Absinthe,' in which 
the influence of Couture is strong, and shortly 
afterwards his ' Enfant a I'Bp^e,' which is very hke 
a Velazquez. Towards, 1863 Manet became the 
chief of the famous ' Ecole des Batignolles,' to 
whom Degas, Claude Monet, Guillemet, Fantin- 
Latour, Cisley, Pisarro, and others belonged. 
Ihenceforward his art became and was known 
as 'inapressionism.' In 1863 he exhibited, at the 
first Salon des liefusees, his ' D(5jeuner surl'Herbe,' 
and in 1864, at the official show, his ' Olympia,' 
which raised a storm and failed to win acceptance 
even from many who were prepared to go a long 
way with him. From that time onward the Salon 
was more often barred against him than not until 
the last few years of his life, when his pictures 
were well hung. Manet was decorated with the 
Legion of Honour during the administration of 
M. Antonin Proust, who had been his friend for a 
quarter of a century. He exhibited at the Sulon 
for the last time in 1883, and died the same year. 
Among his best pictures we may name : 

L' Enfant a I'Ep^e. 

CbrLst mocked by the Soldiers. 

Le Dejeuner sur I'herbe. 

Olympia. 

Le Bon Bock. 

Dans la Serre. 

La Toilette. 

Portrait of M. Antonin Proust. 

Portrait of Eochefort. 

Portrait of Zola. 



MANES, Anton, was born at Prague in 1784. 
He was a pupil of Karl Postels, and painted land- 
scapes in the style of Ruysdael. In 1836 he was 
appointed teacher at the Academy. He died in 
1843. 

MANES, GuiDO, bom at Prague in 1829, was a 
H 2 



W.A. 

MANETTI, DoMENico, was born at Siena in 
1609, and was probably a relation of Rutilio 
Manetti. He painted chiefly for the churches of 
Siena, but also produced historical subjects of an 
easel size. Lanzi particularly mentions one in 
the Casa Magnoni, representing the ' Baptism of 
Constantine.' He died in 1663. 

MANETTI, Rutilio, was born at Siena in 1571, 
and was a scholar of Francesco Vanni. He was 
not faithful, however, to the style of that master, 
but sought to imitate the vigour of Caravaggio. 
His pictures at Siena are remarkable for the loaded 
shadows characteristic of the tenebrosi. He was 
well versed in architecture. There are several of 
his pictures at the Certosa in Florence, and in the 
churches at Pisa ; a ' Repose of the Holy Family,' 
in S. Pietro di Castelvecchio, at Siena, is particu- 
larly admirable. He died in 1639. He signed his 
works 2i. M. J. ; and Rut. Man. Pin. His portrait 
in the Gallery at Florence is engraved by Payzi. 

MANFREDI, Baetolommeo, was born at Ustiano, 
near Mantua, about 1572. Although Manfredi 

99 



Mangini 



A BIOGRAPHICAL DICTIONARY OF 



Mannl 



was a scholar of Nicool6 Circignano, he might 
be styled another Michel-Agnolo da Caravaggio, 
if his works were not distinguished by a better 
choice of forma and a more dignified taste in 
design. He painted few pictures for the churches ; 
his favourite, subjects were banditti, assemblies of 
gamesters, and armed soldiers, which harepresented 
with an appropriate ferocity of character, and an 
extraordinary effect of light and shadow. The 
works of Manfredi are rarely to be met with, as he 
died young in 1605, and of the few pictures he 
painted some are attributed to Caravaggio, others 
to Valentin. One representing ' Christ driving the 
Traders from the Temple ' was engraved by J. B. 
Haussard. Among those known are also the 
following : 

Augsburg. Gallery. A Company drinking and 

playing. 

Brunswick. Gallery. The Denial of Peter. 

Brussels. The Woman taken in Adultery. 

Copenhagen. Gallery. The Gipsy in the Watoh-room. 

„ ,, A Girl playing the Tambourine. 

Darmstadt. Gallery. Musicians. r 

Florence. Pitti Palace. The Fortune-Teller. 

„ „ The Good Fortune. 

Madrid. Museum. A Soldier bearing the Head of 

John the Baptist. 

Munich. Gallery. Christ mocked by the Soldiers. 

Kantes. Museum. Judith and Holofernes. 

Paris. Louvre. Company drinking. 

„ „ The Fortune-Teller. 

Vienna. Gallery. Card-Players. 

„ „ The Denial of St. Peter. 

MANGINI, Prosper, a little-known painter of 
the 17th century. He was a pupil of Agostino 
Metelli, and painted similar subjects. 

MANGLARD, Adeibn, a French painter and 
engraver, was born at Lyons in 1695. At an 
early period of his life he went to Rome, where 
he met with considerable encouragement, and 
painted several landscapes and sea-pieces for the 
Villa Albani, and for the Colonna and Kospigliosi 
Palaces. He became a member of the Academy 
in Paris in 1736, and subsequently of that of St. 
Luke, at Rome, where he died in 1760. Joseph 
'Vernet was his scholar. Among his pictures are : 

Paris. Louvre. A Shipwreck. 

Kome. Pal. Buspoli. Several Paiutings. 

Vienna. Belvedere. Agitated Sea at Sunrise. 

He engraved forty-four plates, representing similar 
subjects to those of his paintings. Tlie best is 
' The Widow of Sarepta.' 

MANGOKI, Adam db, (Manyocky,) was a Ger- 
man portrait painter, born at Szokolya, in Hungary, 
in 1674. He was a pupil of Scheitz, and lived at 
Dresden, where many of his works still exist. 
Among his best pictures we may name : 

Portrait of Count Promuitz. 
Portrait of Franijois Kakocsy. 
Portrait of Augustus the Strong. 
Portrait of Count Bielinsky. 

MANINI, GaetAno, was born at Milan about 
the year 1730. He painted history in the gaudy 
and frivolous style of the modern Italian school, 
and came to England a little before 1775, in which 
year he was an exhibitor with the Chartered Society 
of Artists. He died between the years 1780 and 
1790. 

MANINI, GiACOMO Antonio, (or Mannini.) a 
painter and engraver of perspective and architec- 
tural ornaments, was born at Bologna in 1646, and 
died in the same city in 1732. He was a disciple 
of Andr6 Monticelli and Domenico Santi. There 
100 



is a series of sixteen perspective views by him, 
entitled ' Vedute deliziose ' ; they are etched with 
great taste. 

MANISFELS, FBANgois Joseph, an historical 
painter, was born at Tournai in 1742. He was a 
pupil of N. Brebar. He died in 1807. 

MANNI, Giannicola di Paolo, was born at 
Citta della Pieve in the latter half of the 16th 
century, and died in 1544. He was a fellow- 
pupil under Perugino of Raphael and Lo Spagna. 
He died in 1544. There is an 'Annunciation' by 
him in the National Gallery, and the Fitzwilliam 
Museum at Cambridge has a ' Madonna ' ascribed 
to him. Elsewhere the following are preserved : 



Berlin. 

Gubbio. 

Paris. 



Perugia. 



Gallery. The Crucifixion. 
S. Piitro. The Visitation. 

Louvre. Baptism of our Lord. 
„ Assumption of the Virgin. 

„ Adoration of the Magi. 

„ Holy Family. 

Cambio. Altar-piece and several fres- 
coes. 1515-19. 
„ Pinacoteca. Paintings of Christ, the Virgin, 

and Saints. 
„ S. Martina. Virgin, with SS. John and 

Laurence. 
„ -S Tommaso. The Incredulity of St. Thomas. 

MANNIN, James, or (Manning,) a flower 
painter, born in France, who settled in Dublin, 
where in 1746 he became a master in the Dublin 
Society's School, and tauglit several good artists. 
He died in 1779. 

MANNIN, Mrs., was a miniature painter. She 
exhibited at the Royal Academy from 1829 to 
1832 as Miss Millington, and from 1833 to 1859 
under her married name. Among her best works 
are the portraits of Sir Henry Havelock, Sir 
Felix and Lady Agar, and the cliildren of Sir 
George Brooke-Pechell. She died at Brighton in 
1864. 

MANNINI, Jaoopo Antonio, painter and en- 
graver, was born at Bologna in 1646. He and 
Giambattista Draghi were intrusted by the Duke 
of Parma with the decoration of a chapel at Colomo. 
From 1706 to 1708 Mannini was at Modena, where 
he painted the dome of the church of St. Barnabas. 
He engraved several plates. He died in 1732. 

MANNL, Jacob, (or M.\nnl,) a German engraver 
in mezzotint, was boin at Vienna about the year 
1695. In 1720 Christopher Lauch, the inspector 
of the Imperial Gallery, which had been augmented 
by the collection of the Archduke Leopold, under- 
took to have the whole of the pictures engraved, 
and Jacob Mannl was employed for that purpose. 
The death of the archduke and of the artist pre- 
vented the completion of the project, and only 
thirty-one plates were finished. These prints are 
now become extremely rare. They are as follows : 

St. Francis praying ; ajter Bassano. 

Christ bearing His Cross ; after the same. 

St. Clara kneeling ; after the same. 

Christ praying in the Garden ; after Michel- Atjnolo 

Caravagcjio. 
Tobit restoring Sight to his Father ; after the same. 
Susannah and the Elders; after Ann. Cain'acci. 
Mary Magdalene penitent, accompanied by an Angel ; 

after Correygio. 
The Virgin, with the Infant Christ, who is caressing 

St. John ; after Van Dyck. 
Samson delivered to the Philistines ; after the same. 
The Martyrdom of St. Bartholomew; after Luca 

Giordano. 
A Philosopher meditating on a Skull ; afte)' the same, 
A Geometrician ; after the same. 
A Warrior giving his hand to a Man ; after Giorgione. 



XCannlich. 



PAINTERS AND ENGRAVERS. 



Manson 



Jupiter and Mercury, with Baucis and Philemon ; after 

Carlo Loth. 
Christ taken in the Garden ; a/tej- B. Manfredi. 
The Dead Christ, supported by an Angel ; after Palma. 
A Dying Magdalene ; after the younye)' Palma. 
St. Margaret treading on the riragon ; after Raphael. 
The Repentance of St. Peter ; after Spai/miletto. 
Christ disputing with the Doctors ; after the same. 
Susannah at the Bath ; after Tintoretto. 
Venus, with Cupid holding a mirror ; after Titian. 
Bcce Homo ; half-length ; after the same. 
The Virgin, or Mater Dolorosa ; after the same. 
The Virgin and Infant ; after the same. 
Judith with the Head of Holof ernes ; after A, Varotari. 
Judith ; after Carta Verteziano. 
A Child holding a Dog ; after Paolo Veronese. 
Judith leaving the Tent of Holofernes ; after the same. 
Diana and her Nymphs ; after TFilletorts and Jan 

Fyt. 

Portrait of the Emperor Charles VI. 

MANNLICH, JoHANN Christian von, (or Man- 
LICH,) was born at Strasburg in 1740 or 1742. He 
was instructed by his father, Konrad Mannlich, 
and afterwards went to Mannheim and became a 
scholar of Zinzenich and VerscliafEelt. Duke 
Christian IV., by whom he was patronized, intro- 
duced him to Carle van Loo and Francois Boucher 
in Paris in 1763, and enabled him to visit the 
Academy at Rome in 1767. He went subsequently 
to Naples, and stayed there until 1771. After his 
return he became court-painter in 1772, as well as 
Director of the School of Art at Zweibriichen. He 
was a member of the Academies of Diisseldorf, 
Mannheim, Paris, and Parma. He died early in 
1823. 

MANNLICH, KoNEAD, was born at Augsburg in 
1701. He studied under Johann Kupeczki, at 
Vienna, and subsequently visited Hungary. In 
after years he was employed at Stuttg-art and at 
Zweibriicken. He painted history, portraits, and 
animals with considerable success. Several of his 
works are in the Gallery at Sohleissheim. He died 
at Zweibriicken in 1759. 

MANNO, Francesco, an Italian painter and 
architect, was born at Palermo in 1754. He began 
life as a goldsmith, but afterwards devoted himself 
to painting. In 1786 he settled at Rome, and 
became the Secretary of the Academy of St. Luke. 
He was employed by Pope Pius VI. Among 
, his works may be named a portrait of King 
Ferdinand I., in the Gallery at Palermo, and several 
frescoes in the Quirinal. He died at Rome in 1831. 
MANNOZZI (or Manozzi). See San Giovanni. 
MANNSFELD. See Mansfeld. 
MANRI6UB, Miguel. See Amb^ees. 
MANS, Feedeeio H., was a Dutch painter of 
the 17th century, who has left numerous pictures 
of towns, villages, and coast scenes. He is sup- 
posed to have lived at Utrecht. His winter-pieces 
are in the manner of Klaas Molenaer. Examples 
are to be found at Vienna, Florence, Rotterdam, 
Dresden, and Gotha. They are generally of small 
dimensions, and signed with his name, and some 
are dated as late as 1677. 

MANSFELD, Johann Eenst, (or Mannsfeld,) 
a German engraver, was born at Prague in 1738. 
When he was sixteen years of age he visited 
Vienna, where he learned design in the Imperial 
Academy, and was instructed in the art of en- 
graving by Jakob' Schmutzer, the court painter. 
He became a member of the Academy of Vienna, 
where he died in 1796. His best plates are small 
portraits of eminent Austrians, &c. The following 
are the most important : 



PORTRAITS. 
The Empress Maria Theresa. 
The Emperor Joseph II. 
Pope Pius V. ; after Hagenawr. 1782. 
■Wenceslaus, Prince Kauritz ; after Vinazer. 
Francis Anthony, Count Kollowrat ; a/to' the same 
Maurice, Count Lacy : after Kollonitz. 1776. 
Frederick, Baron Trenck. 
Joseph Haydn. 
Anthony Stoerk. 1773. 
Sir Robert Murray Keith ; after Graff. 
Metastasio ; after Steiner. 

SUBJECTS. 

The Prodigal Son ; after Fiiger. 

A "Waterfall on the Danube ; afte}' Wenzely, 

The Coronation of the Emperor Leopold ; after iSchutz. 

MANSFELD, Johann Georg, (or Mannsfeld,) 
born at Vienna in 1772, was instructed by his 
father, Johann Ernst Mansfeld, and in the Vien- 
nese Academy. He won some distinction both 
as a painter and engraver. His works are sigiied 
J. G. M. sc. ; Md.fe., or with a monogram. He 
died at Vienna in 1817. There are by him : 

A series of heads of animals; after Quadal, Gondonio, 
he. 

The portrait of Prince Kaunitz. 

Christ and the Woman of Samaria. 

MANSKIRCH, Bernard Gottfried, was born 
at Bonn in 1736 He distinguished himself as 
a painter of landscapes ; but in the latter part of 
his life he became loose and negligent in execution. 
He settled at Cologne in the yeai 1790, and died 
therein 1817. 

MANSKIRCH, Franz Joseph, was born in 1770, 
and was instructed by his father, Bernard Gottfried 
Manskirch. He distinguished himself as a painter 
of landscapes and as an engraver. About 1796 he 
resided for a time in England, but was back in 
Germany by about 1805. He was at Bonn in 1823, 
and afterwards at Frankfort, Berlin, and Dantzic, 
where he died in 1827. He was commissioned by 
the Empress Josephine to paint a series of scenes 
on the Rhine. He etched one landscape. 

MANSON, George, was born at Edinburgh in 
1850. After he left school he worked for a fev^ 
months with a punch-cutter, making the dies for 
tj'pe, and after that for five years at wood- engrav- 
ing, producing water-colour pictures in his leisure 
hours. His style of engraving was direct and 
artistic, resembling much that of the Bewicks. 
When he was twenty-one he set up as a professional 
painter, though greatly hampered b.y failing health. 
In 1871 he visited London, and in 1873 the con- 
tinent for the first time. On his return to Edin- 
burgh symptoms of lung disease manifested them- 
selves, and early in 1874 he was ordered to the 
South, to the Channel Islands. He went to Sark, 
and a year later paid a second visit to Paris, where 
he began to etch. On his return to England he 
settled for a time at Shirley, near Croydon ; but 
his health was finally broken, and removing to 
Lympstone in Devonshire, he died there early in 
1876. His pictures are distinguished by fine colour, 
great delicacy of handling, and a tenderness of 
sentiment scarcely surpassed by any other painter 
of his school. Among the best are : 

Milking Time. 

The Cottage Door. 

What is it? 

Waiting for the Boats. 

Companions. 

Girl with a Donkey. 

The Gipsy Camp. 

The Haunted AVell. 

101 



Iklansiieti 



A BIOGRAPHICAL DICTIONARY OF 



Kantegna 



MAjSTSUETI, Giovanni, was a Venetian painter 
living in the latter part of the 15th and beginning 
of the 16th century, and a contemporary and 
friend of Lazzaro Bastiani. The registers of San 
Giovanni, Venice, tell us that he was lame ; and 
by his own authority we learn that he was a pupil 
of Giovanni Bellini, and a believer in a miracle of 
the Cross, which took place in 1474, and forms 
the subject of one of his paintings now in the 
Academy of Venice. An early effort of Mansueti's 
is the ' Adoration of the Magi,' in the Communal 
Gallery of Padua. TheAcademy of Venice possesses 
also 'St. Mark curing Anianus the Cobbler'; 'St. 
Mark preaching to the Populace of Alexandria |; 
and a picture said to represent ' Antonio Riccio 
congratulated by his friends on his escape from 
Shipwreck.' In the Brera, Milan, is a ' St. Mark 
Baptizing Anianus,' formerly in the school of San 
Marco, Venice. In later years were painted a 
' Pieta ' and a ' St. Jerome,' now in the Locchis 
Carrara Gallery, Bergamo. The galleries of Berlin, 
Venice, and Verona also possess paintings by this 
master, and a picture signed Joannes de Mansuetis 
pinsit is in the possession of Mr. J. Q. Grace. 
Of the dates of his birth and death no exact 
information can be had. 

MANTEGNA, Andrea, was born in t&e neigh- 
bourhood of Padua in 1431. He was the son of 
humble parents, since, according to Vasari, he 
herded cattle in his youth, and was adopted by 
Francesco Squarcione as his foster-child in 1441, 
in which year he was entered on the register of 
Paduan artists. Prom Squarcione he learned the 
first rudiments of his ai't, although it is evident 
from his paintings that he had studied the master- 
pieces of Bellini, Donatello, and Lippi. Mantegna 
commenced to show his talents at a very early age. 
He painted a ' Virgin and Child ' for the high altar 
of Santa Sofia, Padua, when only seventeen years 
old. His earliest known fresco is that of ' SS. 
Bernardino and Anthony supporting the Sacred 
Monogram,' above the high portal of Sant' Antonio 
of Padua. It was painted in 1452. The Brera, 
Milan, possesses an altar-piece with St. Luke and 
other Saints, which was painted in 1454 for Santa 
Giustina, and shows his earlier style as a worker 
in tempera. There is, too, in the Museum of Naples, 
a St. Eufemia, painted apparently from a marble 
statue, which bears the same date. Aoogrding to 
Vasari, Andrea first commenced to work in the 
Eremitani Chapel, Padua, after 1448. It is believed 
that Mantegna finished the frescoes representing 
'The Call of SS. James and John by Christ,' and 
' St. James exorcising the Devils,' which Pizzo'o's 
sudden and violent death prevented his completing. 
Those entirely executed by Andrea are ' St. James 
baptizing Hermogenes ' ; 'St. James before Herod ' ; 
' St. James, on his way to Martyrdom, blessing a 
Convert ' ; ' The Martyrdom of St. James ' ; ' The 
Martyrdom of St. Christopher ' ; and ' The Removal 
of the Body of St. Christopher.' These were exe- 
cuted in the years 1453-59. About this period 
Mantegna married Niocolosia, the daughter of 
Jacopo Bellini, which was probably one cause of 
the estrangement which had been gradually grow- 
ing up between Squarcione and himself ; for there 
had always existed a certain antagonistic rivalry 
between the schools of the Bellinis and of Squar- 
cione. To these years may be referred the fine 
altar-piece (No. 274) in the National Gallery, which 
may be looked upon as an example of the purest 
art of Mantegna. By some connoisseurs it is placed 

102 



as early as 1456. Attracted by the renown that 
Andrea was now gaining by his works, the Marquis 
Lodovico Gonzaga made liberal overtures to him 
at the close of 1456, and Andrea consented*to go 
to Mantua as soon as he should have finished the 
commissions entrusted to him by the Protonotary 
of Verona and others. That dignitary had ordered 
an altar-piece for the churcli of San Zeno, to consist 
of a life-size ' Virgin and Child, attended by Angels, 
with eight Saints ' ; and a predella with three sub- 
jects, viz., ' The Agony in the Garden ' ; ' The Cruci- 
fixion ' ; and ' The Ascension.' This altar-piece was 
long in the church, but is now partly dispersed. 
The main picture is still in place in San Zeno, but 
the ' Crucifixion ' is in the Louvre, and the remain- 
ing two panels in the Museum of Tours. In the 
year (1459) which saw the completion of this altar- 
piece, Andrea executed a subject for the Podesta of 
Padua, which Messrs. Crowe and Cavalcasselle be- 
lieve to be the ' Agony in the Garden ' now in the 
possession of Mr. Baring. In its background there 
is a view of Padua, with the city gate and the 
church of the Eremitani. It is probable that 
Mantegna entered the service of the Gonzagas 
about 1463, for in that year he was residing at 
Goito, where that family had a castle, and where 
he painted many pictures and frescoes,, now either 
lost or dispersed. In the UflBzi there is a triptych 
that once belonged to a chapel of the Gonzagas ; 
it represents the Adoration of the Magi, the 
Circumcision, and the Resurrection. To this 
same period belong the ' Virgin and Child ' ; ' The 
Presentation ' ; and a portrait of Matteo Bozzo, 
Abbot of Fiesole, all now in the Berhn Gallery ; 
also the ' St. George in Armour,' in the Academy 
of Venice ' ; arid the ' St. Sebastian ' at the Belve- 
dere, Vienna. About 1468 Andrea settled down 
at Mantua with his family. The frescoes executed 
by him in the Castle of Mantua, in the rooms 
known as 'the Camera degli Spoai,' and 'the 
Schalcheria,' are still preserved. In the first-named 
are a series of episodes taken from the life of 
Lodovico, containing portraits of himself, his wife, 
and the different members of his family and house- 
hold ; the ceiling is decorated in monochroine with 
various mythological subjects, and eight medallions 
of the Roman Emperors ; these frescoes are dated 
1474. Those in the Schalcheria are of about ten 
years later, and chiefly consist of hunting scenes 
and portraits of the Emperors. Besides these 
works for his patron, these years saw the production 
of 'The Dead Christ wept over by the three Maries,' 
now in the Brera, Milan ; and ' The Death of the 
Virgin ' (painted about 1470), now in the Museum 
of Madrid. In 1476 Lodovico gave Mantegna a 
site for a villa, whereupon the artist began one of 
great beauty, both in design and decoration. It 
still remains, but its ornament has long since been 
destroyed. In the year 1478 the Marquis died, 
leaving his possessions to his son Federigo.'who 
honourably fulfilled bis father's engagements to the 
painter, and continued to protect him on his own be- 
half. In 1480 the artist declitied to paint a portrait 
of the Duchess of Milan, the Marquis Federigo him- 
self writing the letter of refusal. In 1483 Lorenzo 
de' Medici visited Mantegna's workshop, and ex- 
pressed his admiration for all he saw there ; and a 
year afterwards Giovanni della Rovere, Governor 
of Rome, wrote to the Bishop of Mantua, a brother 
of the Marquis, asking him to use his interest with 
Andrea to induce the painter to send him a picture. 
This was refused on the plea that Andrea had no 



Mautegna 



PAINTERS AND ENGRAVERS. 



Itlantuano 



time to spare, being hard pressed to finish a room 
the Marquis wished to occupy that summer. Before 
the summer was over, however, Federigo died 
leaving his estates to his son, Francesco II., then a 
mere youth. Dreading lest he should not obtain 
from the new Marquis such favour and patron- 
age as he had won from Lodovico and Federigo, 
Mantegna wrote letters to his former patrons and 
friends, among others to Lorenzo de' Medici, begging 
aid and assistance, and explnining his heavy losses 
and present necessities. Happily, however, for 
Mantegna, his position at the Mantuan Court was 
not permanently shaken, while orders fromi his 
ancient patrons helped to lift him out of difficulty. 
Among other commissions then received he exe- 
cuted onefor a 'Madonna and Saints' fortheDuohess 
of Ferrara. This picture Messrs. Crowe and Caval- 
casselle believe to be the ' Madonna and Child, with 
SS. Joseph, Anna, and John the Baptist,' formerly 
in the possession of Sir Charles Eastlake, and 
now in the Dresden Gallery. Signor Morelli places 
it, however, between 1497 and 1606. Between 1485 
and 1492 Andrea painted the famous 'Triumphs 
of Caesar,' now at Hampton Court. They were 
originally designed for the decoration of the 
theatre erected iu the Castle of Mantua in 1501, 
when the Adelphi of Terence and the Comedies 
of Plautus were performed. These frescoes, nine 
in number, are now much injured. They belonged 
to Charles the First, and at the sale of his collection 
were bought in by Cromwell for £1000. In 1488 
Mantegna was knighted and sent to Rome by the 
Marquis Francesco Gonzaga. Innocent VIII. de- 
sired him to decorate the Belvedere chapel, which 
he had just erected for his own private use in the 
Vatican. These decorations took the artist two 
years to complete. He afterwards painted a ' Ma- 
donna and Child ' for Francesco de' Medici, which 
is now in the Uffizi ; and the ' Man of Sorrows,' 
now at Copenhagen. In the summer of 1490 the 
painter returned to Mantua, and again worked on 
the 'Triumph of Cassar,' which he finished between 
1490-92. From this date his pictures begin to 
strongly betray the hands of assistants. Among 
these were his two sons, Francesco and Lodovico, 
and also, if we may trust Vasari, Francesco Bon- 
signori and Gian-Francesco Carotto. In 1495 
Mantegna painted, by order of the Marquis Fran- 
cesco, an altar-piece for the church of S. Maria 
della Vittoria, Mantua, which had been erected by 
the Marquis to commemorate the battle of Fornovo. 
This picture is now in the Louvre. It represents 
the Marquis, in full armour, kneeling at the feet of 
the Virgin and Child, who is attended by the arch- 
angels, and the saints Longinus, Andrew, John 
the Baptist, and Elizabeth. Andrea was also an 
engraver, and among other works, engraved his 
own ' Triumphs of Csesar.' Impressions are now 
very scarce. In 1499 he furnished a design for a 
statue of Virgil, which was to have been placed in 
some public square in Mantua ; the sketch is now 
in Paris. In his old age Mantegna again fell into 
difficulties, partly through his own indiscretion 
and extravagance, partly through the ungenerous 
treatment he met with from the Gonzaga family. 
His last strength was given to the elaboration of a 
' Masque of Comus ' for the Marcluoness Isabella of 
Mantua, to whom he sold a portion of his collection 
of antiques. He died in the autumn of 1 506, aged 75. 
Among his best works we may quote the following : 

Berlin. Museum. Portrait (of Matbeo Bosco, Abbot 

of Fiesole); 



Berlin. 

Dresden. 

Florence. 



Museum. Presentation iu the Temple 
Gallery. Holy Family. 

Vffi.zi. Madonna and Child. 
» i; A Triptych — Adoration of the 

■c, , ,. . „ „ Magi, Presentation, Ascension. 

Franklort. Gallery. St. Mark 
Hampton Court. The Triumph of Julius C^sar. 

{Nine cartoons on linen.) 
London. Nat. Gallery. Virgin and Child enthroned. 
» » The Triumph of Scipio. 

» )> Two allegorical female figures 

(? Temperance and Chastity). 
» ,) Samson and Delilah. 

Madrid. Museum. Death of the Virgin. ^ 

Mantua. Castello. Frescoes. 

Milan. Itrera. St. Luke and Saints. 

,, ", II . The Dead Christ and Maries. 

^^'"'^ Itrll^l^-oe s. 
Paris. Louvre. Madonna della Vittoria. 

II „ Parnassus. 

)i I, Wisdom victorious over the 

Vices. 
Tours. Museum. Christ on the Mount of Olives. 

II _ „ The Ascension. 

Turin. Gallery. Madonna and Saints. 

Venice. Academy. St. George. 

Verona. San Zeno. Madonna and Saints. 

Vienna. Gallery. St. Sebastian. 

Of his engravings we may mention : 
Battle of the Sea-gods. 
Dancing Muses of the Parnassus. 
Descent from the Cross. 
Entombment. 
Hercules and Antseus. 
Portraits of Lodovico and Barbara Gonzaga. 
St. Andrew, St. Longinus, and the Risen Christ. 
St. Sebastian. 
Scourging of Christ. 
Triumphs of Juhus Caesar. 
Virgin of the Grotto. 

MANTEGNA, Bernardino, son and pupil of 
Andrea Mantegna, horn in 1490, assisted his father, 
and at sixteen gained a certain reputation. Fran- 
cesco, another son, was working in 1494 for 
Francesco de Gonzago, and after his father's death 
he finished some of his pictures. It has sometimes 
been asserted, but on very slight grounds, that he 
was the first master of Correggio. Two small 
pictures in the National Gallery are ascribed with 
some probability to Francesco. He was still living 
in 1517. Lodovico, the youngest son of Andrea 
Mantegna, died in 1509. 

MANTEGNA, Carlo del, a pupil and relation 
of Mantegna, assisted his sons in finishing their 
father's pictures. In 1514 he had a school at Genoa. 

MANTOVANO, Adamo, Diani, Giovanni Bat- 
TiSTA. See Scclptore. 

MANTOVANO, (or Mantuano,) Giorgio and 
Teodoro ; see Ghisi. Andrea ; see Andreani. 

MANTOVANO.Rinaldo, was born at Mantua, and 
was one of the more distinguished scholars of Giulio 
Romano. In the church of Sant' Agnese at Mantua 
is a fine picture by him of the ' Virgin and Infant, 
with SS. Agostino and Girolamo,' composed and 
designed with a grandeur so much beyond his age, 
that it gave rise to a suspicion that it was painted 
from a drawing by his instructor. Two pictures by 
him have long been in the National Gallery, where 
for many years they were ascribed to his master 
Giulio. Rinaldo died young. 

MANTUANO, Dionisio, born at Bologna about 
1624, was a painter and architect. After having 
spent some time at Genoa, he was in 1656 employed 
at the theatre of the Buen Retire, in Spain ; after this 
he received the Order of Christ, and was appointed 
painter to the king. In conjunction with Vicente 

103 



Hanuel 



A BIOGRAPHICAL DICTIONARY OF 



DIarceuay 



de Benavides he painted the front of the house of 
the Marquis de los Valbases, and with Eicci and 
Carreno worked in the cathedral at Toledo. Among 
his own compositions we may name especially the 
ceiling in the ladies' gallery in the Alcazar at 
Madrid. Dionisio died at Madrid in 1684. 

MANUEL, Hans Rudolph, the son of Nicolans 
Manuel, was born at Brlaoh in 1625, and studied 
painting at Basle, under Maximin, about 1544. 
Several good pictures by him, especially portraits, 
are to be met with at Berne. He also designed a con- 
siderable number of bird's-eye views of towns, and 
executed several woodcuts. Manuel died in 1572. 

MANUEL, NiooLAns, called Deutsch, a Swiss 
artist, born at Berne about 1484, was a painter, 
wood-engraver, poet, statesman, soldier, and re- 
former. It is most probable that he went to 
Venice in 1511 and studied under Titian. His 
chief work is the 'Dance of Death,' a series of 
frescoes for the Dominican convent at Berne, which 
was painted between 1514 and 1522. It exists now 
only in copies, which show it to have been entirely 
in the style of Holbein. Another excellent work, 
representing ' Solomon's Idolatry' (1518), has also 
come down to us in a copy. Manuel died at Berne 
in 1530 or 1531. He signed sometimes with his 
name, sometimes with the annexed monograms : 



MM) 




I^. 




There are some woodcuts by him from his own 
designs, in a free, slight style. 

MANUEL, PoLEQUiN, or Jossequin, was a minia- 
ture painter, who flourished in the 15th century. 
In 1400 he was engaged by the Duke of Burgundy 
to make designs for a Bible. Nothing is known of 
his life, but he had a brother Nicolas, who helped 
him with his work. 

MANWAIRING. Strutt mentions an artist of 
this name as the engraver of a portrait of the Rev. 
Mr. Madan about the year 1760. 

MANZINI, GiusTO di Andrea, was born in 
1440. He was a Florentine, and painted by turns 
under Neri di Bicoi, Pra Filippo, and Benozzo 
Gozzoli. In his own diary he tells us that, under 
Benozzo, he painted the saints at the sides of the 
window in the choir of S. Agostino, and the four 
apostles on the vaulting of the entrance. The 
former are obliterated but the apostles remain, and 
show that Giusto was far inferior to his master. 
Crowe and Cavalcaselle enumerate five pictures 
which they ascribe to him. He died in 1498. 

MANZINI, Raimondo, a painter of Bologna, was 
born in 1668, and was probably first instructed by 
his father, Cbsaee Manzini. At Bologna there is 
a collection of pictures of fishes, birds, and floweis 
by him. At one time of his life he was appointed 
ibiniste to the Margrave of Baden. The date of 
his death is unknown. 

MANZONI, Rudolph, a fruit, flower, and minia- 
ture painter, was born at Castelfranco in 1675, and 
died in 1743. 

MANZUOLI, Tommaso d' Antonio, (called Maso 
DA San Feiano,) was born at San Friano in 1536. 
He was first a disciple of Pierfrancesco di Jacopo 
di Sandro, and afterwards of Carlo da Loro. An 
admired work by him is a ' Visitation,' formerly in 
the church of San Pietro Maggiore at Florence ; 
afterwards taken to Rome, and placed in the Gal- 
lery of the Vatican ; it was painted when he was 

104 



thirty years of age. There are other works by 
him in the church of the Santa Trinita, and in 
the Florentine Gallery. He died in 1575. 

MARACCI. See Mareacci. 

MARATTI, Caelo, (or Maratta,) an eminent 
painter, also an etcher, was born at Camuraiio, in 
the March of Ancona, in 1625. At eleven years 
of age he showed so strong a propensity for 
design that his parents sent him to Rome, where he 
entered the school of Andrea Sacchi, under whom he 
studied for several years, and was his most favoured 
disciple. On the recommendation of his instructor, 
he made the works of Guido Reni, the Carracci, and 
Raphael the chief objects of his study. He returned 
to his own country, and did not revisit Rome till 1650, 
when he went there in the train of Cardinal Albrizio, 
Governor of Ancona. He was much employed in 
painting Holy Families, pictures of the Virgin, and 
female saints, on which account the contemporary 
artists, particularly Salvator Rosa, supposing him 
incapable of higher or more arduous exertions, 
satirically styled him ' Carluccio delle Madonne.' 
To counteract the efforts of his enemies, Andrea 
Sacchi procured him the commission to paint a 
picture for the Baptistery of the Lateran, where 
he represented ' Constantine destroying the Idols,' a 
performance which silenced his calumniators, and 
was esteemed one of the ablest productions of the 
time. It procured him the patronage of Alex- 
ander VII., under whose protection, and that of 
his successors, he became the most popular artist 
at Rome. In 1704 he received the Order of Christ 
from Pope Clement XI. for cleaning Raphael's 
frescoes in the Vatican, and Louis XIV. appointed 
him court painter through admiration for his picture 
' Daphne.' Maratti died at Rome in 1713. Among 
the best of his more accessible works are : 

Brussels Museum : Apollo and Daphne. 
Chiswick : Pope Clement XI. 
Florence, Pitti Collection : St. Philip Neri. 
Hampton Court : Virgin and St. Francis. 
Louvre : Sleep of the Child Jesus. 

,, I Marriage of St. Catherine. 

„ Portrait of Maria Maddalena Bospigliosi. 

„ His own portrait. 
National Gallery: Portrait of a Cardinal. 
National Gallery of Ireland : Europa. 

By Maratti we have several etchings executed 
with much freedom and spirit. Some of these are 
original, others after various Italian masters. 

MARATTI, Maeia, daughter and pupil of Carlo 
Maratti. She married Giarabattista Tappi, a poet, 
and abandoned painting for literature. Her portrait, 
painted by herself, is in the Corsini Palace at Rome. 

MARAZZONE, II. See Mazzuchelli. 

MARC. See March. 

MAECA. See Della Mahca. 

MARC-ANTONIO. See Raimondi. 

MARCEL, N., was born at Frankfort in 1628, 
and was a scholar of Georg Vlugels, an indifferent 
painter of still life. Marcel greatly surpassed his 
master, and his pictures of flowers, fruit, shells, &o., 
are highly finished and good in colour. He died 
at Frankfort in 1683. 

MARCEL, Provenzale, an Italian painter, was 
born at Cento in 1576. He was a pupil of Paolo 
Eosetti, and executed a ' Mater Dolorosa.' He 
died in 1639. 

MAECELLIS, Otto (or Marcellus). See 

SOHEIECK. 

MARCENAY, Antoine de Guy, a French en- 
grayer, was born at Arnay le Duo in 1724, and 
died in 1811. He was one of the most successful 



Uarch. 



PAINTERS AND ENGRAVERS. 



Slarclies 



imitators of the style of Rembrandt, and has 
engraved several plates of portraits and other 
subjects in which the dry point is used with great 
dexterity. Among others, we have the following 
prints by him : 

PORTRAITS. 
Henry IV. of France ; after Janet, 
The Duke of Sully ; after Pourbus. 
The Chevalier Bayard. 
The Maid of Orleans. 
Viscount Turenne ; after Champagne 
Prince Eugene ; after KupetzH. 
Marshal Villars ; after Sigamd. 
General Paoli. 

Stanislaus Augustus, Eling of Poland ; after Bacierelli. 
Marshal Saxe ; after Liotard. 

The Portrait of Tintoretto ; after a picture by himself. 
A half-length of Rembrandt, with a palette. 



Sunset ; aj'ter Vernet. 

A View ot the Sea-coast, with Fishermen ; after the same. 

A Land-storm ; after Van Uden. 

A Skirmish of Cavalry ; after Parrocel. 

The Testament of Eudamidas ; after N. Poussin. 

Tobit recovering his Sight ; aftei- Bembrandt. 

The Lady with the Pearl, an oval, with the date 1768 ; 

after the same. 
The (lady) Gardener ; after G. Sou, with the date 1766. 

MARCH, EsT^BAN, (or Marc,) was, according to 
Palomino, a native of Valencia, and a scholar of 
Pedro Orrente, under whom he became an eminent 
painter of battles. He adopted the Venetian 
style of painting, and became a kind of Quixote 
in his art. In order to rouse his imagination he 
would arm himself cap-k-pi^, place lance in. rest, 
and to the sound of drums and trumpets make a 
furious attack on the walls of his atelier. In the 
church of San Juan de Mercado, in Valencia, 
is an altar-piece of the 'Last Supper,' highly com- 
mended by his biographer, and for the Bueno 
Retiro he painted a large picture of the ' Marriage 
at Cana.' He died at Valencia in 1660, at an 
advanced age. His works are chiefly to be found 
at Valencia and Madrid. 

MARCH, Miguel, (orMAEC,) the son and scholar 
of Estiban March, was born at Valencia in 1633. 
He painted history and battles in the style of his 
father, but with much less ability. One of his 
best performances is the ' Death of St. Francis,' in 
the church of the Franciscans at Valencia. March 
died at Valencia in 1670. 

MARCHAL, Charles FRANgois, a French subject 
painter, bom in Paris in 1825. He entered the Bcole 
des Beaux Arts in 1843, and studied under Drolling 
and Dubois. His reputation was acquired by his 
pictures of Alsatian life and customs. He first 
exhibited at the Salon in 1852. He died by his 
own hand in Paris in 1877. Amongst his chief 
works are : 

F6te de la M^re. 1857. 

Wasted Labour. 1860. (Beziers Museum.) 

Interior of an Inn at Bouxwiller. 1861. 

The Servants' Fau:, BouxwJUer. 1864. (Luxembourg 
Gallery, Paris.) 

Spring-time. 1866. 

Penelope. 1868. 

Alsace. 1873. 

The Return from the Masquerade. 

Phryne. 

MARCHAND, Gabriel, an engraver, was bom 
in Paris about 1755. He was a pupil of E. Voy- 
zard, and executed several works after Barbier, 
Sohmutzer, and others. 

MARCHAND, Johann Christian, an engraver, 
son of Johann Jakob Marchand, a portrait painter, 



was born in 1679. He was a pupil of Preissle 
and Bernigeroth, and engraved some portraits an( 
historical pictures. He died in 1711. 

MARCHAND, Pierre (or Marohant). Floren 
le Comte and Professor Christ mention an arti.s 
of this name, who lived about the year 1577, aiic 
engraved both on wood and on copper. 

MARCHANT, J., engraved a portrait of Mrs 
Gibber, after Hudson, in 1749. 

MARCHANT, Jan, an historical and still-liff 
painter, was born at Antwerp in 1808. In 183S 
he migrated to France, and became Professor oJ 
Drawing at the Cavalry School at Saumur. H( 
died in 1864. 

MARCHANT, Petrus. A book of goldsmitli'i 
ornaments, executed with the graver, is signed 
Petrus Marchant fecit. 16S3. Perhaps identica 
with Pierre Marchand {q. v.). 

MARCHELLI, Rolando, an Italian painter, was 
bom at Genoa in 1664. He was a pupil oi 
Maratti, but abandoned painting for commerce 
and died in 1751. 

MARCHESI, Francesco and Bernardino. Ses 
Dei Zaganelli. 

MARCHESI DA COTIGNOLA, Girolamo, flour- 
ished in the early part of the 16th century, and was 
probably a pupil of Zaganelli. The church of Sar 
Francesco, at San Marino, contains his two firsi 
pictures, both Madonnas with Saints and Angels, 
In Lord Ashburton's collection there is a ' Holj 
Conversation,' signed and dated 1513 ; and the 
Bologna and Berlin Galleries possess works by 
him dated from 1516 to 1526. Vasari asserts thai 
he painted the portrait of Gaston de Foix wher 
he lay wounded at Ravenna in 1612 ; he also saye 
that during his latter years Marchesi went tc 
Naples and then to Rome, where he painted the 
portrait of Paul III., and that he died there in his 
64th year of a broken heart, through liaving beer 
entrapped into marriage with a woman of i^ 
fame. His will was made at Bologna in 1531 
and can still be seen. The following are among 
his works : 

Berlin. Museum. Marriage of the Virgin. 1516. 

„ „ St. Bernard and his Disciples. 

1526. 
Bologna. Pinacoteca. Marriage of the Virgin. 

„ „ Virgin, Child, the Baptist, an<3 

Saints. 
„ „ PredeUa — The Annunciation 

Nativity ; Flight into Egypt. 
Ferrara. S. Maria in | j^.^i^g ^^^ jjight. 

Paris. Louvre. Bust of Christ bearing His Cross. 

{Signed apparently Hieronimvs 
Maeohesivs de{?) Cotignolj 

FACIEBAT 1520 (i").) 

MARCHESI, Giuseppe, called II Sansone, was 
born at Bologna in 1699, and was first a scholar oi 
Marc Antonio Franceschini,but afterwards studied 
under Aureliano Milani. To the vigorous colour 
and fore-shortening of his first instructor, he 
united the correct design of Milani. He has left 
many works in the churches of Bologna. In San 
Pietro there is a ' St. Ambrose repulsing Theodosius.' 
His picture of the ' Birth of the Virgin,' in La 
Madonna di Galeria, and that of the ' Resurrection,' 
in Santa Croce, are painted in the style of Frances- 
chini. One of his most esteemed works is the ' Mar- 
tyrdom of St. Prisca,' in the cathedral of Rimini, 
on the conception of which the 'St. Agnes' of 
Domenchino seems to have had some influence. 
Marches! died in 1771. 

105 



Karchesini 



A BIOGRAPHICAL DICTIONARY OF 



Marconi 



MARCHESINI, Alessandeo, according to 
Orlandi, was born at Verona in 1664, and received 
his first instruction in art from Biagio Faloieri. 
At the age of sixteen he was sent to Bologna, and 
placed under the tuition of Carlo Cignani. Under 
that master he became a reputable painter of 
history, and on his return to Verona was employed 
in San Biagio, La Madonna della Scala, and other 
public edifices. He resided some time at Venice, 
where he was chiefly occupied in painting easel 
pictures of historical and fabulous subjects. He 
died in 1733. 

MARCHESINI, Pietbo, born at Pistoja in 1697,, 
was a pupil of Gabbiani at Florence. He painted 
several pictures for the churches and palaces in 
Florence and Pistoja. He died in 1757. 

MARCHETTI, Domenico, (or Mbechetti,) an 
engraver, was born at Rome in 1780, and was still 
living in 1831. He worked in the manner of G. 
Yolpato. Among his best productions are : 

Dante and Beatrice ; after Agneola. 

Keligion with the Cross ; after Canova. 

The Tomb of the three Stuarts ; after the same. 

MARCHETTI, Marco, called Maeco da Faenza, 
flourished at Rome in the pontificate of Gregory 
XIII., who employed him in ornamenting the 
Loggie of the Vatican with arabesques, in which 
he sought to follow the style of Giovanni da 
Udine. He decorated twenty rooms in the ducal 
palace at Florence in the same fashion. His 
talents were not, however, confined to that branch 
of the art. He painted historical subjects, which 
were correctly and elegantly designed, with a 
more than usual mastery of the nude. Of this 
his ' Murder of the Innocents ' in the Vatican is an 
example. In the church of the Trinity, de' Monti 
he painted a series of pictures of the life of St. 
Francis di Paolo. He died in 1588. 

MARCHI, DoMENioo, known as Tempesting, 
also DoM. Tbmpesta, was, according to Lanzi, born 
at Florence in 1652, and was a scholar of Baldassare 
Franceschini. He painted portraits and landscapes, 
but distinguished himself more as an engraver 
than as a painter, and is said to have received in- 
struction in that art fi-om li. Nanteuil and Gerard 
Bdelinck. Among other plates he engraved a set 
of portraits of the Electors Palatine. He was 
called 'Tempestino ' from having been a pupil of 
Peter Molyn, who was named Tempesta. He was 
a great traveller, and there is much uncertainty 
in his history. The date of his death is variously 
given ; some placing it in 1718, others in 1737. 
It may be, however, that there were two artists 
called Domenico Tempesta, and that the accounts 
of them have been blended. 

MARCHI, Giuseppe Pilippo Libeeati, was born 
at Rome about 1735, and brought to England in 
1752 by Sir Joshua Reynolds. By him he was 
much employed in preparing his palette, in paint- 
ing draperies, and in ' forwarding ' pictures. He 
attempted about 1770 to establish himself as an 
independent portrait painter, but after some brief 
experience both in London and in Wales, he was 
glad to return to his former employer. He died in 
London in 1808. He engraved several plates in 
mezzotint from portraits by Sir Joshua ; among 
them we may name : 

Lady Mulgrave, when Miss Oholmondeley. 
Mrs. Crewe and Mrs. Bouverie. 
Mis Oliver. 
Dr. Goldsmith. 
Mrs. Hartley, with her child. 
106 



MARCHIORETTO, Pieteo, painter and draughts- 
man, was born in the neighbourhood of Feltre in 
1772. He owed his education in art to a Venetian 
noble, who placed him first with Lazzarini, and 
afterwards with Frans Cauzitsch. He afterwards 
settled down as a teacher at Verona, and was also 
employed in the chalcographio institute of Bis- 
domini. He painted a ' Holy Sepulchre ' for the 
church at Brixen, and a number of north Italian 
landscapes for the Countess Kielmannsegge. 

MARCHIS, Alesio de, was a Neapolitan, and 
was born at the beginning of the 18th century. 
He painted landscnpes, sea-ports, and towns on 
fire, in which he followed the style of Salvator 
Rosa. His principal works are at Perugia and 
Urbino. Lanzi reports that, in order to imitate 
nature more exactly in his conflagrations, he set 
fire to a barn, for the purpose of study ; the fact 
being discovered, he was sent to the galleys for 
some years, but was released from his punishment 
in the pontificate of Clement XI., who employed 
him in his palace at Urbino, which he decorated 
with several of his best works. One of his most 
celebrated pictures is the ' Burning of Troy,' in 
the Palazzo Semproni. He died about 1742. 

MARCILLAT,Guilladme Pieeee de, (called by 
others Guglielmo da Marcigia, or Guillaume db 
Maeseille,) who was chiefly a painter on glass, 
was born at St. Michel, near Verdun, or, according 
to others, at Marseilles, in 1475. He was instructed 
in the art by'Claude (' Claudio Francese '), at 
Nevers, and there entered the order of the Domini- 
cans. Subsequently the two went to Rome together, 
and painted in the Vatican and in Santa Maria del 
Popolo, but their works in the Vatican have dis- 
appeared. While in Rome Marcillat entered the 
order of the Benedictines, in 1509, and-subsequently 
executed, from the designs of Claude, several works 
for Cardinal Passerini at Cortona, and others at 
Arezzo, Florence, Perugia, and Castiglione. He 
died at Arezzo in 1537. 

MARCKB, Julie Robeet van, was bom in 1801. 
She was the daughter of M. Robert, director of the 
Sevres factory, and married J. van Maeoke, a land- 
scape painter and pupil of Watelet. She painted 
fruits and flowers. Her death took place in 1875. 
Her two sons have both reached fame as painters. 

MARCO, Calabeesi. See Caedisco. 

MARCO DI ANTONIO. See Palmezzano. 

MARCOLA, Maeoo, an Italian historical painter, 
was bom at Verona in 1728, and died in 1790. 
Nothing is known of him. 

MARCOLINI, Fbancesco, an Italian engraver 
on wood, was born at Forli about the year 1500. 
He was from 1630 to 1535 a printer at Venice, but 
after that he settled at Verona. In 1540 he pub- 
lished a book entitled ' II Giardino de' Pensieri,' 
with woodcuts, executed by himself, after the 
designs of Giuseppe Porta. 

MARCONI, Rocco, painter and engraver, was a 
native of Treviso, and flourished about the year 
1505. He was probably a pupil of Giovanni 
Bellini. His chief performances are in the 
Academy at Venice. His picture in the church of 
San Niccolo, which is considered one of his earliest 
works, is dated in 1505. One of his best pictures 
is the 'Adulteress before Christ,' formerly in San 
Giorgio Maggiore, now in the Procuratie Nuove, 
at Venice. Another example of the same subject 
is in the Gallery at Berlin. Dresden, St. Petersburg, 
and Treviso also possess pictures bj- him. Marconi 
engraved some plates. 



Harcovaldo 



PAINTERS AND ENGRAVERS. 



Hariani 



MARCOVALDO, Coppo di, was a contemporary 
of Andrea Tafi, and the author of a picture repre- 
sentiiig the ' Virgin enthroned,' in the convent 
church of the Servi at Siena, and dated 1261. 
He is also known to have executed between the 
years of 1265 and 1275 a number of wall paintings 
and a 'Madonna' in the cathedral at Pistoja. 
These have now all perished. 

MARCUARD, Robert Samuel, an English 
designer and engraver, was born in 1761, and died 
about 1792. He was a pupil of Bartolozzi, whose 
manner he followed, and was considered one of 
the best scholars of that master. His engravings 
are chiefly after the works of contemporary 
painters, particularly Cipriani, Angelica Kauff- 
mann,W. Hamilton, Hoppner, Flaxman (sculptor), 
Stothard, Peters, and Sir J. Reynolds. 

MARCUCCI, Agostino, was a native of Siena. 
He was educated at Bologna, and had the advantage 
of studying in the school of the Carracci, until 
Pietro Facini attempted the establishment of a 
rival academy, to which Marcuoci attached himself. 
He painted some pictures for the churches at 
Bologna : among them ' The Death of the Virgin ' 
in the Church of the Conception. Marcucci died 
early in the 17th century. 

MARCUS, Jacob EiiNfST, was born on the island 
of St. Eustatius in 1774, and instructed in the 
rudiments of design by S. Gobl^, and in engraving 
by Vinkeles, at Amsterdam. In 1798 he obtained 
the first prize at the school of design, and in 
conjunction with Fock founded a society of 
artists, ' Kunst zy ons Doel.' Though his land- 
scape drawings wei-e esteemed, he distinguished 
himself more as an engraver/ and we have by him 
a .series of one hundred plates, representing land- 
scapes and portraits after the designs of Caspari. 
Marcus died at Amsterdam in 1826. 

MARl!;, Jean Charles, born at Berlin in 1772, 
was an engraver, and pupil of the Berlin Academy, 
of which he became a professor in 1813. He died 
in 1865. Besides several maps, he engraved some 
pictures, among others the ' Crowning of the Monu- 
ment of Lysicrates at Athens,' afterMatthaus Mauoh. 

MARE, P; DB. See Db Maee. 

MARE, RicHAET DE LA. See De laMare-Biohaet. 

MARl^CHAL, — , a painter, who died in 1803, 
is chiefly known by his paintings, on parchment, 
of Mammalia in the Paris Zoological Museum. 
Lallier and others have engraved after him. 

MAR:^CHAL, Laurent Charles, was bom at 
Metz in 1801. He studied under Regnault, and 
distinguished himself chiefly as a painter on glass. 
He died in 1877. He has left a few genre pieces 
in oil and pastel. 

MARIES. See DBSMARifiEa. 

MAREL, or MARRELLUS, Jacob, painter of 
still life, was bom at Frankfort about 1614. He 
is said to have been a pupil of Georg Flegel at 
Frankfort, and of J. D. de Heem at Utrecht. He 
was the first master of Abraham Mignon. His 
pictures are very rare, but one has recently been 
added to the Rijks Museum, Amsterdam, with the 
inscription Jacohus Marrellus fecit Utreic, 1634. 
Marel died in Brussels about 1685. 

MARESCALCO, II. See Buoncoksiglto. 

MARESCALCO, Pietro, called Lo Spada, a 
native of Feltre, was a portrait _ and historical 
painter, and flourished about 1676. At Feltre 
there is a 'Madonna' by him; at Dresden a 
' Salome bearing the head of John the Baptist,' and 
a ' Solomon and the Queen of Sheba.' 



MARESCOTTI, Bartolommeo, was a native of 
Bologna, and was brought up in the school of 
Guide Reni, of whose style he was an unsuccessful 
imitator. There are some of his works in the 
churches and public edifices at Bologna ; in San 
Martino Maggiore, the ' Martyrdom of St. Barbara ' ; 
in San Stefano, the ' Crowning of the Virgin ' ; and 
' St. Sigismondo condemned to death,' in the church 
dedicated to that saint. He died in 1630. 

MARGARITONE di MAGNANO, was born at 
Arezzo in 1216. He was painter, sculptor, and 
architect, and a man of note in his day. In- 
fluenced, however, by the fact that he was a 
fellow-townsman, Vasari has spoken of him at 
greater length than the excellence of his works 
will justify. Of these the best is a ' Madonna with 
scenes from the lives of the Saints,' now in the 
National Gallery. Margaritone's chief work in 
sculpture is the monument to Gregory X. in Arezzo 
Cathedral. He died at Arezzo in 1293. The 
date of his death has sometimes been given as 
1313, which would make him 97 years of age. 
This was a mistake arising apparently through 
the transposition of a c in the roman numeral. 
Margaritone's chief surviving works are : 

Arezzo, 8. Francesco. A Madonna. 

„ „ Christ on the Cross (colossal). 

Liverpool. Institute. CorODation of the Virgin. 
London. Nat. Gal. Madonna, with scenes from the 

lives of the Saints. 
Sargiano, near Arezzo. A St. Francis. 

The picture ascribed to him in the Guise collec- 
tion at Christchurch, Oxford, is a Byzantine work 
of the 17th century. 

MARGHINOTTI, Giovanni, was an Italian 
historical painter of some talent. He was painter 
to Charles Albert of Savoy, and died in 1865. 

MARGHUCCI, Giacomo, an engraver and print- 
seller of the 18th century. He has left some plates 
of antique busts and statues. 

MARGUERITE, Archduchess of Austria, who 
was born at Brussels in 1480, painted a few 
portraits with some skill. She died in 1630. 

MARI, Albssandeo, was born at Turin in 1650, 
and was first a scholar of Domenico Piola of Genoa, 
but afterwards went to Venice, where he studied 
some time under Cavaliere Liberi. He next visited 
Bologna, and passed some years in the school of 
Lorenzo Pasinelli, and on leaving that master, 
painted some pictures for Bolognese churches. 
His principal residence was at Milan for a time, 
where he gained considerable reputation by paint- 
ing symbolical subjects, in imitation of the old 
masters. According to Lanzi he went to Spain, 
and died at Madrid in 1707. 

MARIA, EEC DI. See San Giovanni. 

MARIA, Francesco di, was born at Naples in 
1623, and became a disciple of Domenichino, when 
he resided in that city. Like his instructor, he 
studied the subjects he painted with the most 
profound attention ; and, like him, patiently en- 
dured the taunts of his contemporaries for tardiness 
and irresolution. His historical works are not 
numerous. He excelled in portrait painting ; and 
Lanzi reports, that a portrait by him being ex- 
hibited at Rome with one by Rubens, and another 
by Van Dyck, the preference was given by the 
judges, Niccol6 Poussin, Pietro da Cortona, and 
Andrea Sacchi, to that of Maria. He died in 1690. 

MARIANI, Giovanni Maeia, was a native of 
Ascoli, and flourished about the year 1656. He 
was a scholar of Domenico Fiasella at the time 

107 



Marienhof 



A BIOGEAPHICAL DICTIONARY OF 



Karini 



when Valerio Castelli was also under that master, 
and in conjunction with him distinguished himself 
by several works at Genoa, both in oil and in 
fresco. His picture in the oratory of San Jacopo, 
of the baptism of that saint, may be ranked with 
the best productions of his time. He passed some 
part of his life at Rome, and was received into the 
Academy there in 1650. He sometimes painted 
historical subjects of an easel size, and his works 
of this class are found in the collections at Genoa 
and Florence. One of the best is a ' Rape of the 
Sabines,' in the Florentine Gallery. 

MARIENHOF, A., a Dutch painter, -wnB born at 
Gorcum in 1650. It is not known by v\rhom he 
•was taught, but according to Descamps he passed 
the early part of his life in studying and copying 
the woj-ks of Rubens. He afterwards settled at 
Brussels, where ho was much employed in painting 
small historical pictures in the manner of that 
master. He died young ; Balkeraa says in 1712. 

MARIBSCHI, Jacopo, (or Giacomo,) the son of 
Michele Marieschi, was born at Venice in 1711. 
After being instructed in design and perspective 
by his father, he became a scholar of Gasparo 
Diziani. He painted architectural subjects, and 
views of Venice, in which he imitated the style of 
Canaletto. The National Gallery of Ireland has 
two of his works, both views of Venice, which are 
there on deposit from the National Gallery of 
London. He died in 1794. 

MARIESCHI, Michele, was a native of Venice. 
He excelled in painting architectural views and 
perspectives, and passed the first part of his life in 
Germany, where his works were nmch esteemed. 
On his return to Venice he painted the most 
remarkable views in that city, several of which, 
moreover, he has etched. He died in 1743. 

MARIETTE, Jean, an eminent French engraver 
and print-seller, was born in Paris in 1654. He was 
instructed in drawing by his brother-in-law, J. B. 
Corneille, with the intention of becoming a painter, 
but by the advice of Charles le Brun, he changed 
his pursuit, and devoted himself to engraving. He 
died in Paris in 1742. Several of his plates -are 
from his own designs. He worked both with the 
point and the graver. We have a great number 
of plates by him, the greater part of which are 
frontispieces, vignettes, and other book ornaments. 
The following are esteemed his best prints : 

The Descent from the Cross ; after Le Brun, 

The Angels ministering to Christ in the Desert ; aftm- 

the same. 
St. Peter delivered from Prison ; after Bomenickino. 
Moses saved from the Nile ; after Foussin. 
Joseph making himself known to his Brethren , after 

M. Corneille. 
Christ cnring the Paralytic ; after the same. 
St. Louis receiving the Communion; after J. B. 

Corneille. 
St. Louis received Into Heaven ; after the same. 

MARIETTE, Pieree Jean, was the son of Jean 
Marietta, from whom he inherited a very con- 
siderable property, and an extensive collection of 
prints, which, by continual additions, he rendered 
the most numerous and select of any private 
gathering in Europe. His immense collection 
was sold in Paris in 1775. For his amusement he 
etched a few landscapes, after Guercino ; and 
some heads and studies, after the Carracci and 
Pierino del Vaga. He also brought out a ' Traite 
des Pierres gravies,' with 250 engravings of antique 
gems from his own hand, in 2 vols., folio. He 
died in Paris in 1774. 
108 



MARIGNY, Michel, a French historical painter, 
was born in Paris in 1797, and died there in 
1829; he was a scholar of M. Lafont and the 
Baron Gros. He painted several pictures of large 
dimensions for churches at Paris and Rouen, and 
one of 'Moses, as the Law-giver,' for a council- 
chamber in the Louvre. His last production, a 
'Wounded Soldier,' was exhibited at the Luxem- 
bourg in 1830. 

MARILHAT, Peospeb, was bom at Vertaison, 
in the south of France, in 1811, and entered the 
Atelier of Eoqueplan at Paris in 1829. There he 
executed several landscapes in the classic manner, 
During 1831-33 he travelled in Greece, Syria, 
Palestine, and Egypt. There his natural bent was 
developed, and he studied nature long and con- 
scientiously. His power was chieily shown in his 
rendering of southern l:ght. He attracted atten- 
tion at once with his oriental subjects, but he im- 
proved steadily up to -his last years. Marilhat died 
in Paris in 1847. His best pictures are: 

Enins of the Mosque of Sultan Hakim. 
The Esbekieh Square, Cairo. 
Caravans at Baalbec. 1840. 
Syrian Arabs on the March. 
A Souvenir of the Nile. • 

MARILLIER, Clement Pieeee, a French de- 
signer and engraver, was born at Dijon in 1740y 
and died on his own estate near Jlelunin 1808. He 
first studied painting under Hall6 at Paris, hut the 
cares of maintaining his family compelled him to 
illustrate books, and he made numeious drawings 
of subjects from the Bible, and for the works of 
Dorat, the Abb^ Prevost, De Roucher, Amand 
Bacculard, Voltaire, and Sauvigy. He also engraved 
from his own designs the landscapes for ' Les 
Voyages en France, k, Naples et en Grece,' and 
for various other works. 

MARIN-LAVIGNE, Louis Stakislas, a French 
painter and lithographer, born in Paris in 1797. 
He died in 1860. His lithographs form his best 
claim to be remembered. The best are : 

Battle of Jemappes ; rfter Horace Vemet. 
Camille Desmoulins ; after the same. 
Netscher and his Daughter ; after Netscher. 
Eetreat from Moscow ; after Cogniet. 
La belle Jardiniere ; after Haphael. 
Mater Dolorosa ; after Mvrillo. 

MARINAEI, Onoeio, a painter and engraver, 
was born at Florence in 1627. He was first in- 
structed by his father, Pietko Maeinaei, and 
afterwards by his cousin. Carlo Dolci, and for some 
time followed the finished and laboured manner of 
the latter, but afterwards adopted a larger style. 
His principal works are in the church of Santa 
Maria Maggiore, and in that of San Simone at 
Florence. He died in 1715. Among his paintings 
are: 

A series of portraits of painters (Florence). 

St. Jerome. 

St. Mark healing the sick. 

The Hours preceding the chariot of the Sun. 

He engraved 19 plates for a mathematical treatise, 
written by himself. 

MARINAS, De las (or Delle Marine). See 
De las Maeinas. 

MAEINI, Antonio, was born at Prato in 1788. 
He was a pupil of the Academy at Florence. In 
1821 he introduced the art of lithography into 
Italy, and twenty years later was admitted a member 
of the Florence Academy. He restored several of 
the frescoes of Giotto, Gaddi, and Gozzoli, and 



Marini 



PAINTERS AND ENGRAVEES. 



Uarmion 



painted various Madonnas in the style of the old 
masters. He died at Florence in 1861. 

MARINI, Benedetto, was a native of Urbino, 
and flourished about the year 1625. Acoording.to 
Lanzi, he was one of the most distinguished scholars 
of Claudio Ridolfi, and on leaving that master 
resided some years at Piaoenza, where he painted 
several altar-pieces and other works, in which he 
united the Lombard with the Venetian style. The 
most celebrated of his performances is liis picture 
of the ' Multiplication of the Loaves,' in the 
refectory of the Conventual!, painted in 1625 ; an 
immense composition, painted in oil, and arranged 
with surprising ingenuity and variety. 

MARINKELLE, Joseph, (called Marinkbltje,) 
a Dutch painter, was born at Rotterdam in 1732. 
His nickname was an allusion to his small stature. 
He was a miniature and portrait painter, and in 
practice for a long time at Amsterdam. He died 
in 1775, and his death has been ascribed partly 
to chagrin caused by a lampoon from the pen of an 
authoress whom he had failed to flatter in painting 
her portrait. 

MARINUS, Ignatius Cornelis, a Flemish en- 
graver, was probably born about 1587. The date 
of his death is uncertain. His principal residence 
was at Antwerp, where he executed several plates, 
in a neat but singular style. They are worked 
entirely with the graver, with very delicate strokes 
crossing each other, and filled up with long dots. 
The best are named in the following list : 

The Flight into Egypt ; a night-piece ; after Bubens. 

St. Ignatius curing the Diseased ; after the smne. 

St. Francis Xavier resuscitating a Dead Person ; after 

the same. 
The Adoration of the Shepherds ; after Jordaens. 
Christ before the High-priest Oaiaphas ; after the same. 
The Martyrdom of St. Apollonia ; after the same. 
A Concert of Village Children ; after C. Saftleven. 1633. 

He also engraved some plates, after M. A. Cara- 
vaggio. Van Dyck, and others. 

MARINUS DE ZEEUW, or VAN ROMER- 
SWALE, a Dutch painter of the sixteenth century. 
The dates on his pictures range from 1621 to 1560, 
and he seems to have been alive as late as 1567. 
There can be little doubt that he is the Marino di 
Siressa of Vasari, and the Marino di Sirigsea of Guic- 
ciardini, for Ziricksee is a town in the district of 
Schonwen, part of the province of Zeeland. The 
name de Zeeuw, which means simply the sea-lander, 
is not to be found on a signed picture by Marinus, 
but only this latter appellation, combined some- 
times with Romerswalen or Roymerswalen. Hence 
we may fairly conclude that Marinus is nothing 
more than a Latinized form of de Zeeuw, while 
Romerswalen, or van Romerswale, may be a family 
name. Nothing as yet has been recovered as to 
the facts of this painter's life. His pictures, how- 
ever, show that he must have been a disciple, if 
not a direct pupil, of Jan or Qnentin Matsys. One 
of the best of them is a ' Money-changers,' in the 
National Gallery, where it used to be ascribed to 
Quentin Matsys. 

MARIO DI FiORi. See Nuzzi. 

MARIOTTI, — , who was a native of Italy, and 
probably a painter, is known only by a slight, 
spirited etching of a frontispiece to a collection of 
altar-pieces, published at Rome by Giacomo Rossi. 
It is after a design by Giro Ferri. 

MARIOTTI, Carlo Spiridone, an historical 
painter, and native of Perugia, is supposed to have 
been a pupil of Subleyras. He died in 1775. 



MARISSAL, Philip, a portrait and still-life 
painter, was born at Ghent in 1698. He was a 
pupil of Leplat. There are several large decorative 
pictures by him at Ghent. He died in 1770. 

MARKO, Karl, was born at Leutzschau, in 
Hungary, in 1790. He studied in Vienna, Rome, 
Pisa, and Florence. His pictures are mostly land- 
scapes with figures, in the style of Gaspar 
Poussin. He died in 1860. 

MARKOS, GiORGios, a native of Argos, who, 
early in the last century, painted a number of 
frescoes in the church of the ' Panagia-Phanerou- 
mena,' in the island of Salamis. In this work he 
was helped by his pupils. It was finished in 1735. 

MARLET, Jean Henri, a French poetical, his- 
torical, and portrait painter, was born at Autun in 
1771, and was a pupil at the Academy at Dijon, 
and afterwards of the Baron Regnault. His com- 
positions are numerous, embracing a great variety 
of subjects from poetry, history, anecdote, and 
fancy. He has published some works in litho- 
graphy, among them ' Les Tableaux de Paris.' He 
died in 1846. 

MARLIE, Ren^e Elizabeth. See Lepici^. 

MARLOW, M., an obscure English engraver, 
lived towards the end of the 17th century. He 
appears to have been employed only by the book- 
sellers ; in that capacity he engraved a portrait of 
John Mayne, Arithmetician, prefixed to his ' Clavis 
Coramercialis ' ; dated 1674. 

MARLOW, William, an English landscape 
painter and engraver, was born at' Southwark in 
1740. He was a scholar of Scott the marine painter, 
and also studied in the St. Martin's Lane Academy. 
He joined the Incorporated Society of Artists, and 
from 1762 repeatedly exhibited at Spring Gardens. 
From 1788, however, he was a regular exhibitor at 
the Academy until 1796, and again for the last 
time in 1807, when his picture was ' Twickenham 
Ferry by Moonlight.' In his earlier career he had 
painted views of several English noblemen's seats, 
and from 1765 to 1768 he travelled in France and 
Italy. On returning home he settled first in 
Leicester Square, and afterwards at Twickenham, 
where he died in good circumstances in 1813. He 
painted scenes on the lower banks of the Thames, 
and also in the neighbourhood of Richmond and 
Twickenham. He also painted and etched some 
Italian views : to these he hiis put his name, with 
the addition of F. S. A. Some of his pictures are 
in the Foundling Hospital ; several have been 
engraved, including views of Westminster and 
Blackfriars Bridges. The South Kensington 
Museum possesses one landscape by him. 

MARMIETTI, Lodovico, an Italian engraver, 
was born at Parma in the 15th century. He was 
a pupil of his father, Francesco Marmietti. He 
went to Rome in the train of Cardinal Salviati, 
and there made a certain reputation. 

M ARMION, Sir Edmund, was an English designer 
and engraver, of the time of the two Charleses, 
who has left a few etchings of domestic subjects of 
ladies and gentlemen, from his own designs. His 
prints bear some resemblance to those of Gaywood, 
though inferior. There is a portrait of George 
Tooke, of Popes, by him, which is scarce; also 
some portraits in the style of Van Dyck. 

MARMION, Simon, a painter of Valenciennes, 
flourished from about 1426 to about 1489. Accord- 
ing to contemporary chroniclers, " was worthy of 
great admiration " in his time. He was at once 
painter and illuminatoi', and we know that he 

109 



Marmocchini 



A BIOGRAPHICAL DICTIONAEX- OF 



Marracci 



painted a mimber of miniatures for a missal of 
Philip the Good. The first mention of him occurs 
in 1453, in which year he painted a picture for the 
town-hall of Amiens. In 1460 he appears among 
-the founders of the Guild of Valenciennes, and in 
1468 he was raised, at Tournai, to the rank of 
master. No picture can with certainty be assigned 
to him, but in all likelikood he painted the altar 
screen formerly in the Abbey of St. Omer, whicli 
is now in the king's palace at the Hague. 

MARMOCCHINI, Giovanna Coetesi, was bom 
at Florence in 1670. She was first a pupil of 
Lieven Mehus, and afterwards of Pietro Dandini and 
Ippolito Galantini. Although she chiefly excelled 
in portraits in miniature, she practised both in oil 
and in crayons. The grand duchess of Tuscany 
was her patroness. She died in 1736. 

MARMOLEJO. See Villegas Marmolejo. 
MARNE. See Demaene. 

MARNEFFE, FEANgoiS de, an obscure Flemish 
landscape painter, born in 1793, and died in 1877. 
MAROLI, DoMENico, was born at Messina in 
1612. He was a scholar of Antonio Ricci, called 
Barbalunga ; and on leaving the school of that 
master visited Venice, where he studied with profit 
the works of the great Venetian masters. Among 
his pictures are the ' Martyrdom of St. Placido,' in 
San Paolo; and the 'Nativity,' in the Chiesa della 
Grotta, at Messina. While at Venice, he painted 
with success some pastoral subjects, in the style 
of Giacomo Bassano. Maroli fell a victim to the 
revolution which took place in Sicily in 1674. 

MARON, Anton von, was an Austrian portrait 
painter, born at Vienna in 1733. He was a pupil 
of Mengs, whose sister Teresa he married. He 
painted a portrait of the Emperor Joseph II. His 
death took place at Rome in 1808. 

MARON, Teeesa von, a sister of Rafael Mengs, 
was born at Aussig in Bohemia about 1733. She 
studied painting under her father, and in 1752 
went to Rome with her brother Rafael. She 
married Anton von Maron, and attained to some 
excellence as a miniaturist. 

MARONE, Jaoopo, was a native of Alessandria, 
and flourished from about 1451 to 1484. He spent 
most of his life in and around Genoa, where he 
painted several altar-pieces for the churches. In 
tlie church of San Jacopo at Savona is a picture 
of the 'Nativity' by him, painted in distemper, in 
a careful, high-finished style. In Santa Brigida, 
at Genoa, are two pictures by this master, dated 
1481 and 1484. 

MAROT, Daniel, the son of Jean Marot, was 
born in Paris about 1650-65, and distinguished 
himself as an architect, designer, and engiaver. 
He is usually styled architect to William III., King 
of England. He engraved several plates in the 
style of his father, which were published at Paris, 
with some of those of Jean Marot, entitled ' Receuil 
des planches des Sieurs Marot, pere et fils. ' He also 
engraved a set of architectural plates, which were 
published at Amsterdam in 1712 ; and the statues 
and vases in the palace at Loo. He was living in 
1718. We have also the following prints by him : 

The great Fair at the Hague, with the Burghers under 

arms, saluting the Prince and Princess of Orange ; 

in two sheets. 
The great Fair at Amsterdam, with the Citizens under 

arms. 
The Festival of the Birth-day of the Prince of Oranee. 

1686. 
The Interior of the Audience-chamber at the Hague. 
A perspective View of Voorst. 
110 



MAROT, Fbanqois, a French painter, was born 
in Paris in 1667. He was the best scholar of 
Charles de la Fosse, and painted history in the 
style of that master. One of his most esteemed 
works is a picture in the church of Notre Dame, 
representing ' Christ appearing to the Three Marys ' ; 
another is the ' Martyrdom of St. Lawrence,' in a 
church at Rotterdam. He died in 1719. Moreau, 
Chereau, and others have engraved after his works. 
MAROT, Jean, a French architect and engraver, 
was born in Paris in 1620. We have by him 
several architectural plates, plans and elevations 
of the most remarkable edifices in Paris and its 
neighbourhood. In conjunction with S. de la 
Boissiere, Is. Silvestre, I. de Paultre, Seb. ie Cierc, 
P. Chaveau, and other artists, he executed several 
of the plates for the cabinet of the King of 
France. The following are his principal prints : 
A set of thirteen plates of Churches and pabUc edifices 
at Paris ; designed and engraved after their measure- 
ment by J. Marot. 
A second set of twelve plates of the same. 
Twenty-one Views of the Chateau de Kichelieu. 
Plans and Elevations of the Louvre ; three plates. 
Plans and Views of the Chateau de Vineennes ; three 

plates. 
Plan and Elevation of the ChStteau de Madrid; two 

plates. 
MAKQUEZ, Est^ban, aSpanish historical painter, 
was born in Estremadura about the middle of the 
17th century, and was a scholar of his uncle Fer- 
nando Marquez de Joya, who followed the school 
of Murillo. At the death of his uncle Marquez 
went as a workman to one of the establishments 
where they manufactured pictures for exportation 
to America ; but not having had suificient practice 
and experience in this sort of work, he became the 
butt of his fellow labourers, and was obliged to 
quit Seville and return to his native place. After 
a while he returned to Seville, and having by close 
application acquired a tolerable facility in imitating 
the style of Murillo, he surpassed all those who 
had before made him the object of their mockery. 
His works are nearly all in Seville. He died at 
Seville in 1720. 

■ MARQUEZ de JOYA, Feenando, uncle of 
Esteban Marquez, was a painter of portraits, among 
which he in 1649 produced that of Cardinal Spinola, 
which is engraved by Van der Gouwen. He fol- 
lowed the manner of Murillo ; and was a frequenter 
of the Academy of Seville from 1668 to 1672, 
when he died. 

MARQUIS, — , an English portrait painter, who 
painted small portraits in oil in the reign of 
James I. 

MARQUIS, PiEEEE Ch., a French historical 
painter, was born at Toimere in 1798. He was a 
pupil of Lethiere. He died in 1874. 

MARK, Joseph Heineich Lddwiq, was bom at 
Hamburg in 1809 ; he there studied under Suhr and 
Rosenberg, and afterwards at Munich and Rome. 
His pictures deal principally with Bavarian and 
Italian peasant life. He died at Munich in 1871. 

MARRACCI, Giovanni, was born at Lucca in 
1637, and was first a scholar of Pietro Paolini. 
When he was fourteen years of age he went to 
Rome, where he had the advantage of being 
received into the school of Pietro da Cortona, 
under whom he studied some time ; and before he 
was twenty-five had distinguished himself as an 
historical painter. On the death of his father he 
returned to Lucca, where he painted several pic- 
tures for the fraternity of San Lorenzo, and the 



Marrebeck 



PAINTERS AND ENGRAVERS. 



Marteau 



Collegiate de San Micliele. In the cathedral of 
Saiit' Ignazio, at San Giovanni, he painted some 
considerable frescoes. His brother HirpOLYTE 
worked with him. He died in 1704. 

MABREBECK, J., was probably a native of 
Holland, and flourished about the year 1700. We 
have a few mezzotint portraits by him. 

MARRON, Mabib Anne Cabrelbt de, historical 
painter and poetess, was bom at Dijon in 1725. 
The cathedral of that town possesses a ' Conception ' 
by her. She died in 1778. 

MARSDEN, Baebaea. See under Meyee, 
Jeremias. 

MABSEUS. See Soheieck. 

MARSHAL, Alexandbb, a water-colour painter, 
who practised in the latter part of the 17th century. 
He worked in ' Tradescant's ark,' and made some 
good copies after Vandyck. 

MARSHALL, Benjamin, an English animal 
painter, born in 1767, who practised in London 
and Newmarket. His specialty was horses, and 
he contributed to the ' Sporting Magazine.' His 
works occasionally appeared at the Academy 
between 1800 and 1819. He died in 1836. 

MARSHALL, Geoege, a Scottish portrait painter, 
born in the latter part of the 17th century. He 
was a pupil of G. Soougall and Kneller, and also 
studied in Italy. He practised at York and in his 
native country. He died about 1732. 

MARSHALL, Peteb, born in 1762; died at 
Edinburgh in 1826. He practised as a painter, but 
is chiefly known as the inventor of a mechanical 
contrivance known as the ' Peristrephic Panorama.' 

MARSHALL, Thomas Falcon, an English sub- 
ject painter, born at Liverpool in 1818. He first 
exhibited at the Royal Academy in 1837, and in 
1840 obtained a silver medal at the Society of 
Arts. His practice lay chiefly in Liverpool and 
Manchester. He died at Kensington in 1878. 
Amongst his works are : 

The coming Footstep. 1847. {South Kensington 
Museum,) 

The Parting Day. 

Sad News from the Seat of War. 

MARSHALL, William, was an English en- 
graver, who probably began to practise the art 
early in the reign of James I. ; his works are 
dated from 1691 to 1649. He engraved chiefly 
for the booksellers, by whom he was employed 
upwards of forty years. He worked entirely with 
the graver, in a stiff style, without taste. His best 
prints are his portraits, of which he engraved a 
great number, mostly from his own designs. 
Although indifferently executed, they are inter- 
esting to the collector, on account of the personages 
they represent. He also engraved several frontis- 
pieces and other book ornaments. His portraits 
include the following : 

Sir Thomas More. 

Desiderius Erasmus. 

William Cecil, Lord Burleigh, 

Eobert Dudley, Earl of Leicester. 

Nicholas Kidley, Bishop of Eochester. 

Lady Jane Grey. 

James I. 

William Camden, Historian, &c. 

William Shakespeare. 

Ben Jonst n. 

Charles I. ; three prints. 

Francis, Lord Bacon. 

George Villiers, Duke of Buckingham. 

Eobert Devereux, Earl of Essex. 

William Alexander, Earl of Stirling. 

William Laud, Archbishop of Canterbury. 



Nathaniel Bernard, Eector of Kamenham. 

Dr. Donne, when 18 years of age. 1635. 

The Eev. Dr. John Taylor. 

The Rev. John Sym. 

The Eev. Josiah Shute. 

James, First Duke of Hamilton. 

John Miltjn, at the age of 21. 

James Shirley, Poet. 

Sir Eobert Stapleton, Poet. 161S. 

Sir John Suckling, Poet. 

FEONTISriECES. 

To the Arcadian Princess, 1635. 

To the Evangelical Harmony. 

To Virgil's Works, by Ogilby. 1649. 

MARSHALL, William, was an engraver and 
dealer in art, who edited, in 1771, Desgodet's fine 
work, ' The Ancient Edifices of Home.' 

MARSIGLI, FiLiPPO, born at Naples about 1780, 
was professor of the Academy at that town. His 
best performance as a painter is ' Homer and the 
Shepherds.' Some of his works are in the Palazzo 
Reals, others in the church of the Campo Santo. 
MARSIGLIA, GuGLiELMO da. See Maboillat. 
MARSSEN. See Maetss. 
MARSTRAND, Wilhelm Nicholas, a Danish 
genre and portrait painter, born in 1810 at Copen- 
hagen. He studied in the Academy there, and 
also at Munich and Rome. On his return he 
became professor, and subsequently director, of 
the Copenhagen Academy. His subjects were 
chiefly chosen from the manners and customs of 
his country, the plays of Holberg, &c. He died 
in 1873, Among his works are : 
Copenhagen, Gallery. Dalecarlians crossing the Siljan 
on their way to church. 
„ „ Erasmus Montanus. 

„ „ Scene from Holberg's 'Barsels- 

tuen,' 
„ „ The Visit, 

„ „ Portrait of Constantin Hansen, 

Hamburg. Museum. Scene from Holberg's ' Potier 
d'Etain.' 

MARTEAU, Giles de, 'the elder,' was born 
at Liege in 1722. He went to Paris when he was 
young, and tliere acquired considerable reputation 
as one of the most successful revivers (f the dot 
style of engraving. He was elected into the 
Academy at Paris in 1764. He engraved several 
plates of academical figures, after the designs of 
some of the most eminent French artists. We 
have the following prints by him : 

The Portrait of C. van Loo, Painter. 

The Education of Cupid ; after Boucher. 

Venus and Cupid ; i^ter the same. 

The Head of Heliodorus ; after Raphael. 

Bust of the Virgin ; after Pierre. 

The Entombment ; after Stellaert. 

Justice protecting the Arts ; after Cochin. 

Lycurgus wounded ; after the same ; his reception plate. 

An Allegory on the Death of the Dauphin ; after the 

same. 
A set of six Landscapes ; after J. Houel. 

MARTEAU, Giles db, 'the younger,' the 
nephew and pupil of tlie elder artist of the name, 
was born at Liege about the year 1760. He engraved 
some plates in the style of his uncle. Among 
others we may name : 

Innocent Pleasure ; after Huet. 
The Pet Lamb ; after the same. 
Two Hunting-pieces ; after the same. 
Cup'd crying ; after the same. 

MARTEAU, Louis, a French portrait painter, 
born in Paris, who spent most of his life in Poland 
and died there in 1805. 

Ill 



IVIarten 



A BIOGRAPHICAL DICTIONARY OF 



Slartm 



MARTEN, John, an English water-colour painter, 
•who practised at Canterbury at the end of the 
18th and the beginning of the 19th centuries. He 
exhibited at the Academy in 1794 and 1808. There 
is a. water-colour view, ' Near Dover,' by him, 
dated 1803, in the South Kensington Museum. R. 
H. Marten painted in water-colour about the same 
time. 

MARTENASIE, Pietee, a Flemish engraver, 
was a native of Antwerp, but was instructed in 
engraving in Paris by J. P. le Bas. We have the 
following prints by him: 

The "Watering-place ; after Berchem. 

The Father of a Family ; atfer Greuze. 

The Eape of the Sabines ; after Rubens. 

MARTIN, David, an English portrait painter 
and mezzotint engraver, was born at Anstruther, 
in Fife, in 1736. He was a pupil_ of Allan 
Ramsay, and when quite young accompanied him 
to Rome ; after which he studied at the St. Martin's 
Lane Academy. He joined the Incorporated 
Society of Artists, and in 1775 settled in Edin- 
burgh, and was made chief painter to the Prince 
of Wales for Scotland. But before long he 
married a wealthy lady in London, and removed 
to Soho, where he lived till her death, when he 
returned to Edinburgh, and died there in 1798. 
Among his painted portraits were Dr. Franklin 
and Lord Mansfield, both of which were afterwards 
engraved in mezzotint, the former at least by 
himself. He engraved several portraits, among 
which are : 

L. F. Eoubillac, Sculptor; after A. Caipeniiers. 1765. 

Lady F. Manners, daughter of the Marquis of Granby. 
1772. 

J, J. Kousseau ; after Bamaay. 

David Hume ; after the same. 

MARTIN, Elias, a painter and engraver, was 
born in Sweden in 1739. In 1769 he came to 
England, and became an associate of the Royal 
Academy. He painted portraits, landscapes, and 
genre pieces in oil and water-colour. One of his 
best performances is a view of Westminster 
Bridge, with the arrival of the King of Denmark. 
Several of his portraits have been engraved in 
aquatint. As an engraver we have by him six 
plates, called 'A Daughter's Education from 
Cradle to Marriage,' On his return to Stockholm 
in 1750 lie became court painter, and published 
with his brother, Johann Fkiedrich Martin, 
a series of views of Stockholm. He died in 
1818. 

MARTIN, F. B., an English engraver in the 
latter part of the 18th century. Amongst his 
plates are : 

Maria Cosway ; after R. Cosmay. 

Sophia "Western ; after IIopp}ier. 

MARTIN, Gdillaumf., a French painter, born at 
Montpellier in 1737. He was a pupil of Cipriani, 
but was more engaged in selling pictures than 
in painting them. He died in Paris in 1801. 

MARTIN, Johann Fribdrich, engraver, was 
a brother of Elias Martin, A.R.A. He was born 
at Stockholm in 1745, and died there in 1808. In 
1790 he visited England. He published a series 
of views of Stockholm in conjunction with his 
brother Elias. 

MARTIN, Jean Baptiste, called 'Martin the 
elder,' was born in Paris in 1659, and was a pupil 
of La Hire. He also studied fortification, and 
was draughtsman to Vauban. He succeeded 
Van der Meulen as director of the Gobelins, and 

112 



accompanied the king and the dauphin in all their 
campaigns. He has been called ' Martin des 
Batailles,' from the contests and victories with 
which he decorated Versailles and the Invalides. 
His death occurred in Paris in 1735. Of his works 
we may note : 

Luneville. Gallery. A series of twenty pictures from 

the career of Charles V. 

(painted for the Duke of 

Lorraine). 
Paris. Louvre. Siege of Fribourg. 

"Versailles. Forty-five battles {hy or after 

him). 

MARTIN, John, an English landscape and his- 
torical painter, born at Haydon, near Hexham, in 
1789. He originally worked at heraldic coach- 
painting, and at the decoration of china. He came 
to London in 1806, and diligently occupied his 
spare time in studying for the higher branches of 
art. Marrying at the early age of 19, he was com- 
pelled to exert himself strenuously, and in 1812 
he produced his first picture, ' Sadak in search of 
the Waters of Oblivion.' Owing to tlie manner in 
which one of his pictures was hung at the Academy 
in 1814, he commenced a life-long but not very 
bitter struggle with that body. He did not discon- 
tinue to send his pictures to its yearly show. 
In 1817 and 1821 his contributions obtained prizes 
at the British Institution, and his art became widely 
popular. He was instrumental in the foundation 
of the Society of British Artists, where his works 
appeared for some years. He did not confine 
himself to the oil medium ; he painted many 
sketches in water-colours, and he furnished illus- 
trations for editions of the Bible and of 'Paradise 
Lost.' Many of his own pictures were engraved 
by himself. He died at Douglas, in the Isle of 
Man (whither he had gone for the benefit of his 
health after a paralytic stroke), in 1854. Among 
his chief works are : 

Joshua Commanding the Sun to stand still. 1816. 

The Fall of Babylon . 1819. 

Belshazzar's Feast. 1821. 

The destruction of Herculaneum. 1822. {Manchester 

Art Gallery.) 
The Fall of Nineveh. 1828. 
The Deluge. 1837. 
The Last Man. 1839. 
The Seventh Plague. 

Destruction of Sodom and Gomorrah. 1852. 
The Last Judgment. 
The Great Day of Wrath. 
The Plains of Heaven. 
Mountain Landscape. {South Kensington Museum!) 

MARTIN, Leon, a French still-life and historical 
painter, bom in Paris in 1837, and died in 1861. 

MARTIN, Pierre Denis, ' the younger,' who 
painted during the early part of the 18th century, 
is said to have been a cousin of Jean Baptiste 
Martin. He was also a pupil of Van der Meulen. 
He painted a number of views of royal residences, 
which are now at Versailles. One is signed, ' P. 
D. Martin, peintre ordinaire et pensionnaire du Roi, 
1722 ' ; on another is added ' pensionnaire de sa 
Majesty Czarienne.' Like his cousin, he was em- 
ployed at the Gobelins. He painted a few hunting 
and battle pieces. The Louvre possesses a ' Louis 
XV. hunting,' by him. 

MARTIN, Pierre Edmond, painter, was born at 
La Rochelle in 1783. He was instructed in Paris 
by Vincent, but afterwards went to Italy. On his 
return he painted portraits, but was principally 
engaged in the restoration of pictures. 



Uartin. 



PAINTERS AND ENGEAVEES. 



MAETIN, William, an English historical painter, 
who practised in the end of the 18th and the 
19th centuries. He was a pupil of Cipriani, and 
in 1766 obtained a gold palette from the Society 
of Arts. His works were exhibited at the Academj' 
from 1775 to 1816. He was patronized by George 
III., to whom he was appointed history painter, 
and for whom he executed some decorative works 
at Windsor Castle. There are at St. Andrew's 
Hall, Norwich, by him : 

Edward and Eleanor. 

Execution of Lady Jane Grey. 

MAETINEAU, Robert Braithwaite, painter, 
was born in London in 1826. At first intended 
for a lawyer, he forsook that profession for art 
and became a student at the Royal Academy. 
Afterwards he was for a time a pupil of Mr. Holman 
Hunt. He began to exhibit in 1852, and in 1862 
attracted great attention by a picture called ' The 
Last Day in the Old Home.' His later works were 
inferiorto this. He died somewhat suddenly in 1 869. 

MAETINBLLI, Giovanni, painter, flourished at 
Florence about the middle of the 17th century. 
In the Florentine Gallery there is a fine picture by 
him of the ' Feast of Belshazzar ' ; and in Santa 
Lucia de' Bardi, the ' Guardian Angel ' ; but his 
best work is a ' Miracle of St. Anthony,' at Pescia. 

MAETINELLI, GinLio and Luca, painters, 
were brothers, and pupils of J. Bassano. Giulio 
painted twenty-eight scenes from Genesis in the 
church at Bnego. 

MAETINELLI, Giuseppe, an obscure landscape 
painter, was born at Bologna about 1740, and died 
there about 1795. 

MAETINELLO DI BASSANO, an obscure By- 
zantine, who worked at Venice in the 13th century. 

MARTINET, Achille-Louis, a French engraver, 
was born at Paris in 1806, and instructed by Heim 
and Forster. In 1830 he received the ' prix de 
Rome.' He died in Paris in 1877. Among his 
best plates may be mentioned : 

The Last Honours paid to Counts Egmont and Horn ; 
after Gallait. 

The Sleep of Christ ; after Raphael. 

Tintoretto's Daughter ; after L. Gogniet. 

The Birth of the Virgin ; after Murillo. 

The Madonna with the Pink ; after Raphael. 

The Madonna with the Lily ; after Beltraffio (?), in the 
Pal. AJ,bani. 

MAETINET, Angelica, a French engraver, was 
born in 1731. She was a niece of N. Dupuis. 
Her brother, Franz Nicolatis, also an engraver, 
produced some small vignettes of animals, land- 
scapes, &c. Angelica died about 1780. Among 
her plates are : 

Old Age ; after Vemet, 

The After Dinner Walk ; after Vernet. 

The Little Musician ; after Schenau. 

MAETINET, E., a French painter of little note, 
who lived early in the present century. He was a 
pupil of Fontaine. 

MAETINEZ, Ambrosio, was born at Granada 
about the year 1630, and was brought up in the 
school of Alonso Cano. With the help of that 
artist, he became a reputable historical painter. 
His principal works are in the churches of the 
monasteries of S. Jerome, and of the Carmelites, in 
his native city. He died at Granada in 1674. 

MAETINEZ, Ckisostomo, of Valencia, a painter 
and engraver of considerable merit, flourished about 
1680. He engraved portraits, and also twenty 
plates for a work on anatomy. He painted several 
devotional works for the church of S. Philip Nen. 

VOL. 11. I 



Martinez 

Pictures in the church of S. Michael and in the 
Carmelites are ascribed to him. He died in 
1694. 

MARTINEZ, Domingo, was born at Seville near 
the close of the 17th century, and after having 
learned painting with an obscure artist named Juan 
Antonio, became one of the most popular artists in 
Seville. The Frenchman Ranc sought his friend- 
ship, and he died rich and honoured in 1750. 
According to Cean Bermudez his best paintings 
iire those in a chapel in Seville Cathedral. His 
fame was hardly deserved. 

MARTINEZ, Fray Antonio, a son of Jose 
Martinez, and painter to Philip IV. of Spain, was 
born at Saragossa in 1638. He studied first with 
his father, and afterwards at Rome. On his return 
to Spaia he helped his father in many of his works, 
and entering the convent of Scala Uei in 1690 he 
there painted some creditable pictures from the 
life of St. Bruno. 

MARTINEZ, Gregorio, a painter of repute in 
Valladolid, was employed in 1594 by the chapter 
of Burgos to gild the high altar of their cathedral. 
Cean Bermudez mentions having seen a small 
picture on copper, signed with this master's name. 
The subject was a Virgin with Saints. 

MARTINEZ, Josi, a painter and engraver, 
was born at Saragossa in 1612, and went young 
to Italy, where he studied some years at Rome. 
On his return to Spain he was employed in 
several considerable works for the churches and 
convents at Saragossa, and mnde court painter by 
Philip IV. in 1642. His chief productions are in 
the cathedral of that city, and in the convent De la 
Manteria. Palomino mentions a series of pictures 
of the life of our Saviour in the cloister of San 
Geronimo. He has also left an engraving of the 
portrait of Mathias Piedra, and a work on art and 
artists entitled ' Dircursos practicables del nobilis- 
simo arte de la Pintura.' He died at Saragossa in 
1682. 

MARTINEZ, Jos^, flourished at Valladolid 
towards the close of the 16th century. He painted 
so exactly in the style of the early Florentine 
masters, that it is conjectured he studied in their 
city. For the chapel of the Annunciation in the 
Augustine convent he painted various pictui-es 
from the life of the Virgin, also fresco decorations, 
and the designs for the tiles on the walls. This 
chapel was finished in 1598, and destroyed by the 
French in 1811. A picture then rescued is now in 
the Museum at Madrid ; in this the drawing is good, 
the colouring rich, and the draperies finely cast. 
He painted a few pieces for the Bernardine 
nuns. 

MARTINEZ, Josef Ltjxan. See Ldxan. 

MARTINEZ, Juan Bautista del Mazo. See 
Del Mazo Martinez. 

MARTINEZ, Sebastian, a Spanish artist, was 
born at Jaen in 1602. He was a reputable painter 
of history, and, according fo Palomino, resided 
during the early part of his life at Cordova, where 
he painted several pictures for the churches, par- 
ticularly three altar-pieces for the Convent of 
Corpus Christi, representing the Immaculate Con- 
ception, Saint Francis of Assisi, and the Nativity. 
On the death of Velazquez, he visited Madrid, and 
was appointed painter to Philip IV. He died in 
the capital in 1667. He was an excellent landscape 
painter, and also produced many cabinet pictures, 
which are to be found in private collections at 
Jaen, Cordova, Seville, Cadiz, and Madrid. 

113 



Slartinez 



A BIOGRAPHICAL DICTIONARY OF 



martini 



MARTINEZ, ToMMASO, a Spanish historical 
painter, born at Seville. He was a pupil of G-ut- 
tierez, an imitator of Murillo. He died in 1734. 

MARTINEZ DE GRADILLA, Joan, was a painter 
of Seville, and an office-bearer in the Academy there 
for some years. He was a pupil of Zurbaran, and 
painted a fresco in the Convent of Mercy, which 
in the time of C. Bermudez was his only surviving 
■work. It has been completely ruined by frequent 
restorations. He died probably in 1673. 

MARTINEZ DEL BARRANCO, Beenabdo, was 
born in 1738, at La Cuesta, in La Rioja. After 
preliminary study at Madrid, he went to Italj', 
visiting Turin, Rome, and Naples, and studying tlie 
old masters, especially Correggio. Returning to 
Madrid he was elected into the Academy of St. 
Ferdinand in 1774. He painted a portrait of 
Charles III., and designed some of the illustra- 
tions for the fine edition of ' Don Quixote,' Madrid, 
1780. He died in 1791. 

MARTINEZ DE LOS CORRALES, Jhan, a minia- 
turist of Toledo, began in 1583 to illuminate a mass 
booli for the cathedral of his native town, and in 
seven years had finished two volumes, which are 
characterized by fine colour and tasteful arabesques. 

MARTINI, Bernardino, who is better known as 
Zknale, was born at Treviglio in 1436, and was a 
disciple of Foppa. In early years he worked in 
common with Bernardino Jacobi, of Treviglio, who 
was surnamed Buttinone, and orders were given 
to the two painters conjointly. Zenale was the 
friend of Leonardo da Vinci, and was probably 
working at Santa Maria delle Grazie while the great 
Florentine was painting his ' Last Supper.' Vasari 
tells a story how that Da Vinci, despairing of being 
able to produce a face which should express his 
ideal of the Saviour, went to Zenale for advice and 
sympathy. When Zenale had seen and fully ad- 
mired his friend's labours, he told him tliat what he 
had already produced was so fine that it was useless 
to think of surpassing it; "for to fancy that the 
Christ could be conceived in nobler lineaments was 
to covet attributes little short of divine." Zenale 
was a master of theory, and in 1524 wrote a treatise 
on perspective. The majority of his frescoes have 
now disappeared, and we can point to only one 
fully authenticated work by his hands. This is an 
altar-piece in the parish church of Treviglio, on 
which he worked jointly with Buttinone, a fact 
which makes it difficult to use the picture as a 
standard to test other works ascribed to Zenale. 
From 1501, when he furnished a design for an 
intended decoration at Santa Maria sopra San Celso, 
until his death in 1526, he seems chiefly to have 
devoted his time to architectural pursuits. Pictures 
ascribed to him with more or less probability are 
to be found in the galleries of Bergamo, Berlin, 
Hanover, Milan, and St. Petersburg. 

MAKTINI, Giovanni, (or Giovanni da Udinb,) 
and Girolamo, were Friulans, sons of Martino, and 
nephews of Domenioo da Tolmezzo. In 1601 
Giovanni competed with Pellegrino da San Daniele 
in the decoration of two chapels in the cathedral 
of Udine, and acknowledged his inferiority by 
signing an altar-piece representing the Glory of 
St. Mark, " 1501, Johanes Utinensis hoc parvo in- 
genio fecit." The cathedral of Spilimberg has a 
' Presentation in the Temple ' by Giovanni. In 1503 
he began to make carved and coloured altar-pieces ; 
his best work in this branch of art is the altar of 
the church of Mortigliano, finished in 1527. Most of 
liis works are still in the province of FriuH. 

114 



MARTINI, SiMONE — called by Vasari Simone 
Memmi — a Sienese, was born in 1283. He mar- 
ried, in 1324, Giovanna, the daughter of the artist 
Memmo di Filipuocio. He was a contemporary 
of Giotto. One of his earliest frescoes is that in 
the Hall of the Palazzo Pubblico at Siena, repre- 
senting an enthroned ' Virgin and Child,' with 
numerous figures of ' Saints and Angels,' enclosed 
in a border decorated with shields of arms and 
medallions. The date of this design is about 1316, 
and existing records prove that in 1321, Simone 
received twenty-six livres for the renewal of certain 
portions that had been injured by damp. In 1320 
Simone executed an altar-piece for the Church of 
Santa Catarina, Pisa. This has since been dis- 
membered, and parts of it may be seen in the 
Library of the Serainario Vescovile, and the re- 
mainder in the Academy of Pisa. At about the 
same date he painted an altar-piece of the ' Virgin 
and Child with Saints and a kneeling donor,' for 
the high-altar of San Domenico, Orvieto, which is 
now in the cathedral. There it has for companion 
an altar-piece with the 'Virgin and Child and 
Angels.' In 1321, Simone seems to have been at 
Assisi, and amongst other works executed there 
by him, he decorated the chapel of San Martino in 
the cathedral by order of Cardinal Gentile. These 
frescoes fill the entire chapel, and illustrate different 
episodes in the Life of S. Martin. They contain 
figures of the Cardinal, and of numerous Saints 
and Angels. Simone also commenced a series of 
eight half-length Saints in the Lower Church of 
Assisi, but these are said to have been finished by 
Lippo Memmi. Up to 1335, Simone seems to 
have principally resided in Siena, where he 
executed many frescoes and paintings which 
cannot now be traced. In 1339, Simone went to 
Avignon with his wife and his brother Donate, and 
there made the acquaintance of Petrarch and of 
Laura, whose portrait he painted. WhUst in Avig- 
non, Simone decorated two chapels in the Papal 
Palace, and some other rooms, and in 1349 painted 
some frescoes in the portico of the cathedral. 
These consisted of a St. George and the Dragon, 
with a female figure supposed to be Laura, which 
has now faded away ; and a Virgin and Child, 
enthroned with angels and donor, and also a 
' Saviour in Benediction.' Both of these latter are 
still visible. Among his works we may name : 
Antwerp. Gallery. Triptych, AnnunciatioD. 

„ „ Crucifixion and Deposition. 

Avignon. Cathedral. Fresco of Virgin and Christ. 

Florence. Uffizi. The Annunciation. 

Liverpool. Institution. Eetum of Christ from the 

Temple. 
(This picture is dated 1342, so 

must luive been painted 

dwinff Simone^s stay at 

Avignon ) 
Milan. Amtrosiana. Miniatures of Petrarch's 

Virgil. 
Munich. Institution. Coronation of Virgin and 

Saints. 
Naples. Ch. of S. Lorenzo St. Louis of Toulouse Crown- 

Maggiore. ing his brother. 

Orvieto. Cathedral. Virgin and Saints. 

Piiris. Louvre. Christ going to Calvary. 

Pisa. Acad.my. Virgin and Saints. 

Siena. FuUic Falace. Virgin and Saints. Fresco. 
„ „ Equestrian Portrait of Fog- 

liano de Bicci. 
MARTINI, Pietbo. See Mebcia. 
MARTINI, PiRTRO Antonio, an Italian engraver, 
was born at Parma in 1739. He visited Paris when 
young, where he produced some plates after TenieiB 



MattiniSre 



PAINTEKS AND ENGRAVERS. 



Marvy 



and other Flemish artists ; these were finished by 
Le Bas. Martini worked for a time in London. 

MARTINIBRE, La. See Mayer. 

MARTINO, Makco San. See San Martino. 

MARTINO Dl BARTOLOMMEO. See Biagio. 

MARTINO Di BATTISTA, also called Martino 
da Udine, and Pellegbino da San Daniele, 
was the son of a Dalmatian named Battista da San 
Daniele, who sometimes lived at Udine. In 1491 
he was partner with Ser Giovanni Antonio of San 
Daniele as goldsmith, but left that place and went 
to Venice, where he was commonly called Pelle- 
grino, most likely in allusion to his foreign origin. 
In 1494 he received the commission for the altar- 
piece now in the church of Oeopo, which repre- 
sents an enthroned ' Virgin and Child between SS. 
Columba and Peter, with Angels and Saints.' In 
1495-96 he painted altar-pieces for the cathedral 
of Udine, and for the church of Santa Maria di 
Piazza. He then determined to go to Rome, and 
according to the custom of his time, made his will 
before starting. His friends, hearing of this, deter- 
mined to prevent his departure by offering him 
some important work, and through their influence 
the brotherhood of Sant' Antonio gave Pellegrino 
a commission to decorate their churoh at San 
Daniele. This undertaking, which was commenced 
about 1498, sufEered many interruptions through 
foreign wars and internal feuds, but was finally 
completed in 1522. These frescoes, which cover 
the entire sanctuary and chancel end of the church, 
consist of various scenes drawn from the lives of 
Christ, St. Anthony, St. Sebastian, St. George, and 
other Saints, as well as innumerable figures of 
Prophets, Doctors, Saints, and Martyrs ; also scenes 
from Old Testament History. They vary in style, 
and betray the successive influences exercised over 
Pellegrino by artists with whom he was brought 
into contact during his travels in North Italy. In 
1501, in friendly competition with Giovanni Mar- 
tini, he painted the altar-piece of the ' Glory of 
St. Joseph,' for the cathedral of Udine, and as a 
reward was elected a member of the city council 
for the years 1501 and 1503. In 1506 he retired 
to San Daniele, and painted a fresco known as 
' La Vergine di Strada,' in the church of the Ma- 
donna. Between 1608 and 1512 he visited both 
Venice and Perrara. In 1512 he returned to Udine 
and designed the Allegories of Religion, Justice, 
Victory, and Fame, for the monument of Andrea 
Trevisano in the Palazzo Publico, and recommenced 
his labours at Sant' Antonio. In 1621 he painted 
the organ-doors of the cathedral, which were valued 
by Giovanni Martini and Sebastiano Florigerio. 
These though much injured are still preserved in 
the Town-hall of Udine. He is also known to 
have painted several banners, none of which are 
now extant. In the close of 1529, he produced 
the ' Madonna and Child with six saints between 
SS. Michael and Sebastian,' now in Santa Maria, 
Cividale, after which he devoted most of his time 
and energies to dealing in timber. He died in 
1547, more than eighty years old. Besides the 
works we have mentioned, we may name an 
'Annunciation,' in the Venice Academy, and a 
'Madonna and Saints,' in the Palazzo Giovanelli, 
as among his best productions. W.A. 

S. Crowe and Cavalcaselle, ' Painting in N. 
Italy,' vol. ii. p. 189 ; and Morelli, ' Italian Masters 
in German Galleries,' p. 18. 

MARTINO DI CANDIDO. See under Tolmezzo. 

MARTINOFF, Iwan, painter, was born at St. 

I 2 



Petersburg in 1765, and was a student in the 
Academy there. He painted landscapes and 
scenes for the theatre. He also painted thirty- 
six views of St. Petersburg. 

MARTINOTTI, Evangelista, was born at Castel 
Monferrato m 1634. He was a scholar of Salvator 
Rosa, and, according to Orlandi, excelled in paint- 
ing landscapes, with figures and animals. Lanzi 
mentions him as a painter of history, and com- 
mends his picture of the ' Baptism of Christ by St. 
John,' in the cathedral of Casale. He died in 
1694. He had a brother, Francesco Mar'iinotti, 
who was also a disciple of Salvator Rosa, and 
painted history. He died in 1694. 

MARTIS, Ottav. de. See Nelli. 

MARTIS, Ottaviano, born at Gubbio, flourished 
from 1400 to 1444. In the church of St. Maria 
Nuova is a fresco of the ' Virgin and Child ' by this 
artist, dated 1403. 

MARTIUS. This is the name of a large family 
of artists who resided at Ghent. Baddouin was 
the eldest son of Jan Martins, entered the Corpora- 
tion in 1482, was master painter in 1434, and Dean 
in 1475. Gerard, master painter in 1398. Gho- 
LOET, master painter in 1398. Gilles, master 
painter in 1396. Jan, a painter at Ghent, who, in 
conjunction with Van Axpoele, executed frescoes 
for the Counts of Flanders. He also worked at 
Toumai. Laurent, father and son, flourished in 
1364 and 1380 respectively. Nabur, Nabob, or 
Nabuchodnosor, was born at Ghent in 1404. He 
was the son and pupil of Jan Martius. He worked 
for the city and churches of Ghent and Oudenarde. 
He died in 1453. Regnier, son of Baudouin, 
flourished from 1447 to 1472. 

MARTORELLI, Gaetano, was born at Naples 
in 1670, and was a pupil of Giacomo del Po or N. 
Massaro. His first attempts were in historical 
subjects, but not succeeding to his wishes, he 
abandoned that branch of the art, and applied 
himself to landscape painting in the style of 
Salvator. He died in 1723. 

MARTSS, Jan, 'de jonge,' (or Marssen,) in- 
correctly known as J. M. de Jonoe (or Jong), was 
a Dutch etcher and probably painter, who flourished 
about 1630. We have by him a set of etchings of 
battles, which are executed with great spirit, and 
supposed to be from his own designs. His manner 
is somewhat peculiar ; it is built up of bent strokes 
with very little hatching. He marked his prints 
J. M. B. Jonge fecit, and J. M. D. J. fe. 

MARUCELLI, Giovanni Stefano, (or Maru- 
SELLi,) was born at Pisa in 1686. He was a 
scholar of Andrea Boscoli, and distinguished him- 
self as a painter of history, although he was more 
celebrated as an architect and engineer. His 
principal residence was at Pisa, where he painted, 
in the tribune of the cathedral, ' Abraham and the 
Angels,' and ' The Martyrdom of St. Bartholomew.' 
He died in 1646. 

MARULLO, GiDSEPPE, a native of Ceta in the 
kingdom of Naples, studied under Massimo Stan- 
zioni, but copied the style of his master's rival, 
Spagnoletto. He died in 1685. His son Angelo, 
also a painter, died early. 

MARVIE, Martin, painter and engraver, was 
bom in Paris in 1712. We have several prints by 
him, and among others 'The Siege of Bergen op 
Zoom ' after Bronard, plates in Blondel's ' French 
Architecture,' and others. 

MARVY, Louis, a French engraver, born at 
Versailles in 1815. He was a pupil of Jules 

115 



Mary de' Medici 



A BIOGRAPHICAL DICTIONAEY OF 



Mason 



Duprd, and engraved several pictures after Rem- 
brandt, Corot, C. Flers, Decamps, Diaz, &o. He 
died in 1850. 

MARY DE' MEDICI, wife of Henry IV. of 
France, born in Florence in 1573, died at Cologne 
in 1642. At the age of eleven years she engraved 
a portrait of herself on wood, and signed it Maria 
Medici F. MDLXXXII. Another plate is ascribed 
to her, the portrait of a girl, signed L. 0. 1587. 

MAEZIALB, Marco, wag living in the early part 
of the 16th century. Of his life very little is known, 
except that he was employed by Giovanni Bellini 
as journeyman, at a salary of twenty-four ducats 
per annum, in the Hall of Great Council at Venice, 
in 1492. In the Conservatorio de' Penitenti at 
San Giobbe, Venice, is a ' Circumcision ' painted 
by him in that same year ; and in the Academy of 
the same city is a ' Christ and the Apostles at 
Euimaus,' dated 1506. In the Gallery of Berlin is 
a, similar subject, painted in 1607, which shows a 
strong leaning towards the German feeling. His 
two beat works, however, are in the National 
Gallery. These are, 'The Circumcision,' signed and 
dated 1500, and 'The Madonna and Child, with 
Saints,' 1507. In the Locchis Carrara Gallery at 
Bergamo there is also a ' Virgin and Child,' with 
profile portrait of donor, dated 1504. The dates 
on his pictures range from 1499 to 1507. His 
works are fairly numerous, but many of them are 
ascribed to Bellini and other members of his school. 
MARZIO DB COLANTONIO, flourished at Rome 
in the 16th century. He painted landscapes and 
battle-pieces. He was for a time at Turin, in 
the service of the Prince of Savoy. 

MARZO, Andeea and Urban, were two brothers 
of Valencia, and painters of some credit, born 
about 1620. Andrea executed two pictures of St. 
Anthony of Padua for the parish churches of 
Santa Cruz and Santa Catalina ; he also designed 
the title-page for a book, describing a grand 
festival in the city, published in 1663 by Don 
Juan Bautista de Valda. Urban painted a picture 
of 'Christ bearing the Cross,' said to possess some 
merit. It is in a private collection at Valencia. 

MAEZY, JoHANN Heineich, an engraver, was 
born at Iglau in Moravia in 1722. He became a 
teacher in the Normal School, and afterwards 
devoted himself to engraving. He died in 1801. 
MASACCIO. See Guidi, Tommaso. 
MASCAGNI, DoNATO, (or Mascagio,) called 
Fra Aksenio, was born at Florence in 1679, and 
was one of the ablest scholars of Jacopo Ligozzi. 
Soon after leaving the school of that master, he 
became a Servite monk, and took the name of Fra 
Arsenio, by which he is generally known. He 
painted several altar-pieces for the churches at 
Florence, particularly for that of his monastery. 
His principal performance is a large picture at 
Vallombrosa, which Lanzi mentions in very favour- 
able terms. He also worked in Spain early in 
the 17th century, chiefly in the convents of Valla- 
dolid. He died in 1636. 

MASCALL, Edwaed, an English portrait painter, 
flourished about the year 1660. He painted a 
portrait of Oliver Cromwell, which was once in the 
possession of the Duke of Chandos. We have a 
print, by James Gammon, from a portrait of Mascall 
by himself. 

MASCHERINI, Ottaviano, a painter and archi- 
tect, was born at Bologna in 1530. He was a pupil 
of the Carracci, but he abandoned painting for 
architecture. He died about 1610. 
116 



MASIJS. See Massys. 

MASOLINO da PANICALE. See Fm. 

MASON, Abraham John, wood engraver, was 
born in London in 1794. He was apprenticed to 
Robert Branston, and in 1821 he set up on his 
own account. In 1829 he went to New York, 
where he was elected Associate of the Academy 
and Professor of Engraving. He engraved Cruik- 
shank's illustrations to 'Tales of Humour and 
Gallantry. ' 

MASON, George Hemming, was bom at Wetley 
Abbey in Worcestershire in 1818. His parents 
were well-to-do people, and by his father's wish 
he studied for the medical profession, but aban- 
doned it in 1844 for art. In company with a 
brother he travelled through France, Germany, 
Switzerland, and Italy, residing at Rome for several 
j'ears. While Mason was in Rome he received 
news of financial losses at home, which for a time 
threw himself and his brother entirely on their own 
resources. Better times came, however, and in 
1865 he was enabled both to contribute to and to 
visit the Paris Exhibition. He coirtributed to the 
Academy from 1857, in which year he returned 
to England and married, till 1872. All the subjects 
now chosen by him were taken from the neigh- 
bourhood of his home at Wetley. In 1865 he 
settled in London, in Shaftesbury Road, Hammer- 
smith, where he remained faithful to the same 
rural themes. In 1868 he was elected A.R.A., and 
moved to a larger house and studio, where he 
worked for three years, and where he died in 1872. 
His two best works, perhaps, are, ' Girls dancing by 
the Sea,' etched in 1886 by Mr. R. W. Macbeth as 
' A Pastoral Symphony,' and ' The Harvest Moon,' 
also etched by the same artist. The former is in 
the collection of Lord Wantage. Besides those he 
also painted : 

Wind on the Wold. 

Mist on the Moor. 

Catch ! 

Crossing the Heath. 

Return from Ploughing, 

The Cast Shoe. 

Geese. 

The Gander. 

Young Anglers. 

Unwilling Playmates. 

Evening, Matlock. 

The Evening Hymn. 

Only a Shower. 

A Derbyshire Landscape. 

Blackberry Gatherers. 

The Milkmaid. 

MASON, Jambs, an English landscape engraver, 
was born in 1710, and died about 1780. He be- 
longed to the Incorporated Society of Artists, and 
was very eminent in his line, his works being held 
in great esteem by foreign amateurs. His principal 
pieces are after Claude, G. Poussin, Swaneveldt, 
Hobbema, Wilson, Lambert, Scott, and Zuccarelli. 
' The Landing of Mn^as in Italy,' after Claude, is 
one of his finest landscapes ; and he is no less 
admirable in the print, after Andrea Sacchi, of 
' Venus at the Bath, surrounded by Cupids.' He 
sometimes engraved in conjunction with Canot, 
Vivares, and other masters of the period, who, 
like himself, were employed by the enterprising 
Boydell. 

MASON, William, an English animal painter 
in the latter part of the 18th century. His works 
were engraved by J. Jenkins, R. Pollard, and Val. 
Green. 



UascLuelier 



PAINTERS AN ENGRAVERS. 



IffassS 



MASQUELIER, Louis Joseph, a French en- 
graver, was born at Cisoing, near Lille, in 1741. 
He was a pupil of J. P. le Bas at Paris, where he 
engraved several plates which possess considerable 
merit, particularly his landscapes. He died in 
1811. He engraved several of the plates for 'Le 
Voyage d'ltalie,' by St. Non ; also several of the 
French battles and victories, and other subjects 
after Monnet and Vernet ; some of the plates for 
the voyage of La Peyrouse, and numerous designs 
illustrative of the ' Metamorphoses ' of Ovid, the 
Fables and the Kisses of Dorat, and, in con- 
junction with M. Nde, the work entitled ' Tableaux 
de la Suisse,' consisting of 216 plates in folio. He 
was also director of the publication of ' La Galerie 
de Florence,' for which he engraved several of 
the pictures, statues, cameos, and bas-reliefs, and 
for which he obtained the gold medal in 1802. 
Numerous other works were produced by him, 
wliich are well known to amateurs of engraving. 
Among others, we may name the following : 

The Arrival of Voltaire in the Blysian Fields; after 
Ls Barhier. 

An old Han kneeling near a Skull, called Diogenes ; 
after G. Don. 

A view in Flanders; after Teniers; etched by Masque- 
lier and finished by Le £as. 

A Landscape, with Cattle ; after P. Potter. 

A pair of Landscapes; after BuisdaeC; by Masquelier 
and Le Bas. 

A View in Italy ; after Vernet. 

A Shipwreck ; after the same. 

Two Views of Osfcend ; after Le May. 

A Landscape, with a Waterfall ; after Dietrich. 
He was the instructor of his son, Claude Louis 
Masquelieb, born in Paris in 1781, who engraved 
in 1848 ' The Entombment of Christ,' after Raphael. 
He obtained several gold medals and prizes, and 
was professor at the Academy of Rome. 

MASQUELIER, Nicolas Fbanqois Joseph, 
called 'the yoimger,' was a relation and scholar 
of Louis Joseph Massard. He was born at Lille 
in 1760, and died in 1809. He received lessons 
also from L. J.,Watteau and Gu#ret. He engraved 
a ' Corps-de-garde,' after Leduc ; ' C»sar at the 
Tomb of Alexander,' after S. Bourdon ; ' Extreme 
Unction,' after Jouvenet ; ' Christ at the Column,' 
after Vouet, all for the Musde Robillard : and several 
other pieces for the same collection. He also 
assisted in engraving the cameos and bas-reliefs 
for the ' Galerie de Florence.' 

MASQUERIER, John James, a portrait painter, 
born of French parentage at Chelsea in 1778. He 
w;ent back to France with his parents in 1789, and 
received some instruction from Vernet. Returning 
to England in 1792, he became a student in the 
schools of the Academy, where his first exhibited 
work appeared in 1796. In 1800 he made a second 
visit to Paris, where he was enabled to take a 
portrait of Napoleon. This on being exhibited in 
England, where it was the first authentic portrait 
of the emperor, proved a source of considerable 
gain to the painter. After a successful career as 
a portrait painter — he painted 400 portraits in 
twenty-eight years — he was enabled to retire in 
1823 with a competence to Brighton. Here he 
died in 1855. 

MASRELIEZ, Louis, a painter, was bom in 
Paris in 1747. In 1752 he was taken to Sweden, 
but returned to Paris to study art, proceeding later 
to Italy. On his return to Stockholm he was made 
Director of the Swedish Academy. He painted 
portraits, landscapes, and historical subjects. He 
died at Stockholm in 1810. 



MASSA, Giovanni, was », native of Carpi. He 
was a pupil of Griffoni, and, in conjunction with 
Giovanni Pozzuoli, worked at architectural views 
and designing. He died in 1741. 

MASSARD, Jean, a French engraver, was born 
at Bell^me in 1740. He was instructed in the 
rudiments of his art by Martinet, but owed more 
to private study. In 1814 he received the title of 
Engraver to the King. He was a member of the 
Academy, and died in 1822. His best plates are : 

Adam and Eve ; after Cignani. 

La Mere bien aimee ; after Greuze. 

La plus belle des meres ; after the same. 

Abraham and Hagar; after Girardon. 

The Family of Charles I. ; after Van Dyck. 

Erigone ; after Mieris. 

The Death of Socrates ; after David. 

MASSARD, Jean Baptiste Louis, an engraver, 
was born in 1774. He was the eldest son of Jean 
Massard. Among his works were ' The Magdalene,' 
after Seghers, and the portrait of Francis I., after 
Titian. He died about 1810. 

MASSARD, Jean Baptiste Raphael Uebain, 
son and scholar of Jean Massard, was born in Paris 
in 1775. He studied design in the school of David. 
He engraved many of the plates for the beautiful 
editions of Virgil and Racine, published by Didot, 
also for ' Le Musee Robillard,' and other collec- 
tions. The ' St. Cecilia,' after Raphael ; ' Apollo 
and the Muses,' after Giulio Romano ; ' Hippocrates 
refusing the Presents of Artaxerxes,' after Girodet, 
and the ' Burial of Atala,' after the same, are among 
his most esteemed works. 

MASSARI, Luoio, painter, was born at Bologna 
in 1569, and was some time a scholar of Barto- 
lomraeo Passerotti; but he afterwards studied in 
the school of the Carracci, and then at Rome 
from the antique and the works of the great 
masters. His style resembles that of Annibale, 
rather than Lodovioo ; and in some of his works 
he approaches so near to his manner, that they 
may easily be mistaken for those of that master. 
He died in 1633. Among his works we may 
name: 

Bologna. Life of St. Benedict (four pic- 

tures). 

„ Marriage of St. Catherine. 

„ Christ appearing to the Magdalen. 

„ St. Gaetano. 

Florence. Uffizi. Holy Family. 

MASSARO, Niccolo, was a Neapolitan, and a 
scholar of Salvator Rosa. He painted landscapes, 
which resemble those of his instructor more in 
forms and scenery than in colour, which is weak. 
As he was not successful in figures, he was assisted 
in his pictures by other artists, particularly by the 
little known Antonio di Simone. ■ Massaro's sofis, 
Gieolamo and Gennaro, were also painters. 

MASSAROTTI, Anqelo, was born at Cremona 
in 1655, and for some time studied under Agostino 
Bonisoli, in his native city. He afterwards visited 
Rome, where he became a scholar of Carlo Cesi. 
His principal work is a large picture in the church 
of Sant' Agostino representing that saint dis- 
tributing his regulations to his difEerent orders. 
He died in 1723. 

MASSE, Charles, (or MAci,) a French designer 
and engraver, was born in Paris about the year 
1631. He was employed by M. Jabach to make 
designs from his celebrated collection of drawings, 
and to etch them. The set consists of 280 prints, 
among which we may specify : 

117 



IitassS 



A BIOGRAPHICAL DICTIONARY OF 



Hasson 



Sixty-seven after Annib. Carracci. 
Fourteen after Titian. 
Twelve after Oastiglione. 
Four after Campagnola, 

Several after Correggio, Guercino, Nic. Poussin, Par- 
migiano, and others. 

MASS]^, Jean Baptiste, a French painter and 
engraver, was born in Paris in 1687. In the early 
part of his life he applied himself to the sciences, 
but afterwards took to engraving, and shortly to 
painting in enamel. By the common device of re- 

E resenting ladies as more beautiful than they were 
e soon succeeded in making himself the fashion. 
•It was as an engraver, however, that he obtained 
in 1717 a reception into the Academy at Paris. 
He undertook the direction of the engravings from 
the pictures by Le Brun, in the Gallery of Versailles. 
The work consi-ita of fifty-two plates, entitled ' La 
grande galerie de Versailles et les deux salons qui 
I'accompagnent, dessinee par J. B. Mass^ ef grav6e 
par les meilleurs maitres du tems,' Paris, 1762. In 
1749 he became a Councillor of State, and in 1760 
inspector of the Gallery at Versailles. He died in 
Paris in 1767. 

MASSE, Samuel, a miniature painter, was bom 
at Tours in 1671. He settled in Paris, where he 
died in 1753. Another painter of the same name 
flourished at Tours at the same time. 

MASSEI, GiROLAMO, was a native of Lucca, and, 
according to Baglione, flourished at Rome in the 
pontificate of Paul V., where he painted several 
pictures for churches and other public buildings. 
In San Luigi de' Frances! is an attar-piece by him, 
representing the ' Martyrdom of St. Sebastian'; and 
in the Trinita de' Monti there are several pictures 
in fresco of the Life and Miracles of St. Francis of 
Paula, Agostino Taja, in his ' Descrizione del 
Vatioano,' says he was one of the artists selected 
by Fra Ignazio Danti, superintendent of the works, 
to ornament the Loggie of the Vatican, where he 
was employed several years. He returned to Lucca 
towards the latter part of his life, and died there 
at the age of eighty. 

MASSI, Caspar, painter and engraver, worked at 
Rome at the end of the 18th century. Among his 
works are plates from : 

Cardinal Fleury ; after Eigaud. 
Pope Clement XII. 
St. John of Nepomuc ; after Foli. 
St. Nicolas ; after Calandrucci. 

MASSI, G., is mentioned by Strutt as the en- 
graver of a portrait of Cardinal Alaman Salviati, 
after P. Nelli, dated 1730. 

MASSI, Gentile, called Gentile di Niccol6 (di 
Giovanni) da Fabhiano, was probably born at 
Fabriano between 1360 and 1370. He learned his 
art" under Allegretto Nuzzi ; his death took place 
between 1440 and 1460, and he wag buried in San 
Francesco Romana, in the Campo Vaccino. He is 
known to have paid a visit to Venice, where he 
spent some years in decorating the ducal palace, 
and also painted an altar-piece for the church of 
S. Felice, representing St. Paul and St. Anthony. 
From thence in 1422 he went to Florence, and in 
1426 he was sent for to Rome by Pope Martin V., 
to paint in San Giovanni Laterano, and he painted 
a ' Holy Family ' for the church of S. Maria 
Maggiore. At Florence, in the church of S. 
Niccolo, is a subject by him from the life of that 
saint; and in the sacristy of la Trinity, the 'Ador- 
ation of the Magi,' dated 1423. Gentile's master- 
pieces have perished both at Rome and Venice ; 

118 



remains of his paintings can be seen at Perugia, 
at Fabriano, and as under : 

Berlin. Mnsenm. Virgin between SS. Catharine 

and Nicholas. 

Florence. S. Niccolb. SS. Maiy Magdalene, Nicholas, 
John the Baptist, and George. 
1425. 
„ tSacrisiy. God the Father, Christ, the Vir- 

gin, and several Saints. 
„ Academy. The Adoration of the Kings. 

1423. 
Milan. Brera. Coronation of the Virgin. 

„ „ Four Figures of Saints. 

Orvieto. Cathedral. Madonna. 

„ „ Fragment of a Fresco. 

Paris. Zouvre. The Presentation in the Temple. 

„ „ Virgin and Child. 

Venice. Academy. Madonna and Infant. 

MASSIMI, Cavalieee. See Stanzioni. 

MASSIMO, Aniella di. See Beltbano. 

MASSINGER, Akdeeas, an engraver, was born 
at Wasserburg, Austria, in 1759. He migrated to 
Vienna, where he died in 1808. Among his plates 
are: 

The Spanish Pointer ; after Stuhhs. 
A View near Exeter ; after Holmes. 
Sheep and Bams in groups ; after H. Moos. 

MASSINI, C. An etching after a picture of 
' Penelope at her Web,' by G. F. Grent, is signed 
with this name. 

MASSOLINI. See Azzolini. 

MASSON, Andrew, a Scotch landscape painter, 
born near Edinburgh in 1750, who also practised 
as a drawing master. In the year before his death 
he assisted Turner by making wave studies from 
the Bell Rock Lighthouse. He died in 1826. 

MASSON, Antoine, a celebrated French en- 
graver, was born at Louri, near Orleans, in 1636. 
He was brought up to the business of an armourer, 
and first exercised the burin in graving ornaments 
on steel. Early in his life he settled in Paris, 
where he applied himself to drawing with great 
assiduity, and acquired some celebrity in painting 
and designing portraits. But he is principally 
distinguished as an engraver ; and in some of his 
plates, particularly his portraits, he reached an 
excellence which has seldom been surpassed. He 
worked entirely with the graver, which he handled 
with surprising firmness and facility, and at the 
saine time with the utmost delicacy. His portrait 
of Brisacier, known by the name of ' The Grey- 
headed Man,' is a model of lightness and precision. 
That of Olivier d'Ormesson is also admirable. Of 
his subjects, the celebrated print of ' Christ with 
the Disciples at Emmaus,' after Titian, commonly 
called ' The Table-cloth,' may be regarded as a 
chef-d'oeuvre in the style to which it belongs. In 
1679 he became a member of the Academy in 
Paris, and died in that city in 1700. The following 
is a list of Masson's works : 

PORTEAITS. 
Anne of Austria, Queen of France ; after P. Mignard. 
Maria Theresa of Austria, Queen of France; after 

TV". Mignard. 
Maria Anne Victoria of Bavaria, Dauphiness. 
Louis Augustus, Duke dn Maine, ad vimm, sc. 
Jean Jacques de Mesmes, Conte d'Avanx. 1683. 
Fran9ois de Beauvilliers, Due de St. Aignan. 
Francois Eouxel de Medavi, Archbishop of Kouen . 1677. 
Maria de Lorraine, Duchesse de Guise; after N. 

Mignard. 
The Count d'Hareourt, called the Cadet de la perle; 

after N. Mignard ; extremely fine. 
Nicolas de Lamoignon Conte de Courson. 1676, 



Hasson 



PAINTERS AND ENGRAVERS. 



J^ome Eignon, Librarian to the King. 1686. 

Denis 'Marin, Secretary to the King. 1672. 

Louis Verjus, Conte de Crecy. 1679. 

Frederick William, Elector of Brandenburg. 1683 ; 

scarce. 
Guido Patin, M.D. ; engraved in a singular style ; rare. 
Charles Patin, his son, M.D. 
Francesco Maria, Doge of Genoa. 1685. 
Hardouin de Beaumont, Archbishop of Paris ; after N. 

Mignard. 
Emanuel Theodore, Due d'Albert ; after the same. 
G-aspar Charrier, Secretary to the King; after Blanchet. 
Alexander du Puy, Marquis de St. Andre ; after De 

Seve. 
Louis, Due de Vendome ; after P. Mignard. 
G. de Brisacier, Secretary to the Queen, called ' The 

Grey-headed Man ' ; ven/ fine. 
Olivier le F^vre d'Ormesson,Pre6ident of the Parliament. 

1668; vert/ fine. 
Pierre Dupuis, Painter to the King ; after ]V. Mignard. 
Antoine Masson, engraver to the King ; se ipse fecit. 

The following life-size heads, though finely en- 
graved, are less happy in the execution than the 
preceding portraits : 

Louis XIV. with a Hat; ad vivum fecit. 1687. 

Louis XIV. ; a large oval ; after C. le Brun. 

Louis the Dauphin, his son, with a Hat. 

Philip, Duke of Orleans. 

Jean Baptiste Colbert, Prime Minister. 1677. 

Fransois de Harley, Archbishop of Paris. 1684. 

Claude du Housset. 1681: 

Henri de la Tour d'Auvergne, Vicomte de Turenne. 

Nicolas Potier de Novion, President of the Parliament. 

1679. 
Guillaume de Lamoignon, President of the Parliament. 

1675. 
Charles Colbert, Marquis-de Croissi ; after H. Gascar. 

SUBJECTS. 

St. Jerome in Meditation ; Masson sc. 
The Holy Family ; after JV. Mignard. 
Christ with the Disciples at Emmaus ; after Titian. 

This fine print is celebrated under the name of ' The 

Table-cloth.' 
The Assumption of the Virgin ; after Eubens ; fine and 

scarce. 
The Brazen Serpent; after the same; in two sheets; 

fine. 

MASSON, Madaleine, was a relation of Antoine 
Masson, and was born in Paris about the year 
1660. She was a pupil of Antoine, in whose fine 
style she engraved several portraits, or heads, 
life-size. She was living up to 1711. Among 
others, we have the following by her : 

Duke Philippe of Orleans. 

Elizabeth Charlotte, Duchess of Orleans; Mad. 

Masson sc. 
Elizabeth of Orleans, Duchess of Alencon ; after P. 

Mignard. 
Maria Theresa of Austria, Queen of France; after 

Babert. 
Elizabeth Maria Josephine, Infanta of Spain. 
Victor Amadeus II., Duke of Savoy. 
Louis Henry de Gondrin de Montespan; after a 

picture hy A. Masson. 

MASSONE, Giovanni, wag born at Alessandria, 
and probably laboured there, but little is known of 
his life. He is best known by a triptych, executed 
about the year 1490, which now hangs in the Gallery 
of the Louvre. It represents the ' Birth of Christ,' 
'St. Francis adored by Pope Sixtus IV.,' and ' St. 
Antony of Padua, with the Cardinal Giuliano della 
Rovere.' 

MASSOT, FiRMiN, a painter, was born in 1766. 
He settled at Geneva, after a short stay in Italy, 
and painted there and at Berne several portraits 
and miniatures. In later life he produced some 
genre pictures. He died about 1826. 



MASSYS, CoRNELis,- painter and engraver, and 
the fourth (?) son of Quentin Massys, was born at 
Antwerp about 1513. Some writers make him the 
son of Quentin's brother, Jan Massys the elder. 
He was received into the Antwerp Guild of St. 
Luke in 1531. In the Dresden Gallery there is a 
red chalk drawing by hini of ' Lot and his Daughters.' 
The figures have much elegance and refinement, 
betraying a master who had visited Italy without 
leaving his own Flemish manner behind him there. 
Cornells was still living in 1580. He usually signed 
his works with the initials G.M-A., or C.M-E. in 
amonogram, and sometimes wefind the abbreviation 
Cor. Met. Works : 

Berlin. Gallery. Landscape with figures. (Signed 

C.M-B. 1543.) 

PLATES. 

Henry VIII., in a cap and feather. 

Judith with the head of Holofernes. 

Scenes from the lives of Samson, Tobias, and the 

Baptist. 
Melchizedec blessing Abraham. ■ 
' Holy Family ' and the ' Draught of Fishes ; ' after 



A Battle piece ; after Geo. Pencz. 
The Four Evangelists. 
The Virtues. 

MASSYS, Jan, (Metsts,) was the son of Quentin 
Massys by his first wife. In 1516 he was a pupil 
of Jaket Osket, and was received into the Corpor- 
ation of St. Luke in 1531. He visited Italy, but 
afterwards returned to his own city. His eldest son 
Quentin, also a painter, died at Frankfort. His 
death occurred after 1568. His two elder brothers, 
Paul and Coenelis, were also painters. Paul was 
living in 1649. Among the pictures of Jan are : 



Antwerp. 


Gallery. 


The Virgin and St. Joseph at 
Bethlehem. 


Berlin. 


Gallery. 


The Healing of Tobias. 


„ 


„ 


The Money-Changer. 


Paris. 


Louvre. 


David and Bathsheba. 


Petersburg. 




The Money-changers {two ex- 
amples). ■ ( 


Rotterdam. 


Gallery. 


Danae. 


Stockholm. 




Portrait of a Lady. 


Vienna. 




The "Wandering Musicians. 


»> 




Lot and his Daughters. 



MASSYS, Quentin, (Matsys, Mersys, or Metsts,) 
the son of a locksmith, Josse Massys, was born at 
Louvain in 1466. In early life he worked under 
his father, but became a painter to obtain the con- 
sent of his wife's father, who belonged to that 
profession, to his marriage. This is recorded by 
the inscription on his tomb : " Connubialis amor 
de mulcibre fecit Apellem," and he wrote on lii-i" 
own portrait the words " Pictorera me fecit amor." 
His wife's name was Alyt van Tuylt. After her 
death, which took place in 1607, he married Catha- 
rine Heyns. Quentin is believed by some to have 
studied under Dierick Bouts, who was town painter 
at Louvain ; but dates do not favour this theory, 
for Bouts died in 1475. In 1491 Massys settled at 
Antwerp, where he joined the Painters' Guild, and 
rapidly became famous. In 1508 he painted the 
' Descent from the Cross ' for the chapel of the 
Joiners' Company in Antwerp Cathedral. It is 
now in the Museum at Antwerp. Massys received 
300 florins for his work, but it was sold in 1580 to 
the magistrates of Antwerp for 1500 florins. 
Massys died at Antwerp in 1531, leaving a large 
family. Three of his sons were painters (see 
Massys, Coenelis and Jan). The following are 
some of his principal works : 

119 



Illast 



A BIOGRAPHICAL DICTIONARY OF 



master 



Amsterdam. Museum, Virgin and Child. 
Autwerp. Museum, Head of Christ. {Similar to 

the National Gallery picture.) 
„ „ Head of the Virgin. (Similar 

to the National Gallery pic- 
ture. ) 
„ „ The Magdalen. 

„ „ Money-Ohanger. 

„ „ Head of Christ. 

„ „ Descent from the Cross; a 

triptych. 
Basle. Portrait of a Man. 

Berlin. Museum. Madonna and Child. 

„ „ St. Jerome in his Cell. 

Brussels. Gallery. The History of St. Anne. 

Cassel. Gallery. Old Man and Courtezan. 

Dresden. Gallery. The Banker. 

Florence. Vffiei. St. Jerome. 

„ „ Portrait of Massys and his 

Wife. 
„ „ Portrait of a Man. 

Frankfort. Gallery. Portrait of Kuipperdolling. 

London. Nat. Gallery. Salvator Mundi and the Virgin 

Mary. 
Longford Castle. Portrait of Egidius. 

Louvain. St. Peter's. Holy Family. Quinte Metsys, 

SCEEEP DEES A° 1509. 

Madrid. Gallery. The Village Doctor. 

„ „ The Saviour. 

Naples. Adoration of the Magi. 

Paris. Zouvre. Banker and his Wife. Quintin 

MaTST'S SOHILDEJt. 1518. 

Petersburg. Virgin and Child. 

Rome. Fal. Doria. Parable of the Unjust Steward. 

Stockholm. Gallery. The Usurers. 

Turin. Virgin and Saviour. 

Venice. Christ before Pilate. 

Vienna. Belvedere. Lucretia. 

„ Liechtenstein Coll. S. Jerome. QuiNTiN Masts p. 
1513. 
Windsor. Castle. The Two Misers. 

MAST, Herman. See Van der Mast. 

MASTELLETTA, II. See Donducci. 

MASTER A. D. F., The, was probably a painter 
of the Austrian school about 1611, and is known 
by an altar-piece, now in the Belvedere at Vienna, 
representing St. Jerome, with scenes from his life ; 
on the inner side of the laterals are the three Fathers 
of the Church, the Emperor Henry the Saint, St. 
Elizabeth, and the Queen of Hungary. It is signed 
AD Flbn. 

MASTER B. M., The, was a pupil and imitator 
of Schongauer. We have nine plates by him, 
among them : 

The Judgment of Solomon. 

St. John in Patmos. 

A ' Riposo.' 

A Pieti. 

Madonna and Child in a Landscape. 

St. Barbara. 

MASTER C. T., The. See Anthoniszoon, Cor- 
nelis. 

MASTER E. S., or ' Master of 1466,' a prolific 
engraver, whose name is unknown, but by many 
is supposed to be Erhardt Schon. He was a 
German, and judging from the dates on. his plates, 
was born in the early part of the 15th century. 
He is supposed to have travelled through 
Switzerland, and worked a long time at the Court 
of Burgundy. Bartsch names 136 plates from his 
hand, among which there are scenes from the Old 
Testament, scenes from the hfe of Christ, the 
apostles and saints, &o. Among his most cele- 
brated plates are : 

The Baptism. 

The Nativity of Christ. 

The Judgment of Solomon. 

The Creation. 

Virgin and Child. 
120 



MASTER F. V. B., The. See Bocholt, Pkanz 
von. 

MASTER J, M. S., probably identical with 
Mabdse (Gossaet, Jan, q. v.). 

MASTER L. C. z. of 1492, The, seems to have 
been influenced by M. Schongauer. We have ten 
plates by him, of which the best is a ' Christ enter- 
ing Jerusalem.' 

MASTER M. Z., The, was a miniaturist in the 
latter part of the 15th century, who painted under 
the influenc&of Wolgemuth. 

MASTER N. D. B. of 1544, The, engraved 
' Cupids at Play,' after Raphael. 

MASTER, Wy., The, an engraver of the Nether- 
lands in the 15th century, executed sixty-one plates, 
among which are a ' Sanota Veronica ' and a 
Gothic Fountain. 

MASTER OF 1423, The, is the autlfor of the 
wood-out of ' St. Christopher with the Child Jesus,' 
which was found in the Carthusian monastery at 
Buchsheim, and is the earliest wood-cut but one 
known. It is now in possession of Lord Spencer. 

MASTER OF 1437, The, painted a 'St. Sebastian.' 

MASTER OF 1439, The, executed two astrono- 
mical plates for the Calendar of John de Gamundia. 

MASTER OF 1454, The, executed a wood-cut of 
' St. Bernard.' 

MASTER OP 1461, The, prepared two wood-cuts 
for a table of the golden numbers. They were 
found in the Buchsheim monastery. 

MASTER OF 1464, The, was an excellent en- 
graver of the Lower Rhine. There are by him : 

The Wheel of Fortune. 
The Judgment of Paris. 
The Fencing-room. 
St. Jerome. 
The Alphabet in Figures. 

MASTER OF 1480, The, was a Dutch engraver, 
who worked in the style of the Van Dycks. His 
plates are very rare. The Cabinet at Amsterdam 
has the best collection. Among them are : 

A Young Man struck by Death. 

St. .James the Less. 

Elizabeth and Zachariah receiving Mary. 

St. PhiUp. 

The Peasant with the Shield. 

St. Bartholomew. 

Woman riding on a Man. 

St. George and the Dragon. 

MASTER OF 1482, The, an unknown engraver, 
by whom we have : 
Christ on the Cross. 
The Power of Death. 
A Woman with a Roll of Ribbon, 

MASTER OF 1515, The, was the engraver of : 

Scenes in the Life of Hercules. 
The Death of Cleopatra. 
The Fight of the Tritons. 
Various Cornices and Entablatures. 

Another ' Master ' of the same year executed 
thirty-six plates, including : 

Mary and Joseph adoring the Child. 
Pope Julius II. 1512. 
Soliman II. 1526. 

MASTER OF the ANCHOR, The, engraver of 
five very rare plates, representing scenes from the 
Bible. His mark was an anchor between £ and R. 

MASTER OF (BOIRSERIIS) BARTHOLOMEW, 
also called The Master of the Altar of St. 
Thomas, and of the Altar of the Cross, a 
painter of the school of Cologne, working between 
1490 and 1500. In style his work is not unlike 



70.. of the Bird 



PAmTERS AND ENGRAVERS. 



m. of the Shuttle 



that of Lucas van Leyden. Among his pictures 
■we may name : 

Munich. St. Bartholomew with SS. Agnes 

and Cecilia. 
„ St. Christina and St. James the 

Less. 
„ St. John the Evangelist and St. 

Margaret. 

MASTER OF THE BIRD. See Del Pohto. 

MASTER OF THE BOCCACCIO, The. In an 
edition of a Latin work by Boccaccio, entitled 
'De Casibus illustrium Virorum et Mulierum,' 
published at the end of the 16th century, there 
are nine engravings by an unknown Dutch artist, 
which are superior to the works of Israel von 
Meckenen or Martin Sohongauer. There is a copy 
of this book in the British Museum, and another 
in the Fitzwilliam Museum at Cambridge. See 
essay by Mr. Sidney Colvin in ' L'Art,' No. 177. 

MASTER OF THE CADUOEUS. See Barbaej. 

MASTER G. A. with the CALTHROP, an 
unknown engraver who flourished in the latter 
part of the 14th century, and engraved architectural 
ornaments. 

MASTER OF THE CANDLESTICK. See Hopfek, 
Jan. 

MASTER OF THE COMPASS, an Italian en- 
graver, of whom Brulliot mentions a ' Young Man 
and Pedestal, and landscape in the background.' 

MASTER OF THE CRAB, The, probably identical 
with Fhans CRABBE, whom see. 

MASTER OP THE DAYS of CREATION, The, 
an engraver, worked probably about 1485, in the 
Netherlands. He is known only by his plates of 
the ' Seven Days of Creation,' three of which are 
to be met with as under : 

Berlin. Soyal Coll. The Fifth Day, with the creation 

of the animals and birds. 
Dresden. Cab. of ) The Second Day, with the fall of 

Engravings, j Lucifer. 
Wiirzhurg. The Day of Best. 

MASTER OF THE DEATH of MARY, The, 
who was instructed by the Master of the Holy 
Family (so called from his painting principally 
Holy Families), was a painter of Cologne. His 
chief performance is in the Pinakothek at Munich ; 
it represents ' The Death of the Virgin.' To this 
painter, who may have died about 1530, are 
attributed : 

Dresden. Gallery. Two paintings representing the 

Adoration of the Magi. 
Stuttgart. Gallery. The Descent of the Holy Ghost. 
Vienna. Belvedere. Mary with the Child and the 
Eosary. 
„ „ The Child with the Cherries, and 

the Holy Family. 
„ Academy. The same. 

" -^'S^'iTwoportraits. 1538. 

He had several disciples, among whom we know 
by name only Bartolomaus de Bruyn, whose works 
are dated up to 1566. 

MASTER OP THE DIE, The, erroneously called 
Beatricius, studied under Marc-Antonio, and 
flourished in 1532 — 33. Among his plates we may 
name: 

The Portrait of Pope Julius III. ; very rare. 
Joseph sold by his Brethren ; after Raphael. 
Christ carrying the Cross. 
Abraham and the three Angels ; after Titian. 
Thirty-two plates of the Fable of Psyche and Apuleius ; 
after Coxcie. 



MASTER OF THE FIGHTING-COCKS. See 

SOYE. 

MASTER OF THE FLAGS, The, so called from 
the scrolls with texts which occur in his plates. He 
flourished about 1464. There are by him : 

An Alphabet. 1464. (A specimen of a portion of this 
is to be seen at the Vienna Court Library, and of the 
remainder in the Dresden Cabinet, where also are the 
following) : 

The Annunciation. 
The Family of St. Anne. 
Samson and Delilah. 
Christ and St. Christopher. 

MASTER OP THE KEY. See Cobona, Jacob 
Lucius. 

MASTER OF THE KNOT. See Garnieb, Noel. 

MASTER of LEISBORN, The, is the name 
given to an unidentified artist of Westphalia, who 
was painting in the year 1465 for the Benedictine 
abbey of Leisbom, near Munster. He was the 
most important of the Westphalian masters of the 
15th century. His principal work was the 'Cruci- 
fixion ' which hung over the high altar of the 
second convent church at Leisborn. It was sold 
and divided on the establishment of the kingdom 
of Westphalia by Napoleon in 1807. Some of 
the pieces have disappeared, but a good many are 
still in existence. Two panels, each with three 
saints, are in the National Gallery. They are 
painted on canvas primed with gesso, and stretched 
over panels. 

MASTER of the LOCUST, The, was so called 
from the locust which accompanies his monogram 
on a plate of the ' Holy Family,' which was copied 
by Albreoht Diirer, Israel von Meckenen, and 
Marc-Antonio, with the omission of the monk 
and the book at the feet of Mary. He has also 
left a ' Madonna and Child,' and a few scenes from 
a ' Dance of Death.' 

MASTER of the LYVERSBERG PASSION, 
The, is so called from a series of pictures which are 
now in the Wallraf Richartz Museum at Cologne, 
but were formerly in the possession of Councillor 
Lyversberg. They were painted between 146.3 
and 1490. A series of scenes from the life of the 
Virgin at Munich are, however, of greater merit 
than these title works. The Munich Gallery pos- 
sesses a large number of pictures by this master 
and his scholars. He was formerly erroneously 
identified with Israel von Meckenen and the Meister 
von Werden. In a ' Presentation in the Temple ' 
the National Gallery possesses a good example of 
(118 d.rt 

MASTER WITH the NAME of JESUS, The, was 
an engraver who flourished at Rome between 1556 
and 1572. Among his plates are : 

The going out of Noah from the Ark. 

The Annunciation. 

The Holy Family. 

Virgin and Child. 

Diana and Actseon. 

Pan and Pomona. 

View of the Coliseum. 

MASTER OF the PACK of CARDS, The, a 
clever artist who engraved a pack of twenty-flve 
cards with figures of Christ, of the Madonna, and 
of various animals. 

MASTER OP THE PICKLOCK. See Thufel. 

MASTER OF the RAT-TRAP. See Dati. 

MASTER OF THE SHUTTLE. See Koln, Johann 

VON. 

121 



M. of the Sibyl 



A BIOGRAPHICAL DICTIONARY OF 



IMCatham 



MASTER OF THE SIBYL, The, was an engraver 
of some ability who has left seven plates, the best 
of which are : 

The Sibylla Tiburtina before Augustus. 
The Virgin Reading. 
A Chess-player. 

MASTER OP THE SIGNS of ST. ANTHONY. 
See Anthoniszoon, Cornelis. 

MASTER OF THE SPARROW. See Passerotti. 

MASTER OF THE STAR. See Star van Dirk. 

MASTER OF THE TAROTS, The, engraved 
seventy-two excellent card-plates. He was a native 
of Cologne, and flourished from about 1461 to 1483. 

MASTER OF THE TREFOIL. See Thdfel. 

MASTER OF THE TWELVE APOSTLES, The, 
the painter of a picture of the twelve apostles, 
now in the old Pinakothek at Munich, where it is 
classed in the school of the Master of the Lyvers- 
berg Passion. 

MASTER OF THE TWO CROSSED ANCHORS, 
an unknown engraver to whom the date 1672 is 
assigned. 

MASTER OF THE UNICORN. See Duvet, 
Jean. 

MASTER OF WERDEN, an old German histori- 
cal painter, who flourished about 1480. He is so 
called because many of his works were painted 
for the abbey of Werden near Dusseldorf . 

MASTER OF THE WINE- VAT. See Weiner, 
Hans. 

MASTROLEO, Giuseppe, painter, was a native 
of Naples and pupil of P. de Matteis. He painted 
historical pictures, and died in 1744. 

MASTURZO, Maezio, a native of Naples, 
flourished about 1670. He was a pupil of A. 
Falcone and Salvator Rosa, and accompanied the 
latter to Rome. He painted landscapes, battles, 
and historical subjeote. 

MASUCCI, Agostino, was born at Rome in 1691, 
and was the last scholar of Carlo Maratti. The 
subjects he usually treated were, for the most part, 
Holy Families and scenes from the life of the Virgin. 
Of his works in the churches and public edifices at 
Rome, the best, perhaps, are his ' St. Anna ' in the 
church Al Nome di Maria, and a ' Holy Family ' 
in Santa Maria Maggiore. But his most consider- 
able work is his ' St. Bonaventura,' at Urbino. 
He also executed a number of works for the King 
of Portugal. He died in 1758. J. Beham, J. 
Frey, and others have engraved after him. His 
son and pupil Lorenzo died in 1772. 

MATARANA, BartolomA, a Spanish painter of 
Valencia, who flourished early in the 17th century, 
and is known only by his frescoes in the college 
chapel of Corpus Christi, representing various 
biblical and legendary histories. Matarana re- 
ceived for the whole 5879 crowns. Oean Ber- 
mudez praises his colouring. 

MATENARE, Jacques, a French historical 
painter, who was born at St. Omer, and died in 
1577. 

MATEOS, Jean, a Spanish painter who 
flourished in 1665, and was one of the founders 
of the Academy of Seville. 

MATH AM, Adriaen, the third son and a pupil 
of Jacobus Matham, was born at Haarlem, prob- 
ably about 1608. In 1640 he visited Morocco 
in the suite of an embassy from the States of 
Holland, and did some work there. Five plates 
representing episodes of the reception are extant. 
An account of the journey is in the library at 

122 



Vienna. Between 1624 and 1627 Matham was at 
Haarlem, but in 1646 he was settled at the Hague, 
and a member of the St. Luke's Guild there. He 
worked entirely with the graver, in a style 
resembling that of J. de Qheyn the elder. The 
following are his best prints : — • 
portraits. 

James Graham, Marquis of Montrose. 

Peter Bor Christiaensz, Historiaa ; after F. Hals. 

D. Sibrandiis Sixtius Oistervirius ; after N. Moyaeii. 

SUBJECT pictures. 
The Golden Age ; after H. Goltzius. 1620. 
An old Man caressing a Woman, to whom he presents 

his Purse ; after the same. 
Two Beggars, the Man playing on a Viol, the Woman 

singing ; after A. van der Venne. 
A Combat of six grotesque Figures ; after the same. 

MATHAM, Jacobus, a Dutch engraver, who was 
also a painter and designer, was bom at Haarlem 
in 1571. He was the son-in-law of Hendrik Golt- 
zius, by whom he was instructed in the art ; and, 
by his advice, went to Italy, where he engraved 
several plates after the works of the most eminent 
Italian masters. On his return to Holland he 
worked under the eye of Goltzius, and executed a 
great variety of prints, after the ablest painters of 
the Low Countries. In 1600 he entered the Guild, 
of which in 1605 he became the president. He 
died at Haarlem in 1631. He worked entirely 
with the graver. He sometimes marked his prints 
with Math. Inu., J. Math, inv., Af /e., or a mono- 
gram. He painted the portraits of Dukes Wilhelm 
and Johann Wilhelm of Cleve, both of which were 
engraved by Swanebui-g. The following are his 
principal engravings : 

portraits. 

Philip William, Prince of Orange ; after M. Mierevelt. 

Henry of Nassau, Prince of Orange. 1610. 

Bust of Philip Winghius, inscribed Renricus Goltzius 

Amicities ergo deli'mahat Rovke. 
' Michel Angelus Buonarrotus.' 
Abraham Bloemaert ; after Paul Moreelse. 

SUBJECTS AFTER ITALIAN MASTERS. 
The Holy Family, with St. Anne ; after Raphael. 
Mount Parnassus, with ApoUo and the Muses; after 

the same. 
The Holy Family, with St. Catharine; after Titian. 

1592. 
The Alliance of Venus with Bacchus and Ceres ; after 

the same. 
The Visitation of the Virgin ; after Salviati. 
Christ washing the Feet of His Disciples ; after Taddeo 

Zuccaro. 
Christ praying on the Mount ; after the same. 
The Nativity ; after the same. 
The Assumption of the Virgin ; after the same. 
The Adoration of the Kings ; after Fed. Zuccaro. 
Christ curing the Sick ; after the same. 
Christ raising the Widow's Son ; after the same. 
The Visitation of the Virgin ; after Paolo Veronese. 

SUBJECTS AFTER GOLTZIUS. 
The Fall of our first Parents. 
The Visitation of the Virgin to St. Elizabeth. 
The Crucifixion, with the Virgin and St. John. 
Christ appearing to Magdalene. 1602. 
Christ with the Disciples at Emmaus. 
The Loves of the Gods, Jupiter and Europa, Apollo 

and Leucothoe, Mars and Venus, and Hercules and 

Deianira ; four plates. 
Perseus and Andromeda. 1597. 
The Four Seasons ; in four circular plates. 1589. 
Faith, Hope, and Charity. 1590. 
The seven Cardinal Virtues ; in seven plates. 
The seven Mortal Sins ; in seven plates. 
The Type of Human life ; in three plates. 1592; scarce. 



nCatham 



PAINTERS AND ENGRAVERS. 



Iffatliisseiis 



SUBJECTS AFTER GERMAN AND DUTCH MASTERS. 
Abraham sending away Hagar; after Ah. Bloemaert, 
The Annunciation ; after the same. 
The Adoration of the Shepherds ; after the same. 
Jupiter and Danae ; after the same. 
Cupid and Psyche ; after the same. 
Samson and Delilah ; after Eulens. 
The dead Christ, with the Marys ; after Jer. Franck. 
The Crucifixion ; after Albrecht Diirer ; scarce. 
Venus asleep, surprised by Satyrs ; after Eottenhamer. 
A set of five prints of Fruit-pieces, and the luteriors 
of Kitchens; after Fieter A arisen ; scarce. 

MATHAM, Jan, painter, was the son of Jacobus 
Matham, and was born at Haarlem. He was a 
member of the Guild of St. Luke in 1628, and 
died young in 1643. 

MATHAM, Thbodor, the second son and pupil 
of Jacobus Matham, was born at Haarlem in 1669. 
After engraving a few plates in his own country 
he went to Italy, where he entered the school of 
Comelis Bloemaert ; in conjunction with Michiel 
Natalia, Renier de Persyn, and others, he engraved 
the statues in the Palazzo Giustiniani. On his 
return to Holland he engraved a variety of plates, 
principally portraits, which are executed with the 
graver, occasionally assisted with the point. As a 
painter he worked for the Duke of Savoy at one of 
his palaces near Turin. He died about 1677. He 
usually signed his plates with his initials T. M., 
with the addition of fecit or sculpsit. We have 
the following prints by him : 

PORTRAITS. 
Michel le Blon, Agent to the Crown of Sweden ; after 

Van Dycle. 
Joost van de Vondel, Dutch Poet ; after Sandrart. 
D. Gerardus Vossius, Cauonicus Cantuarieusis ; aftei' 

Sandrart. 
Philip 'William, Count Palatine of the Bhine ; after 

J. Spilherg. 
Wolfgang William, Count Palatine ; after the same. 

SUBJECTS. 
The Virgin and Infant, with St. John ; after Bassano. 
The Holy Family ; after J. SandraH. 
Diana and Acteon ; Th. Matham fee. 
The Descent from the Cross, with the Marys, St. John, 
and Joseph of Arimathea ; after Gerardus Leydanus ; 
fine. 
MATHEI, Paul de. See Matthai. 
MATHES, Christoph Georg, (Matthes,) a 
painter and engraver, born at Berlin in 1738. He 
was a pupil of B. Rode, and painted portraits, 
landscapes, and architectural views. He engraved : 
The Prodigal Son ; after Dietrich. 
Portrait of P. P. Werner. 

MATHES, NicoLAUS Christian, (Matthes,) en- 
graver and draughtsman, was born at Hamburg in 
1729. He went to Nuremberg and married a niece 
of J. G. Prestel. Lichtensteger engraved after 
him a portrait of P. G. Baier. His wife, Elizabeth 
Christina, born at Nuremberg in 1749, and died 
about 1800, painted flowers and birds. 

MATHEUS, — , a French engraver, resided in 
Paris about the year 1620. He was chiefly em- 
ployed by the booksellers, and engraved several 
plates of frontispieces, and other book ornaments, 
which are, for the most part, from his own designs. 
We may name the following by him : 

The Adoration of the Mag^ ; from his own designs. 
The Frontispiece to a ' General History of France ' ; 

published at Paris in 1 619. 
A Frontispiece to the ' Works of Thomas Aquinas.' 

1622. 
A Frontispiece to 'Amours d'Endymion et de la Lune.' 

1624. 



MATHEY, C. The name of this engraver is 
afiBxed to the portrait of Arcangelo Corelli, the 
musician, after Howard. 

MATHIAS, Gabriel, exhibited in London in 
1761 and following years, but being unsuccessful 
in art he obtained an appointment in the Privy 
Purse Office. One of his pictures, ' A Sailor splicing 
a rope,' is engraved by McArdell. He died very 
old in 1804. 

MATHIEU, A., a French engraver, flourished 
about the year 1656. We have by him some 
spirited etchings, completed with the burin, in a 
style somewhat resembling the works of Callot, for 
a thin folio volume entitled ' Les Armes triomphantes 
de son Altesse Monseigneur le Due d'Esperon pour 
le sujet de son heureuse entree, faite dans la ville 
de Dijon.' 1656. 
MATHIEU, Anna Kosinb. See Lisczewska. 
MATHIEU, Antoinb, born in England in 1632, 
vrorked as a portrait and historical painter in Paris, 
Dijon, and other French towns. He died in London 
in 1673. 

MATHIEU, AuGUSTB, a French painter of in- 
teriors, was born at Dijon in 1807, and died in 
1866. 

MATHIEU, David, a portrait painter, born at 
Berlin in 1697, was a pupil of J. Werner 'the 
younger.' He married Anna Rosine Lisozewska. 
His sons, Georg David and Hbinrich Freidrich 
Leopold, born at Berlin in 1737 and 1750, were 
instructed by their mother. Georg David settled 
in Sweden, where he died in 1776. Heinrich died 
at Gottingen in 1778. 

MATHIEU, Jean, (or Matthieu,) an engraver, 
born in 1749, was a pupil of Longueil. He was 
one of the artists employed in the ' Voyage de la 
Grece,' by Choiseul Gouffier, in the ' Voyages des 
Royaumes de Naples et de Sicile,' by St Non, and 
'Voyage d'Espagne,' by Laborde. Some of his 
engravings are ia the Poullain Cabinet and in the 
'Galerie de Florence.' He engraved ' La Vierge 
aux Candelabres,' after Raphael ; and subjects 
after Carraoci, Claude, G. Poussin, F. Mola, K. du 
Jardin, J. Vernet, Ruisdael, and Wouwerraan. He 
died at Fontainebleau in 1815. 

MATHIEU, Lambert Joseph, a Belgian his- 
torical, genre, and portrait painter, born at Bure 
(Namur) in 1804. He studied at Antwerp under 
Van Bree, and settled at Louvain, where he became 
Director of the Academy. He died in 1861. 
Amongst his chief works are : 
Death of Mary of Burgundy. (Brussels Museum.) 
The Entombment. (The same.) 
Virgin and Child. 

Young Venetian Girl in a Balcony. 
MATHIEU, Pierre, a portrait and historical 
painter, son of Antoine Mathieu, was born at Dijon. 
In 1708 he became a member of the French 
Academy, and died in 1740. 

MATHILDE, Princess of Bavaria, and Grand 
Duchess of Hesse, painted landscapes early in the 
present century. She was a pupil of D. Quaglio. 
At Munich are views of Puzzuoli near Ischia, and 
Nymphenbourg near Munich by her. She was born 
in 1813, and died in 1862. 

MATHISSENS, Abraham, (Matthyssbns, or 
Mattys,) a Flemish painter, was born at Antwerp 
in the year 1581. He was a pupil of Tobias van 
Haecht. According to M. Descamps, he was a 
reputable painter both of history and landscapes. 
In the cathedral at Antwerp is a picture by him 
of the ' Death of the Virgin ' ; in the church of the 



SEaton 



A BIOGRAPHICAL DICTIONARY OF 



Hattioli 



Recollets, an altar-piece representing the 'Virgin 
and Infant Saviour with St. Francis,' and in the 
Dresden Gallery » picture of still life by him, 
which is signed Broder Matthisen fecit, Anno 1641. 
He died in 1649. His son, Balthasae, was also 
a painter. 

MATON, B., (Matton, Mathon,) was a Dutch 
painter, who copied the works of Gerard Dou and 
Willem Mieris. He was particularly successful in 
his copies of Dou's candle-light pieces. No par- 
ticulars of his life are recorded, but from the 
appearance of his works he seems to have been 
contemporary with Willem Mieris. His pictures are 
of small dimensions, and on panel. 

MATSIJS. See Massys. 

MATTEI, SiLVESTEO, historical painter, was 
born at Ascoli in 1663. He was a pupil of C. 
Maratti. He died in 1739. 

MATTEIS, Paolo db, a painter and engraver, 
was born at Cilento, near Naples, in 1662, and, 
according to Lanzi, was the most celebrated scholar 
of Luca Giordano and J. Maria Morandi. He first 
followed the style of Giordano, whose rapidity of 
execution he appears to have largely acquired. He 
worked at Rome for Popes Clement XI. and XII. 
and Benedict XIII. In the early part of his life 
he went to France, where he was employed for 
three years in some considerable works for the 
court. He was invited to Rome by Benedict XIII., 
where he painted several pictures for la Minerva 
and the church of the Ara Coeli. At Genoa, in 
the church of S. Girolamo, are an ' Immaculate 
Conception,' with a glory of angels, and ' St. 
Jerome appearing to S. Saverio in a dream.' 
At Naples he painted for churches (especially 
in San Fernando) and galleries, and was em- 
ployed in Monte Casino in 1692 and 1706-9. He 
painted the great cupola of Gesu Nuovo in sixty- 
five days. He died at Naples in 1728. He signed 
his works with P. M. J-, Pan de Mat. Inv. Aquila, 
J. DaulW, and others engraved after him. Among 
his works are : 

Milan. Museum. Acis and Galatea. 

Munich. Gallery. Death of Cato of Utica. 

Eistoja. Church of St. } St. Gaetauo and a Christ in 

Faul. J glory. 
Vienna. Gallery. Meeting of Herminia and the 

Shepherds. 

MATTENHEIMER, Andreas Theodoe, was 
bom at Bamberg in 1752. His father was a 
gardener, and after his death he received his first 
instruction from a painter at Waldsassen. After 
that he went to Munich, and then to Berlin and 
Dresden. He afterwards returned to Bamberg, and 
worked with Scheubel at altar-pieces for different 
churches. He also painted several altar-pieces on 
his own account. He died in 1810. His son 
Joseph, who studied under his father, and died 
young in 1802, painted portraits. 

MATTENHEIMER, Carl, son of Andreas 
Mattenheimer, was born at Bamberg in 1791. He 
was instructed by his father, and also studied at 
Vienna and Munich. He remained in Munich 
some years, and painted several portraits. In 
1820 he became teacher of drawing at Zwei- 
briicken, and later on inspector of the Gallery at 
Bamberg. He died in 1852. 

MATTENHEIMER, Theodor, was born at 
Bamberg in 1787. He was instructed in painting 
by his father, Andreas Theodor Mattenheimer, 
and afterwards attended the Academy at Munich, 
and in 1811 that at Vienna. Subsequently he 



became inspector, conservator, and director of 
several galleries, and distinguished himself by his 
paintings of still-life. Of his portraits those of the 
Duchess Mary Anne and the Queen of Prussia are 
noteworthy. He successfully restored several 
paintings in the churches at Munich, in which city 
he died in 1860. 

MATTEO and his pupil Aloisb, were miniature 
painters who lived in the 16th century. The first 
was a native of Terranova, Calabria, and studied 
at Rome ; the second was born at Naples. They 
painted duiing 1607-23 the mass-books in Monte 
Casino at Naples, and in 1526-27 the mass-books 
at Perugia. 

MATTEO Dl GIOVANNI (di Bahtolo), called 
Matted da Siena, the son of a tinman of Borgo 
San Sepolcro, was born not later than 1436. He 
was considered one of the best Sienese painters of 
his time. The ' Madonna della Neve ' (the ' Madonna 
in the Snow '), painted for the brotherhood of that 
name at Siena, is a fine example of his art ; it is 
signed "Opus Matei di Senis," and dated 1477. 
Matteo painted several pictures representing the 
' Murder of the Innocents,' two of which are still 
preserved in Siena. A third is in the Naples 
Gallery. A mosaic by him of the same subject 
is on the floor of the Siena Cathedral ; a rub- 
bing from it is in the South Kensington Museum. 
An 'Assumption of the Virgin,' in the National 
Gallery, is a first-rate specimen of Matteo da Siena. 
He is also represented in the same collection by a 
small 'Ecce Homo,' which was long ascribed to 
Niccolo da Foligno. Matteo died in 1496. 

MATTEO DA SIENA, called Matteino, land- 
scape painter, was a native of Siena, and flourished 
in the 16th century. He lived chiefly at Rome, 
where he painted the landscapes in the pictures of 
Circignano. He died at Rome. 

MATTEDS, CoENELis. The name of this artist 
is affixed to a spirited etching of a landscape, with 
a ruin in the background ; it is executed in a style 
resembling that of Herman Swanevelt. 

MATTHAI, JoHANN Peiedeich, was born at 
Meissen in 1777, and studied at the Academy at 
Dresden. He went subsequently to Vienna, where 
he worked under Fiiger, and afterwards to Florence 
and Rome. He died at Vienna in 1845. Matthai 
was director of the Dresden Gallery and Academy 
of Art. Among his best scholars were Rietschel 
and Steinle. Two of his best pictures, the ' Death 
of Codrus ' and the ' Death of .Slgistheus,' are in 
the Gallery over which he himself presided. His 
son, Heinrich Matthai, acquired some distinction 
as a landscape painter. He died at Dresden in 1880. 

MATTHIEW. See Mathiett. 

MATTIOLI, Gieolamo, a painter, born in the 
neighbourhood of Bologna about 1550. He studied 
first under Sabbatini, and then under the Carracci. 
He died young. 

MATTIOLI, LoDovico, was bom at Guisa, near 
Crevalcore, in Piedmont, in 1662, and leamed design 
in the school of Carlo Cignani, with the intention 
of becoming a painter, but the success of some 
essays in etching induced him to devote himself 
principally to that art. He died at Bologna in 
1747. He painted several landscapes in fresco 
at the Orphanage of San Bartolommeo in that 
city. We have a variety of etchings by him, 
after the Bblognese masters, as well as from his 
own designs ; among them the following : 

The Annunciation ; after Lod. Carracci j scarce. 
The Oiroumcisiou ; after the same. 



Uatton 



PAINTERS AND ENGRAVERS. 



Maurer 



The Nativity ; after Ayost. Carracci. 
Christ and the Woman of Samaria ; after Annib. Car- 
racci. 
The Death of St. Joseph ; after Franceschini. 
The Presentation in the Temple ; after G. M. Crespi. 
The Martyrdom of St. Peter ; after the same. 
Ecce Homo ; after Van Dyck. 
Several Landscapes ; after Guei'cino. 

MATTON, B. SeeMATON. 
MATURING, B. C, was born at Florence in 
1490. He had the advantage of studying under 
Raphael, and was employed by him in ornamenting 
the Loggie of the Vatican. He was the instructor 
of Polidoro da Caravaggio, in conjunction with 
whom he was much employed in ornamenting the 
exterior of Roman palaces. One of the most cele- 
brated of the united works of the two painters was 
the ' Death of the Children of Niobe,' at the Mas- 
chera d'Oro. The sacking of Rome by the Spaniards 
in 1527, separated the friends, and interrupted their 
work. Maturino did not long survive that event, 
and is said to have died of the plague when he 
was little more than thirty-seven years of age. 
His works are signed B. G- M. The greater part 
of his work done in collaboration with Polidoro 
has long disappeared, but most of it has been 
engraved by Cherubini Alberti, Pietro Santi Bartoli, 
and others. The ' Story of Perseus and Andro- 
meda' is still to be seen in the summer-house of 
the Palazzo del Bufalo. 

MATVEIEPP, Feodoe Miohailowitsch, born at 
St. Petersburg in 1758, stayed at Rome in the early 
part of the 19th century, and was one of the rnost 
distinguished Russian landscape painters of histime. 
He died there in 1826. His chief productions are 
in the Hermitage at St. Petersburg. 

MATVLEFF, Ivan, a portrait painter, was born 
at Novgorod in 1704. He was sent by Peter the 
Great in 1719 to Holland, and went afterwards 
to Rome, where he passed some time. He died 
at St. Petersburg in 1736. 

MAUBERT, Jacques, portrait painter, and a 
pupil of ' Magdalen ' Smith, was probably a native 
of France. According to Lord Orford, he resided 
in England in the reign of George I. He distin- 
guished himself by copying all the portraits of 
English poets he could meet with. He painted 
Dryden, Wycherley, Congreve, and some others, 
from the life, and the first of these three portraits 
is in the National Portrait Gallery. He died in the 
year 1746. 

MAUBEUGE. See Gossaeet. 

MAUCH, Eduard, engraver and designer, was 
born at Geisslingen in 1800. His artistic education 
was received in Ulm and Stuttgart. Most of his 
life was passed in forwarding the cause of art in 
his native district. In 1840 he published, in con- 
junction with Dr. Gruneisen, ' Ulms Kunstleben in 
Mittelalter.' 

MAUCH, JoHANN Matthaus von, architect, 
designer, engraver, lithographer, &c., was born at 
Ulm in 1792. Most of his life was passed in the 
teaching of the minor arts connected with archi- 
tecture at Munich. He died at Stuttgart in 1856. 
Among his pictorial works we may name a ' View 
of the Bay of Naples, from the top of Vesuvius,' in 
water-colours. 

MAUCOURT, Charles, a portrait painter and 
mezzotint engraver, was born in Germany, and 
resided for several .years in London, practising m 
both oil and water-colours, as well as miniature. 
He belonged to the Incorporated Society of Artists, 
and exhibited from 1761 to 1767. He died in 



London in 1768. Among other prints, he left one 
of ' The Expulsion of the Jesuits from Spain,' 
signed G. Maucourtfec. 

MAUDUIT, Louise Marie Jeanne, a French 
portrait and history painter, was born in Paris in 
1784, and became the wife of Louis Hersent. She 
learnt her art under Meynier. Her death took 
place in 1862. Her chief works are : 

Visit of Louis XIV. when a child to Peter the Great. 
St. Vincent de Paul and Sisters of his Order. 
Henrietta de France. (Portrait.) 

MAULBERTSCH, Anton Franz, (Maulpartsch, 
Madlbetsch,) was born at Langenargen, on the Lake 
of Constance, in 1724. He was instructed by Van 
Roi at Vienna. There are several frescoes by him 
at Inspruok, in the court chapel and rooms of the 
Empress Maria Theresa ; at Dresden, in a chapel 
of the court church, and at Prague in the library, 
these last having been executed in 1794. Of his 
oil-paintings may be mentioned ' Christ on the 
Cross.' He etched several plates, among others 
' The Death of Joseph ' and ' The Quack on the 
Rostrum.' He sometimes signed his works A. M. 
He was a member of the Academy at Berlin, and 
cabinet painter to the court there. He died at 
Vienna in 1796. Alberti, Schmutzer, and others 
have engraved after him. 

MAUPAIN. See Maupin. 

MAUPBRCHl^, Henri, a French painter and 
engraver, was born in Paris in 1602. He painted 
landscapes in a style somewhat like that of Her- 
mann Swanevelt. He was a member of • the 
Academy of Paris, and. became a professor in 1655. 
He died in 1686. In the large room at Fontaine- 
bleau are fourteen landscapes in fresco by him. 
We have fifty-one etchings of his, some of which 
are from his own designs, and others after H. 
Swanevelt. The following may be named : 

A set of six plates of the History ofTobit. 

A set of six plates of the History of the Virgin, from 

the Annunciation till the Flight into Egypt. 
Twelve Landscapes ; after Hermann Sioamvelt. 
Two plates of the Prodigal Son. 
Four Landscapes, with Figures and Euins. 

MAUPIN, Paul, (or Madpain,) according to 
Basan, was a native of Abbeville, and flourished 
about the middle of the 17th century. He executed 
some wood-outs in chiaroscuro, after J. Stella. Basan 
mentions another engraver on wood, of the name 
of Maupain, a relation of the above-mentioned 
artist, but he does not specify any of his works. 

MAURER, Caspar and Domenico, brothers, 
gained great reputation at Munich in the end of 
the 17th and beginning of the 18th centuries for 
their decorative and architectural paintings. 

MAURER, Christoph, (or Muebk,) was born at 
Zurich in 1558. His father, JosiAS Maurer, was a 
painter of some merit, by whom he was instructed 
in the first elements of design, but he afterwards 
studied at Strassburg, under Tobias Stimmer, whose 
style he adopted, and in conjunction with whom 
he published a series of hunting-pieces in 1606. 
He painted a large number of facades with scenes 
from Scripture and Roman history, as well as from 
that of his own country. His portraits in oil are 
little inferior. He died at Winterthur in 1614. 

MAIJRER, Heinkich, a Swiss painter and en- 
graver, was born near Zurich, in 1774. _ He was 
instructed by J. C. Huber, and studied after- 
wards under Dillio at Munich and Granicher at 
Dresden. He died in 1822. 

126 



KCaurer 



A BIOGRAPHICAL DICTIONARY OP 



Mayer 



MAURER, Hubert, historical and genre painter, 
was born at Rattehen, near Bonn, in 1738. His 
parents were poor, and in 1762 he came without 
means to Vienna, where he was instructed in 
painting by Baumgartner and IWeytens. Through 
application and ability he, in 1774, obtained a pen- 
sion for Rome. He remained there four years, and 
became in 1785 a professor and councillor of the 
Academy at Vienna, where he died in 1818. He 
painted a considerable number of altar-pieces and 
portraits, among which are : 

Vienna. Belvedere, Christ receiving Children. 

„ Uofburg Chapel. St. Catharine. 
„ Acad.of Engineers. God the Father in the Clouds. 

MAURER, Jakob, a painter, was born at Schaff- 
hausen in 1732. He studied at the Academy 
of Amsterdam, and painted landscapes, animals, 
portraits, and historical subjects. He lived in 
Holland, where he died in 1780. 

MAURER, J., was a native of Switzerland. He 
came to England about the year 1745, where he 
engraved several views of buildings, &o. in 
London. He also drew largely with the pen. 

MAURER, JosiAS, a portrait and historical 
painter, born at Zurich in 1530. In 1576 he 
engraved on wood a plan of his native town. He 
died in 1580. 

MAURICE, Lonis Joseph, a French historical 
and decorative painter, born at Nancy in 1730. He 
was brought up for the law, but his art tastes 
proved too strong. In 1758 he went to St. Peters- 
burg, where he became principal painter to the 
Empress Elizabeth, and directed the coronation 
f^tes on the accession of Ca/tharine II. On his 
return to Prance he was employed by Marie 
Antoinette in decorative work. He formed a rich 
collection of objects of art. He died in Paris in 
1820. 

MAURICE, Saint. See Saint Maurice. 

MAURIN, Antoine, a French historical painter, 
born at Perpignan in 1793, and died in 1860. 

MAURIN, Nicolas Eustache, a painter, probably 
related to the last-named, was born at Perpignan 
in 1798. He went to Paris, and became a pupil 
of Regnault. He painted portraits and historical 
pictures, among which were: 

Leopold I., King of the Belgians. 

Eleven portraits of the Koyal Family of France. 

Portrait of Charles V. 

Taking of the Louvre. 

MAUS, BuGBKE, a Flemish painter, born at 
Ixelles, near Brussels, in 1847. He painted land- 
scapes and still-life. He died in 1881. 

MAUZAISE, Jean Baptiste, was born at Corbeil, 
Seine et Oise, in 1784, and studied under Vincent. 
He first exhibited in 1812 with an 'Arab bewailing 
the loss of his Horse.' He was a member of the 
Legion of Honour, and died in 1845. He was 
one of the earliest practitioners in lithography. 
Among his paintings are : 

Bordeaux. Museum. The Death of Clorinde. 

Paris. Palais Royal. Lorenzo de' Medici, with his 
Family and the Learned 
Men and Artists at his Court. 

MAWLEY, George, an English landscape 
painter in oil and water-colours, born in London 
in 1838. He studied at Gary's school and in the 
schools of the Academy. His works appeared at 
the Dudley Gallery and the Academy. He died 
in London in 1870. 

126 



MAXWELL, GEORGE; an English landscape 
painter, born in 1768. His works were praised by 
Sir Joshua Reynolds, and were exhibited at the 
Academy in 1787-9, in which latter year Jie died. 

MAY, Jan or Hans. See Vebmeijen. 

MAY, Olivier lb, a landscape and marine 
painter, born at Brussels in 1720. Masquelier and 
others engraved his views. He paid two visits to 
America, and died about 1797. 

MAYER, Bartolomaus, a painter, was born at 
U)m about 1650. None of his paintings are 
known. He died in 1729. 

MAYER, Christian, was born at Vienna in 
1812, and studied the art of engraving under 
Kininger. He died at Vienna in 1870. The best 
of his plates are : 

The Development of the Sciences upon Grecian soil ; 
after RaM^s frieze for the Athejis University. 

Ariadne ; after Eeynolds. 

Madonna ; after Celio Ord. 

The Pursuit of the Christians in the Boman Cata- 
combs J after Eahl. 

lo ; after Correyyio. 

The Four Divisions of the World ; after Rubens, 

Boreas carrying off Orithyia ; after the same, 

MAYER, Fbiedrich, landscape painter, was 
born in 1825, and died in 1875. He painted 
chiefly Alpine scenes. 

MAYER, Johann Alois, was born at Lienz in 
the Tyrol in 1801. He practised for a time as a 
portrait painter at Innspruck. Afterwards he 
went to Munich, and deserted portrait for genre. 
He died in 1831. 

MAYER, Karl, was born at Nuremberg in 1798, 
and died at the same city in 1868. He studied 
under Freiherr Christoph Haller, Priedrich Pleisch- 
raann, and subsequently under Desnoyers and 
Coigny in Paris. He distinguished himself as a 
painter and an engraver on steel, and illustrated a 
number of books, including Schiller's works and 
some almanacs. His best plates are : 

The Good Shepherd ; after Fiihrich. 

Christ on. the Cross ; after Dilrer. 

MAYER, Karl, was born at Vienna in 1810, 
and his father dying soon after his birth, his 
mother supported herself and child upon a very 
small pension. His father's brother taking an 
interest in the orphan, adopted him, and wished 
him to be educated for the service of the Govern- 
ment, but his talent for art was so decided that 
his uncle finally encouraged it, and he was placed 
under Gsellhofer in the Vienna Academy. Karl 
Mayer travelled in various parts of Austria and 
Germany, and acquired the friendship of Schubert 
the composer. In 1834 he settled for a time at 
Munich. 'In 1842, having obtained the prize of 
Rome with his ' Prometheus and Pandora,' he com- 
menced his travels in Italy, and after his return, in 
1846, painted many noticeable pictures. In 1851 
he was elected to the professorship of the smaller 
Academy at Vienna, and was largely employed in 
fresco paintings. In 1873 he fell out of health, 
and received assistance in the form of a pension, 
which he enjoyed until his death in 1876. 

MAYER, Marie Franqoise Constance M. la 
Martiniere, was born in Paris in 1778. She was 
instructed by Sauvde, Greuze, and Prud'hon. She 
exhibited many portraits and other subjects, in 
Prance, from 1800 to 1821, in which year she com- 
mitted suicide through vexation caused by her 
love for Prud'hon. Among her works the most 
popular were : 



Uayno 



PAINTERS AND ENQBAVEBS. 



Hazzoni 



Innocence between Love and Kiches. 

Yeuus and Cupid asleep, caressed and awakened by 

Zephyrs. 
The Torch of Venus. 
The Happy Mother. 
The Abandoned Mother (in the Louvre). 
A Young Naiad repelUng a Troop of Lovers who are 

disturbing her in her retreat. 
AOream of Happiness. 

MAYNO, Fray Juan Bautista, was bom in 
1569, and is said to have been instructed by Greco. 
At an early period of his life he became a Domini- 
can monk ; but this seclusion from the world did 
not prevent the exercise of his talents, and he was 
reputed one of the ablest painters of his time. He 
had the honour of being drawing-master to Philip 
IV., and was employed by him to paint his cele- 
brated battle-piece in the Buen' Betiro, into which 
he has introduced Olivarez animating the troops 
to victory, by showing them the portrait of their 
King Philip. He was also superintendent of the 
paintings in the royal palaces. He died at Milan 
in 1649. Among his paintings we may name : 

Madrid. Museo. The Nativity. 

„ „ The Kesurreofcion. 

„ „ The Descent of the Holy Ghost. 

„ „ The Mystery of the Trinity. 

Toledo. S. Pedro \ „. p . 

„ Cathedral. The History of St. Hdefonso. 

MAYO, Joan db. See Vbrmeijen. 

MAYOR, Barsaby, painter and engraver, who 
flourished in the last half of the 18th century. He 
painted a picture of Wenlock Abbey, engraved by 
Valentine Green. He died in 1774. 

MAYB, Heinrich von, was born at Nuremberg 
in 1806, and after studying in that city under the 
direction of his step-father, went to Munich in 
1825. On accompanying Duke Maximilian on his 
journey to the Bast, he executed several excellent 
genre paintings, some of which are at the Rosen- 
stein near Stuttgart. 

MAYR, JoHANN Ulrioh, (or Mair,) was bom at 
Augsburg in 1630, and died at the same city in 
1704. He was an excellent disciple of Rembrandt 
and Jakob Jordaens, and was most distinguished as 
a painter of portraits, amongst which were Joachim 
von Sandrart and a painting on glass of himself. 
Of his other works we note : 
Augsburg. Anna-kirche. Christ iu Prison. 
Vienna. Belvedere. The Apostle Philip reading in 

a book. 

MAYRHOFER, Johann Nepomhk, flower painter 
and lithographer, was born at Obemeukirchen, in 
Austria, in 1764. He was instructed by Haslinger 
at Linz, and studied afterwards at Munich. He 
was an excellent painter of flowers and fruit, as 
we may see in his ' Flora Monacensis ' (Munich, 
1816—30). He died at Munich in 1832. 

MAZELL, Peter, an English engraver who 
flourished in the second part of the 18th century, 
and worked for Pennant and Boydell, and all the 
engravings in Cordiner's ' Ruins and Romantic 
Prospects in North Britain' (1792) are by him. 

MAZO, Martinez Juan BAutista del. See Del 
Mazo Martinez. 

MAZOT, — , is mentioned by Strutt as an en- 
graver, by whom we have a few indifferent por- 
traits ; among others, that of Christian IV., King 
of Denmark. 

MAZZA, Damiano, was a native of Padua, and 
disciple of Titian. He chiefly resided at Venice, 
where he painted for the churches ; but his most 



celebrated work was his picture of ' Ganymede 
taken up by the Eagle,' in the Casa Sonica at 
Padua. Mazza died young. 

MAZZAEOPPI, Marco, was born at San Ger- 
mane, near Naples, about 1570. His principal 
works are to be found in the Abbey of Mont 
Cassin, near San Germane. He died in 1620. 

MAZZIERI, Antonio di Donnino, according to 
Vasari, was a native of Florence, and a disciple of 
Francia Bigio. He flourished about the year 1520, 
and distinguished himself as a painter of land- 
scapes and battle-pieces, which were well coloured 
and handled with spirit. 

MAZZOCCHI. See Doni, Paolo. 

MAZZOLA, Fran, and Girol., (Mazzoli, or 
Mazzolo.) See Mazzuola. 

MAZZOLA, Giuseppe, was born at Valduggia, in 
Piedmont, in 1748, He formed himselE at first on 
Gaudenzio Ferrari, afterwards on Correggio. By 
the assistance of King Victor Amadeus III. of 
Savoy, he went to Rome in 1774, and studied the 
works of Raphael and Michelangelo. From 1789 
to 1797 he was court painter to his patron. In 
1802 he established himself at Milan, and became 
director of the Gallery there. From 1803 he was 
obliged to paint with the left hand. Mazzola died 
at Milan iu 1838. Among his best paintings are : 

A ' Holy FamUy.' (Brera, Milan.) 

The Ascension of Mary. 

The portrait of King Amadeus III. 

MAZZOLINI, Giov. Bern. See Azzolini. 
MAZZOLINI, LoDOVico, called Mazzolini da 
Fburara and LoDOVico Ferraresb, was born at 
Ferrara about 1481. He was a scholar of Lorenzo 
Costa, and may be placed next after Garofalo 
among the masters of his native town. His pictures 
are even more remarkable than others of their 
school for their architectural backgrounds. Three 
small examples in the National Gallery show this 
tendency in a very marked way. Perhaps Mazzo- 
lini's best picture is the first in the list below. He 
died in 1530. 
Berlin. Museum. Christ and the Doctors. 1524. 

„ „ Holy Family. 

Bologna. Pinacoteca. The Nativity. 

„ „ Go5 the Father. 

Dresden. Gallery. Bcoe Homo. 

Ferrara. Pinacoteca. Virgin adoring the new-born 

Infant. 
Florence. Vfflzi. The Nativity. 

„ „ Holy Family. 

„ „ The Circumcision. 

Hague; Massacre of the Innocents. 1548. 

London. Nat. Gal. Virgin, Child, and Saints. 
„ „ Holy Family. 

„ „ The Woman taken in Adultery. 

Paris. Louvre. Holy Family^ 

„ „ Christ preaching to the Multitude. 

MAZZONI, Cesare Giuseppe, was born at 
Bologna in 1678, and was a scholar of Lorenzo 
Pasinelli, and afterwards of the younger dal Sole. 
There are several of his works in the churches 
and public edifices at Bologna, which prove him to 
'have been a respectable painter of history. He 
died in 1763. His best works are : 

In San Colombano, Bologna, an altar-piece. 

In San Tommaso di Strada Maggiore, a ' Crucifixion.' 

In San Giovanni in Monte, a ' St. Peter delivered from 
Prison.' 

MAZZONI, GiULio, was a native of Piacenza, 
but studied at Rome under Daniele da Volterra, 
and flourished about the year 1568. He is men- 
tioned by Vasari, in the life of that master, as a 

127 



Mazzoui 



A BIOGRAPHICAL DICTIONARY OF 



SCazzuola 



painter of considerable merit. His principal work 
is the ' Four Evangelists ' in the cathedral at 
Piacenza. 

MAZZONI, Sebastiano, was born at- Florence 
about 1615. He removed to Venice, where, after 
a life of some local success, he died near the end 
of the century. 

MAZZDCHELLl, Pietro Francesco, called II 
MoBAzzoNE (MoRANzoNB, Or Marazzone), was born 
at Morazzone, in the Milanese, in 1571, and is 
generally called from the place of his nativity. 
He resided at Rome in the early part of his life, 
where he painted for the church of Santa Maria 
Maddalena al Corso, the 'Assumption of the 
Virgin, with the Apostles,' and for San Silvestro 
in Capite, the ' Adoration of the Magi.' He after- 
wards went to Venice, where he studied the works 
of Titian, Tintoretto, and Paolo Veronese, by which 
he greatly improved his colour; and on going to 
Milan he painted the ' Adoration of the Kings,' for 
the church of Sant' Antonio Abate, in a style so 
superior to the picture of the same subject he had 
painted at Rome, that it appeared to be by a 
different hand. At Como, in the church of San 
Giovanni, is one of his principal works, representing 
'St. Michael discomfiting the rebel Angels.' He 
was employed and patronized by the King of 
Sardinia, by whom he was knighted. In 1626 he 
was invited to Piacenza to paint the great cupola 
of the cathedral, which he only lived to commence. 
He died the same year, and his work was finished 
by Guercino. 

MAZZUOLA, Annibale, a native of Siena, was a 
painter of history. He passed his life in Rome, 
where he died in 1743. 

MAZZUOLA, FiLlPPO, was born at Parma in 
the latter part of the 15th century, and was some- 
times called ' Filippo dall' Erbette,' from a habit he 
had of introducing plants into his pictures. He 
was the father of Parmigiano. The Gallery of 
Parma possesses a ' Virgin and Child, between 
SS. Francis and John the Baptist,' painted by him 
in 1491 ; at the Palazzo Vescovile, in the same 
city, is a ' Baptism of Christ,' dated 1493. In tlie 
year 1500 he completed the 'Dead Christ, with the 
Virgin, and SS. Magdalene, Catharine, Monica, 
AppoUonia, and Barbara,' now in the Naples 
Museum. The Brera, Milan, and the Doria Gallery, 
Rome, both possess portraits of men by Mazzuola. 
His death occurred in 1505. Additional works by 
him are : 

Berlin. Musmm. Virgin and Child between SS. 

Catharine and Chiara. 1502. 
„ Saczynald Coll. Bust of Christ. 1504. 

MAZZUOLA, Francesco, (Mazzola, MAzznoLi, 
Mazzoli, Parmigianino, &c.,) called II Parmigiano, 
was the son of Filippo Mazzuola, and was born at 
Parma in 1504. His father dying when he was 
very young, he was brought up under his uncles, 
MioHELE and Pier Ilario Mazzuola, who taught 
him what they knew of the art, and curious tales 
are told of his precocity. Surrounded by the pro- 
ductions of Correggio, he studied them with 
attention and success. His earliest works were 
entirely in the style of that painter ; among them 
we may name a ' St. Bernardo ' at the Osservanti at 
Parma, and the 'Holy Family' in the collection of 
the Presidente Bertioli. The desire of seeing the 
works of Michelangelo and Raphael led him to 
Rome when he was twenty years of age, and there 
his talents recommended him to the notice of 

128 



Clement VII., for whom he painted a picture of 
the ' Circumcision ' for the palace of the Vatican. 
He improved his taste by the help of Raphael, and 
his energy by that of Buonarroti. Vasari reports 
that it was said at Rome " that the soul of Raphael 
had passed into the person of Parmigiano." Maz- 
zuola was high in his patron's favour, and in the 
public esteem, when his career was interrupted by 
the sacking of Rome in 1527. This event obliged 
him to take refuge at Bologna, where he painted 
some altar-pieces for the churches, among which 
was the ' Virgin and Infant Christ, with St. John, 
St. Margaret, and St. Jerome,' in Santa Margherita, 
now in the Louvre. The church of San Petronio 
possesses a ' St. Roch,' a noble and dignified 
performance. On his return to Parma he was 
engaged to decorate in fresco the vault of La 
Madonna della Steccata, where he painted ' Adam \ 
and Eve,' and his famous chiaroscuro of 'Moses 
breaking the Tables of the Law,' which is one of 
the chief productions of the school to which it 
belongs. Of his easel pictures one of the best is 
the ' Virgin and Infant, with St. Catharine, St. 
John, and St. Jerome,' in the Florentine Gallery, of 
which there are several repetitions. Another good 
picture by him, representing the ' Virgin and Child, 
with Mary Magdalene and Angels,' called ' La 
Madonna del collo lungo,' is now in the Pitti 
Gallery at Florence. Lastly we may name the 
' Vision of St. Jerome,' in the National Gallery, as 
also among his finest works. Parmigiano was 
unfortunately addicted to alchemy, and wasted his 
substance and health in the absurd pursuit of the 
philosopher's stone. This fatal infatuation occa- 
sioned him to neglect, and at last to abandon, the 
important works he was engaged on at the Steccata, 
and having received several sums of money in 
advance, he was prosecuted by the confraternity. 
He fled to Casal Maggiore, where he died in 1540 of 
a fever, brought on by disappointment and chagrin, 
at the age of thirty-six. The following are the 
chief works of Parmigiano to which we can point : 

Berlin. Baptism of Christ. 

Bologna. Pinacoteca. Virgin, Child, and Saints, 

„ „ St. Margaret. 

„ „ Mary and Martha. 

Brussels. Holy Family. 

Dresden. Museum. Virgin and Child adored by 

Saints. 

„ „ Virgin with the Child holding a 

Rose {Madonna della Bosa). 

„ „ Ganymede. 

Florence. Pitti Pal. La Madonna del collo lungo. 

„ TPffizi. His own portrait. 

„ „ Holy Family of the Tribune. 

Genoa. Museum. Marriage of St. Catharine. 

London. Nat. Gallery. The Vision of St. Jerome. 

Madrid. Museum. Holy Family. 

Modena. Museum. Apollo and Marsyas, 

Naples. Museum,. The Annunciation. 

„ „ Holy Faraily. 

„ „ St. Sebastian. 

„ „ Lucretia. 

Paris. Louvre. Holy Family, with St. John. 

„ „ Holy Family, with SS. Margaret, 

Benedict, and Jerome. 
Parma. Ch. de la ) Frescoes — Moses, and Adam and 

Steccata. j Eve. 

„ iS. Annunziata. Baptism of Christ. 

„ ,, St. Bernardino. 

„ „ Holy Family. 

„ „ Entry of Christ into Jerusalem. 

Fetershrag. Hermitage. An Entombment. 

Rome. The Virgin. 

„ St. John the Baptist. 

„ Borghese. St. Catharine. 



Hazzuola 
Vienna. 



PAINTEES AND ENGRAVERS. 



IXechel 



Belvedere. Cupid mending his Bow. 

„ „ St. Catharine. 

„ ,, Portrait of MalatestaBaglioni(?) 

» „ Three male portraits. 

As an engrav.er Francesco Mazzuola has been 
erroneously supposed to have been the inventor of 
etcliing ; but it was practised in Germany a con- 
siderable time before him, though he is considered 
as the first artist who wielded the point in Italy. 
This Js rendered extremely probaible, by the diffi- 
culty he appears to have laboured under in the 
mechanical part of the execution of some of his 
first prints. His plates are scratched in with the 
point, and being sometimes not well bitten, are 
coarsely retouched with the burin. From his in- 
experience in the process, his earliest etchings are 
seldom clear or perfect, but some of those executed 
in the latter part of his life are better. These de- 
fects are, however, amply compensated by the 
tasteful arrangement of his subjects, and the spirit 
and animation of his design. It is very difficult 
to meet with fine impressions of his prints, as the 
plates have been much retouched. We have a 
number of wood-cuts from his designs, printed in 
chiaroscuro, which have been incorrectly said to 
have been executed by himself ; but it is now well 
known that he only superintended their execution 
by Ugo da Carpi, Andrea Andreani, and others, 
including Antonio da Trento, who robbed him of 
his designs, which were eventually found by Count 
Antonio Maria Zanetti in the possession of the Earl 
of Arundel in London, and taken to Italy. He 
signed his works F. P., F. P. F, F. Farm., &c., 
or with a monogram. We have the following 
etchings, by Parmigiano : 

Hoses and the Burning Bush ; supposed to have been 

his first plate. 
Judith with the Head of Holofernes. 
Joseph and Potiphar's "Wife. 
The Nativity. 

The Marriage of St. Catherine. 
The Holy Family, with St. John presenting a Basket 

of Flowers. 
The Holy Family, with Zacharias. 
Another Holy Family, with St. John embracing the 

Infant Jesus. 
The Entombment. Guido has copied this print. 
The Resurrection, with several Soldiers. 
A Man and a Woman seated iu a landscape. 
A Mother instructing her four Daughters. 
A Shepherd resting on his Crook. 
Diogenes seated near his Tub. There is a chiaroscuro 

cut of this by Uyo da Carpi. 
St. Peter and St. Paul healing the lame Man ; after 

Eaphael ; fine. 
A set of thirteen plates of Christ and the Apostles. 

MAZZUOLA, GiEOLAMO, whose real name was 
Bedolo, but who took the name of his father-in- 
law, Pietro Ilario Mazzuoli, was born- at San 
Lazzaro, near Parma, in the first half of the 16tli 
century. He studied under his cousin Parmigiano, 
and became an imitator of his style. Works by 
him are to be seen in the Galleries of Berlin, 
Dresden, Paris, and Parma. He was still living 
at Parma in 1666, but apparently died soon after- 
wards. His son Alessandro, who died in 1608, 
was a feeble imitator of his father. 

MAZZUOLI, Giuseppe, called II Bastardolo, 
was born at Ferrara about the j'ear 1525, and was 
a fellow-student with Giovanni Francesco Surchi, 
in the school of Dosso Dossi. He acquired the 
name of II Bastaruolo from the profession of his 
father, who was a dealer in grain. His pictures 
VOL. II. K 



were in such estimation, that there is scarcely a 
public building in his native city which does not 
possess some works of his. In the cathedral there 
is a fine picture of the ' Virgin and Child, with 
Angels'; in San Maurelio an ' Ascension,' one of his 
best works ; in the Jesuits' Church, an ' Annuncia- 
tion,' and a 'Madonna, with Mary Magdalene and St. 
John ' ; but perhaps his best known performance 
is a ' St. Barbara and St. Ursula,' with a number of 
female figures, in the Conservatorio of St. Barbara. 
Giuseppe (he has sometimes been erroneously 
called Filippo) was drowned in the Po in 1689. 

MEADOWS, Egbert Mitchell, an English en- 
graver in the second half of the 18th century, 
who published some lectures on engraving. He 
worked for Boydell's ' Shakespeare Gallery,' and 
there are plates by him after Westall, Hamilton, 
Lawrence, &c. He was already dead in 1812. 

MECARINO, IL. See Beccafumi. 

MECHAU, Jakob Wilhelm, a German painter 
and engraver, was born at Leipsic in 1745. He 
was for some time a pupil of Bernard Bode and Le 
Sueur, at Berlin, and afterwards frequented the 
Academy at Leipsic, where he studied under 
Casanova. In 1776 he went to Rome, and im- 
proved his style by studying the works of Claude 
de Lorrain and Philipp Hackert. On his return to 
his native city in 1780 he became a member of 
the Academy, and after a second visit to Rome 
in 1790 he settled at Dresden, where he died in 
1808. He painted history and landscapes, in which 
he acquired considerable reputation in Germany. 
The following are among his works : 

View of Castel Gandolfo. 

Landscape near the Tiber, with Cincinnatus. 

The Flight into Egypt. 

He is, however, more generally known as an en- 
graver. He etched several plates, some of which 
are from his own designs, and engraved a variety 
of views in Italy in aquatint. Among others, we 
have the following prints by him : 

St. Michael vanquishing the Demon ; Mechau fee. aqua 

forti. 
The ilesurrectiou of Lazarus. Median fee. 1761. 
The Adoration of the Shepherds ; after C. Schut. 
A Dance of Nymphs and Fauns ; after Giulio Carpioni. 
A set of six Italian Landscapes ; in the style of Swanevelt. 

1792. 
A set of six Views in and near Rome. 1792, 1793. 

He signed his prints J. M. /., or M inv. ac de 
G. So. {Mechau invenif ac De Geyser sculpsit). 

MECKEL, Christian von, was a native of Basle, 
in Switzerland, where he was born in 1737. After 
studying under various German masters he visited 
Paris in 1767, and, eight years later, went to Italy, 
where he was received a member of the Academy 
at Florence. Subsequently he returned to his 
native country and settled at Basle, carrying on 
considerable business as a dealer in works of art. 
In 1806 he was elected a member of the Academy 
at Beriin, where he died in 1815. The following 
are among his best plates : 

portraits. 
The Eraperor Joseph II. on horseback, reviewing his 

troops ; after J. C. Brand. 
Frederick II. King of Prussia, on horseback; the 

companion. 
General Elliot, Lord Heathfield. 
Caspar Lavater. • 

Michel Nostradamus. 
His own Portrait. 

129 



Mechelen 



A BIOGRAPHICAL DICTIONARY OF 



Kedina 



SUBJECTS. 

An old Man mending a Pen ; after Metsu. 
Cupid shooting an Arrow ; after Carlo van Loo. 
Four Views of the Khiue ; after Brinkmann and 
Weiroiter. 

MECHELEN, Jan van, a Fletnish painter who 
flourished in the 17th century. He was a pupil of 
Sohoof. He was made master of the Guild at 
Antwerp in 1609, and he is named for the last 
time in 1627-8. 

MECHELN. The name of this artist is affixed 
to a portrait of Pope Urban VIII., dated 1623. 

MECHOPHANES, an ancient Greek painter, 
was a disciple of Pausias. His manner, we are 
told, was dry and hard, but this defect was in a 
great degree compensated by extreme correctness 
of desig'i. 

MEOKENEN, Israel von, (Mecken, Meck, 
Meoheln, Mbestee, Mekbnick, Metro, Mentz, 
Van Mechelen, Db Malines, Mechliensis, De 
Mayencb, Moguntius, Db Munstee). There were 
two artists of this name, father and son, both of 
whom lived at Bocholt, wliere they had the right 
of citizenship. The father was probably born at 
Meclieln, a small village between Zutphen and 
Cleves, about 1440. He was a goldsmith and en- 
graver, while his son was a painter and engraver. 
In Bocholt is a tomb bearing the name of Israel, 
and the date March 13, 1503. This is generally 
assigned to the son, but Kramm mentions an en- 
graving bearing the date 1517. In the annals of 
the town of Bocholt there are records of Meokenen 
from 1482 to 1498, one of which spealts of Ida as 
the wife of Israel. As engravers father and son 
probably worked together. It has not been found 
practicable to distinguish precisely the prints of 
the elder Meckenen from those of his son. M. 
Heineken estimates the number of their prints at 
about two hundred and fifty. They are usually 
signed with the initials I. M. or I. V. M. or Israhel 
V. M., or sometimes at length, Israhel van Mehenen 
Goldschmit, or Israhel tzu Bxldiolt ; the letters in 
the Gothic character. The younger one seems to 
have been the painter. 

The Britisli Museum possesses a very fine set of 
their engravings, which fills three volumes. The 
series known as the ' Life of the Virgin ' is con- 
sidered their best work. There are also four 
drawings in the British Museum : 

A Group of six draped Female Figures. 
A Man standing with a Book ia his hand. 
An Entombment. 
A Holy Family. 

The following are among their most remarkable 
prints : 

The Portrait of Israel von Meckenen the elder, with 

a beard, and a kind of turban ; signed Israhel von 

Meckenen Goldschmit. 
The Portraits of Israel von Meckenen the younger and 

his "Wife ; inscribed Figuracio faderum Isralielis et 

Idm Uxoris, I. V. M. 
A set of Prints of the Life of Christ. These, as well as 

the two followimj prints, are supposed to be some of the 

earliest works of the elder Mecheln. 
The Descent of the Holy Ghost. 
St. Luke painting the Virgin. 

Judith with the Head of Holoferues. In the back- 
ground is a battle, with cannons, and other warlike 

instruments. 
The Death of the Virgin. 
The Virgin standing upon a Crescent, crowned by 

Angels. 
The Annunciation ; the Augel holds a Scroll, on which 

is inscribed A VE. GRA. 
130 



The Virgin seated, in a landscape, embracing the Infant, 
and St. Joseph reposing. On the right of the print 
is a Grasshopper, on which account it is called the 
' Virgin with the Grasshopper.' The same subject has 
been engraved by Albrecht Diirer, and copied from 
him by Marc Antonio. 

The Virgin and Infant surrounded by four Angels. 1480. 

The Virgin seated, holding the Infant, with a garden- 
wall in the background, inscribed in Gothic letters, 
Ave potissima Maria. The same is engraved by 
Sehongauer. 

The Feast of Herod ; Herodias with the Head of St. John. 

Herod's Cruelty. 

Christ bearing His Cross. 

The Scoirrging of Christ. 

The Crucifixion ; Israhel, M. ; with a light ground. 

The Crucifixion ; Israhel, V. M. ; with a dark ground. 

St. Georgj and the Dragon ; I. V. M. 

St. Jerome seated in a room, pointing to a Skull which 
lies on the table. This is considered one of their best 
prints. It has been copied by Lucas van L?yden. 

St. Anthony tormented by Devils. The same subject is 
engraved by Martin Schongauet. 

The Death of Lueretia. 

A Man and a "Woman walking,- with Death behind a 
tree, shaking an hour-glass. This print has been 
copied by Albrecht Diirer and others. 

Several single Figures of male and female Saints. 

A "Woman singing, and a Man playing on the Lute. 

A Man playing on the Organ. 

Three naked Women, with a Globe hanging above 
them. Albrecht Diirer and others have copied this 
print. 

A Man holding a Skull, inscribed Respicefinem. 

A Cup, richly ornamented. The same has been en- 
graved by Sehongauer. 

A variety of goldsmith's ornaments, and a great number 
of other subjects. 

MEDA, GiDSEPPE, a Milanese painter, who 
flourished at the end of the 16th century. He 
seems to have been a pupil of B. Cnmpi, but he 
gained more reputation as an architect than as a 
painter. 

MEDICI, PlETRO, was born at Florence in 1586, 
and was a scholar of Lodovico Cardi, called Cigoli. 
By the instruction of that master, he became a 
reputable painter of history, and was the author of 
several altar-pieces for the churches at Florence. 
He died in 1648. 

MEDINA, Andres de, was a painter of Se"ville, 
and a disciple of Juan del Castillo. He etched 
several sacred subjects, amongst others, in 1663, 
the image of our Lady ' de la Soterrana,' in the 
church of St. Nicolas at Seville. Medina died in 
1663. 

MEDINA, John, portrait painter, born in 1721. 
He was a grandson of Sir J. B. Medina, and prac- 
tised in Edinburgh and London. Copying and 
picture-cleaning occupied much of his time. He 
died at Edinburgh in 1796. 

MEDINA, Sir John Baptist, the son of Medina 
de I'Asturias, a captain in the Spanish service, was 
born at Brussels in 1660. He was a scholar of 
Frangois Duchastel, and afterwards improved him- 
self by studying the works of Rubens. When he 
was twenty-six years of age he came to England, 
and for a time painted portraits with some slight 
success. He was invited to visit Scotland, under 
the patronage of the Earl of Leven, who procured 
him many commissions ; and he painted the por- 
traits of many of the Scotch nobles. At "Went- 
worth Castle there is a large picture of the first 
Duke of Argyll, with his two sons, John and Archi- 
bald. The portrait of Medina, by himself; was 
sent to the Grand Duke of Tuscany by the Duke of 
Gordon, and was placed in the Florentine Gallery. 
He occasionally painted history and landscapes, 



lledina 



PAINTERS AND ENGEAVERS. 



Mei 



and the plates in a folio edition of ' Paradise Lost ' 
(1688) were designed by him. Medina was knighted 
by the Duke of Queensberry, when Lord High 
Commissioner. He died at Edinbm-gh in 1711. 
Some of his portraits have been engraved. 

MEDINA, MoiSB Casimie, a portrait painter, 
was born at San Felipe in 1671, and died at 
Valencia in 1748. In early life he painted history, 
but without success. 

MEDINA T VALBUBNA, Pedro db, was a 
painter of Seville about 1620. He was a pupil of 
Juan del Castillo, and friend and fellow-pupil of 
Murillo, whom he assisted in forming the Academy 
of Seville, in which he afterwards tilled various 
offices. He painted and gilded several retablos, 
and being dexterous in water-colours, he executed 
in 1673-4 many flags for the royal fleet of New 
Spain. The year of his deatli is unknown. 

MEDLAND, Thomas, an English engraver in 
the latter part of the 18th and the beginning of 
the 19th centuries. He was chiefly engaged on 
landscape and topography, and occasionally ex- 
hibited at the Royal Academy up to 1822. In his 
latter years he taught drawing at the East India 
College, Hertford. Of his works we may name : 

' Views iu Cumberland and "Westmoreland.' 1789. 
' Cities and Castles of England.' 1791. 
' Eobinson Crusoe,' illustrated by Stothard. 1798. 
' Select Views in London and Westminster.' 1800. 
Barrow's 'Embassy of Lord Macartney to China.' 

1804. 
Sir W. Cell's ' Topography of Troy.' 1804. 
' Egyptian Monuments in the British Museum.' 1805. 

MEDLEY, Samuel, a painter, was born at Liver- 
pool in 1769. He was a follower of Reynolds and 
Gainsborough. In 1811 he had to abandon art by 
medical advice. He died in 1857. Some of his 
works were exhibited in the Royal Academy. He 
painted the picture representing the Medical Society 
of London in Session ; Dr. Lettsora speaking, and 
Jenner, the discoverer of vaccination, in the back- 
ground, whicli now hangs in the Society's Rooms 
in Chandos St., Cavendish Square. 

MEDOLLA. See Meldolla. 

MEE, (Mrs.) Anne, an English miniature painter, 
born in the last half of the 18th century. She was 
the daughter of John Foldsone, a painter, who died 
young, and through an unfortunate marriage had 
to work to support her family. Her works appeared 
at the Academy from 1815 to 1836. She obtained 
a good practice,.and had many commissions from 
George IV. She died, very old, in 1851. 

MEEN, Makgaeet, an English flower painter in 
water-colours in the second half of the 18th cen- 
tury. Her works appeared at the Academy from 
1776 to 1785. There is a flower-piece by her, 
dated 1806, at the South Kensington Museum. 
Her work shows considerable vigour and ability. 

MEEL, Jan. See Mibl. 

MEELE, Matthiaus, a portrait painter, born 
at the Hague in 1664, was for some time in England, 
and practised under Sir Peter Lely. On his return 
to tiie Hague he was appointed one of the prin- 
cipals of the Academy, and died there in 1714. 

MEER, Van dee, (Meeee, Meirb, Meeren,) 
Babend, (Beenhaed,) Cathaeina, Jacob, Jan 'the 
elder ' (of Haarlem), Johannes (of Utrecht), and 
N., see Van dee Mebr ; Jan (of Delft), see Vee 
Meer; Geeaed and Jan ' the younger' (of Ghent 
and of Haarlem), see Van dee Meiee. 

MEEREN. See Van dee Meeren. 

MEERKERK, Dirk van, painter, was bom at 

K 2 



Gouda in 1702. He studied in Italy, and after- 
wards went to France, where he entered the service 
of the Bishop of Nantes. 

MEERSCH. See Van dee Meeesch. 
MEERT, Pieter, (or Meeete,) was born at 
Brussels in 1619, for we are told in the Gulden 
Cabinet of De Bie, that he was forty-two when 
that was published, in 1661. Meert had a consider- 
able reputation as a portrait painter, imitating the 
style of Van Dyck. He died at Brussels in 1669. 
In the Museum at Brussels there is a fine group 
of portraits by him. Others of his works are in 
the halls of the city guilds. A ' Sea Captain with 
his Wife sitting on the Seashore,' in the Berlin 
Museum, is perhaps the best of his known works. 

MEBRTENS, Abeaham, (Mebete and Meeten,) 
a painter, born at Middlebourg in 1757. He painted 
birds, flowers, and landscapes, and was one of the 
original founders of the Academy of his native 
town. He died in 1823. 

MEGAN, R. or P., a German landscape painter, 
who flourished at Vienna in the 16th century. The 
Belvedere possesses several landscapes by him. 

MEGEN, Pieter Wilhelm van, engraver, was 
born at the Hague in 1750. He studied under 
Schoumann and Duboulnois, and in 1772 went to 
Paris, where he worked for two years under Le Bas 
and J. G. Wille. He died in 1785. 
MEGLIO. See Coppi. 

MEHEUX, Jacob, was a native of Holland, and 
flourished about the year 1680. He engraved some 
plates in mezzotint, among which is a copy of the 
print of the ' Ratcatcher,' by Cornells Visscher. 

MEHEUX, Feancis, an English engraver, born 
at Dover in 1644. He practised in mezzotint as 
well as with the graver. 

MEHEUX, John, an English painter of the 18th 
century, after whom William Blake engraved 
' Clorinda ' and ' Robin Hood.' 
MEHLEM. See Melem. 

MEHUS, LlEVEN, (or Meus,) was born at Oude- 
narde in 1630. The troubles which soon afterwards 
took place there obliged his family to leave Flan- 
ders, and they settled at Milan, where he received 
some instruction from the Flemish artist named 
Carlo, then resident in that city. At an early age 
he visited Florence, where he was placed under the 
tuition of Pietro da Cortona, who was at that time 
employed by the Grand Duke Ferdinand II. in 
the Palazzo Pitti. After a time he left Florence 
secretly, and entering the army of Christine of 
Sa\'oy, he served tliree years as a soldier. On his 
return to Florence lie was again taken under the 
protection of the Duke, and, later on, was employed 
by the Marquis Gerini to ornament his palace, in 
conjunction with Ciro Ferri, who had been his 
fellow-student under Pietro da Cortona. Here he 
painted his ' Bacchus and Ariadne.' Although ho 
was more engaged on the palaces than the churches, 
he was chosen to paint the dome of La Pace, in 
which he acquitted himself with credit. He was 
afterwards employed in the Pal.izzo Pitti, where 
he painted a ' Sacrifice of Abraham.' The auto- 
graph portrait of Mehus is in the. collection of 
Painters in the Florentine Gallery. He died at 
Florence in 1691. 

MEI, BeeKardino, was a native of Siena, and 
flourished from the year 1636 till 1676. It is not 
known under whom he studied, but the Padre della 
Valle, who had seen several of his works, says his 
style sometimes resembles that of the Carraoci, and 
sometimes of Guercino. There are some of his 

131 



Meichoner 



A BIOGRAPHICAL DICTIONARY OF 



Uelar 



pictures in the churches at Siena. One of his best 
performances is a ceiling in fresco, an 'Aurora,' 
in the Casa Bandinelli. He died at Rome. 

MBICHONER, Johann Nepomuok, was bom at 
Engen in Austria in 1739. He studied at the 
Academy at Vienna, and afterwards went to Ulm. 
He established himself as a portrait painter at 
Sollingen, where he died in 1815. 

MEIGEL, Christoph, was a German engraver, 
who resided at Nuremberg, where he engraved and 
published a folio volume of prints in 1730, repre- 
senting the follies of people of all professions. 

MEIGHAN, R., was an English engraver and 
bookseller, who flourished in the early part of 
the 17th century, and carried on business in St. 
Dunstau's Churchyard. 

MEIL, Johann Hbinrioh, brother of Johann 
Wilhelm Meil, was born at Gotha in 1729. After 
spending twenty years at Leipsio he removed to 
Berlin in 1774, and became a member of the 
Academy of Arts. He furnished designs for the 
fables of La Fontaine and Gellert, the poems of 
Burger, &o. He died in 1803. 

MEIL, Johann Wilhelm, a German designer and 
engraver, was born at Altenbourg in 1733. He 
first studied the sciences, but on visiting Berlin he 
conceived a strong preference for art, and zealously 
took to the practice of drawing and painting and 
the use of the graver. He was for the most 
part his own instructor, and engraved 667 vignettes 
and book ornaments, from his own designs, also 
numerous other plates, in a neat, spirited style, in 
which he appears to have been emulous of imitating 
the works of Delia Bella. He was highly esteemed 
in the theatre at Berlin for his knowledge of cos- 
tumes. Tlie design ' A Sailor Drinking ' exists in 
a wood-cut by J. F. Unger. His works are signed 
with J. W. M., J. W. M. inv, or a monogram. 
In 1791 he was rector, and in 1798 vice-director, of 
the Academy at Berlin. He died there in 1805. 
Among a variety of other prints we have the 
following by him : 

A set of eight small plates of Heads and Caricatures ; 

sca7'ce. 
Four of Quack-doctors and Ballad-singers; in the 

manner of Dietrich. 
A set of ten Vignettes for the Poem of ' Joseph,' by 

BitaubS. 
Twelve Allegorical Vignettes. 
Hercules playing on the Lyre. 
A set of four Landscapes, with figures. 
Fifty-two subjects, entitled ' Speotaculum Naturae et 

Arfcium ' ; published at Berlin in 1765. 
The portraits of the most learned men and artists. 

1780. 

MEIRERPECK, M. Wolfgang, was a German 
draughtsman and engraver on wood, who flourished 
about the year 1550. In conjunction with G. Liberal 
he designed and executed the wood-cuts for the 
' Commentaries of Matthiolus on Dioscorides,' 
published at Venice in Latin in 1548, and in 
Germany in the Bohemian language in 1560. 

MEIS, B., is mentioned by Strutt as the etcher 
of a plate representing a poet writing. 

MEISSEN, Agnes von. See Agnes. 

MEISSONIER, Juste Aur^lEj painter, sculptor, 
architect, and goldsmith, was born at Turin in 
1675. He went to Paris, where he carried on his 
different professions, but it was chiefly as a gold- 
smith and decorator that he gained his reputation. 
He died in Paris in 1750. 

MEISTER, Simon, born at Coblenz in 1803, was 
a disciple of H. Vernet. He established himself 

132 



at Cologne in 1833, and distinguished himself as a 
painter of battles, animals, and portraits, which 
are carried out vnth vigour, but with some loose- 
ness of hand. He died at Cologne in 1844. Tlie 
Wallraf Reichartz Museum at Cologne contains by 
him : 

The Portrait of King William IV. of Prussia, as Crown 

Prince {lithographed by J, B. HUtzer). 
Lions Fighting. 

He generally signed with his full name, but also 
with a monogram. His brother Nicolas Meisi'EB 
was also a painter, and assisted him in his work. 

MEITENS. See Mttbns. 

MEIXNER, Lddwig, was bom at Munich in 
1828, and instructed by Stange. He travelled in 
Sweden, and distinguished himself as a painter of 
sea and shore pieces, both in oil and water-colour. 
He died at Graz in 1872. Among his best works 
are : 

Lake Constance with a cloudy sky. , 

A Moonlight Night on the Swedish shore. 

Landscape with the Moon rising. 

Sketch on the Untersberg. 

Vohring, near Munich. 

Sketch from the English Garden at Munich. 

Venice. 

MEL, Giovanni da, was the son of Antonio 
Rosso, and was living at Cadore and Belluno in 
the 16th century. His earliest picture is dated 
1521 ; he was still at Belluno in 1648. The dates 
of his birth and death are both uncertain. Messrs. 
Crowe and Cavalcasselle assign to Giovanni the 
frescoes in the choir of San Lorenzo at Selva di 
Cadore, which are dated 1544. ' 

MELA, Antonio, was a native of Verona, bom 
in 1700. He was a pupil of Prunati, and with him 
painted several historical pictures. He also painted 
altar-pieces. He died in 1742. 

MELAN. See Mellan. 

MELANI, Giuseppe and Francesco, born at 
Pisa about 1680. These brothers were n.atives of 
Pisa. Giuseppe, a scholar of Camillo Gabrielli, 
was a reputable painter of history, as is evident 
from his large picture in oil of tJie ' Death of S. 
Ranieri,' in the cathedral at Pisa. His chief merit 
is in fresco painting, in which he never appears to 
more advantage than when he paints the figures 
in the architectural views of his brother Francesco, 
which are modelled on the style of Pietro da 
Cortona. Francesco was esteemed one of the 
ablest painters of perspective of his time. The 
best-known performance of the brothers is the 
vault of San Matteo at Pisa. Francesco died in 
1742 ; Giuseppe in 1747. 

MELANO. See Jacobini, Giov. 

MELANTHIDS, (or Melanthus,) a pupil of 
Pamphilus and Apelles, is said by Pliny to have 
painted in only four colours. He is also men- 
tioned by Plutarch and Quintilian. His school 
was frequented by numerous disciples, and he 
wrote some treatises on art. 

MELANZIO was a local painter of Montefalco, 
and one of Perugino's pupils. Of his biith and 
death nothing is known. He was a fourth-rate 
artist, of whose paintings examples may be seen 
in the cathedral at Montefalco, and in the monas- 
tery of Subiaco. 

MELAR, Adrian, was a Flemish engraver, who 
resided at Antwerp about the year 1650. He 
attempted to imitate the style of Paul Pontius, 
but with very little success. We have several 
portraits by him, among which are Charles I. of 



Melbogi 



PAINTERS AND ENGRAVERS. 



HeldoUa 



Spain, and Frederick III. of Denmark. He alao 
engraved a plate representing ' St. Michael over- 
coming the Evil Spirit,' after Rubens. 

MELBOGI. See Gossaeet. 

MELBYE, D. H. Anton, a Danish marine painter, 
born at Copenhagen in 1818. He vjras originally a 
shipwright, then became a musician, and finally 
devoted himself to painting, studying under Eckers- 
herg at Diisseldorf. In 1840 lie first exliibited three 
pictures at Chnrlottenburg, and gained the patron- 
age of Christian VI. He migrated in 1847 to 
Paris, where he attracted the notice of Louis 
Philippe, and in 1853 made his way to Constanti- 
nople, where he was employed by the Sultan. 
Returning to Prance he gained the favour of 
Napoleon III., from whom he received the Legion 
of Honour in 1854. He died in Paris in 1875. 
Among his works are : 

Copenhagen. Gallery. The Eddystone Lighthouse. 
1846. 
„ „ Sea-fight between Danes and 

Swedes in 1677 at Kioga, 
1855. 
Stockholm. National \ The French Steamer ' Le For- 
Gallery. J fait.' 1866. 

MELCHIOR, Heineich Anton, son of Johann 
Peter Melohior the architect, studied first at the 
Academy of Munich, and afterwards went to 
Berlin, where he won the Academy prize with 
his allegory of the peace between France and 
Prussia. He died young in 1796. 

MELCHIOR, WiLHBLM, born at Nymphenburg 
in 1813. was an excellent painter of animals and 
of hunting parties. One of his best pictures 
represents a cat, which has crept up to a plate 
of fish, gripped by the head in the claws of a crab. 
Other pictures are in the new Pinacothek at 
Munich. Melohior died at Munich in 1860. His 
brother Josef, who was born in 1810, had some 
repute as a painter of horses. 

MELCHIORI, Giovanni Paolo, was born at 
Rome in 1664, and was brought up in the school 
of Carlo Maratti. He painted historical subjects, 
and was employed for some of the public edifices 
at Rome. His most esteemed work is his picture 
of the prophet Ezekiel, in the Lateran Church. 
He was living in 1718. 

MELCHIORI, Melchioe, an obscure painter of 
history, who was born at Castelfranco in 1641. He 
worked at Venice and Castelfranco, and died in 
1686. 

MELDEMANN, Nicolaus, flourished at Nurem- 
berg in 1529-32, and was a card painter and wood 
engraver. 

MBLDER, Gebaed, was bom at Amsterdam in 
1693. He showed an early inclination for art, and 
when a boy neglected the usual amusements of 
his age to devote his time to drawing. He 
acquired some miniatures by Rosalba Carriera, 
and by copying and imitating them, he arrived 
at great proficiency in that branch of painting. 
His productions are landscapes (sea-coasts and 
mountaihs) in water-oolour and Indian ink. He 
also drew the portraits of many of the principal 
persons of his time, and was especially noted for 
his miniatures in enamel, both original and after 
Dou and Van der Werff. He died at Utrecht in 
1754. 

MELDOLLA, Andeea, (or Medcla,) called II 
ScHiAVONE, was bom at Sebenico, in Dalmatia, in 
1522. He painted portraits, history and historical 



genre, and decorative compositions, in a style 
which bears strong traces of the influence of 
Titian, Tintoretto, and Giorgione. It is said that 
by Titian Meldolla was rescued from obscurity, 
and put in a way to reach the success of his later 
years. He was a good colourist and a man of 
considerable imagination, but his works suffer 
froni hasty composition and weak drawing. One 
of his best pictures is the ' Birth of Jupiter ' in the 
possession of the Earl of Wemyss. Schiavone 
d.ied in 1582. The following list includes the more 
accessible of his good works : 



Berlin. 



Dresden. 



Florence 


Uffizi 


j» 


n 


Munich. 

Paris. 

Venice. 


Old Pinacothek. 

Louvre. 

Academia. 


» 


n 


>* 


» 


Vienna. 


Belvedere. 



The Parable of the Unrighteous 
Steward. 

The Parable of the Vineyard. 

Mountain Landscape. 

Forest Landscape. 

A Dead Christ, with an Angel 
and St. Joseph of Arimathea. 

Madonna and Child, and St. 
John. 

Adoration of the Sh^herds. 

Man's Portrait. 

Supper at Emmaus (?) 

Parnassus. 

St. John the Baptist. 

The Circumcision. 

Landscape. 

Christ before Pilate. 

A Holy Conversation. 

Holy Family, with St. John and 

St. Catherine. 
Adoration of the Shepherds. 
Christ before Caiaphas. 
Apollo and Daphne. 
Dentatus and the Samnites. 
Five Allegorical Compositions. 



MELDOLLA, Andeea, an Italian designer and 
engraver, who flourished between 1640 and 1550. 
There has been much discussion respecting his 
works, but very little has been accurately ascer- 
tained of his history. Until a recent period the 
etchings now allowed to be by him were attributed 
to Andrea Meldolla, called Schiavone ; or to Fran- 
cesco Mazzuola (Parmigiano), because the greater 
number of them are evidently from pictures or 
drawings by that painter. Zani claims the honour 
of making the discovery that Meldolla was a 
different artist from Schiavone or Parmigiano. 
He establishes the fact that Meldolla was the en- 
graver of the print of ' Heliodorus driven from 
the Temple,' from a drawing by Parmigiano after 
the painting by Raphael. He had heard in the 
course of his researches respecting this master, 
that an impression was in the possession of Count 
Antonio Reniondini, which had the inscription 
Andrea Sdavonus Meldola fecit. To ascertain the 
fact he wrote to the Count, who replied, "It is 
true that I possess the cited print of ' Heliodorus,' 
but without the Sdavonus." Andrea's monogram 
or other signature is often so slightly put in that 
it is difficult to find. But sometimes the word 
' Meldolla ' is very distinct, and in a few instances 
'Andrea' also. The following list, with details 
now omitted, was supplied by the late Messrs. 
Smith to a former edition of this work. Down 
to No. 87 it is arranged in the order of Bartsch. 
It is now generally believed that the plates on 
which Meldolla etched were of pewter, which will 
account for the scratches and corrosions that appear 
on the later impressions, and for the frequent 
alterations made in the treatment of the subject 
and the accessories. 

133 



MeldoUa 



A BIOGRAPHICAL DICTIONARY OF 



Meleun 



{The figures in brackets give the number of states, 
when more than one, for eachplate^ 

1. Jacob's Ladder. 

2. Moses saved from the Nile (4). 

3. God appearing to Moses (3). 

4. Moses showing the Quails to the Israelites. First 

state, a pure etching before the monogram ; second, 
retouched all over. 

5. The Annunciation. 

6. The Nativity. 

7. The three Kings (2). 

8. The three Kings (2). 

9. The Flight into Egypt 

10. Presentation in the Temple (4). 

11. Presentation in the Temple. 

12. The Circumcision. 

13. The Circumcision (3). 

14. Jesus with the Woman on the Steps. 

15. Christ healing the Sick. 

16. Christ healing the Lepers. 

17. The Entombment (4). 

18. The Entombment (3). 

19. The Entombment (2). 

20. The miraculous Draught of Fishes (2). 

21. St. Peter and St. John curing the Lame Man (3). 

22. St. Paul preaching at Athens. 

23. The Pentecost, or the Descent of the Holy Ghost (2). 

24. The Saviour. 

25. St. Peter. 

26. St. Andrew. 

27. St. James the Great. 

28. St. John. 
St. Phihp. 
St. Bartholomew. 
St. Matthew. 

St. Thomas. Two variations. 
St. James the Less. Profile. 
St. Simon. 
St. Judas Thaddeus. 

36. St. Mathias. 

37. St. Paul., 

38. The Saviour (2). 

39. St. Peter. 

39.* St. Peter. A repetition of the pre ceding. 

40. St. Andrew. 

41. St. James the Great. 

42. St. John (3). 

43. St. Philip (3). 

44. St. Bartholomew. 

44.* St. Bartholomew ; the same in design as the pre- 
ceding, hut reversed. 

45. St. Matthew (3). 

46. St. Thomas. 

46.* St. Thomas ; the same design as the preceding, Ivt 



29. 
30. 
31. 
32. 
33. 
34. 
35. 



Full-face figure. 



47. St. James the Less. 

48. St. Simon (2). 

49. St. Judas Thaddeus*(2). 

50. An anonymous Saint, as described by Bartsch. 
60.* A Saint walking to the right, but having his head 

inclined towards the left. 
50.** Replica with variations of the last. 

51. The Saviour, a repetition of No. 38, but with varia- 
tions. 

52. St. Andrew, a repetition of No. 40, the reverse way. 

53. St. James the Great. 

54. A Madonna (2). 

55. The Christian Eeligion triumphant over Heresy (3). 

56. The Marriage of St. Catharine (2). 

57. The Virgin (2). 

58. The Virgin surrounded by several Saints. 

59. A similar design, but reversed (3). 

60. A similar subject to the last. 

61. The Holy Family (3). 

62. The Infant Jesus in the Cradle surrounded by 

Saints (2). 

63. The Infant Jesus and St. John embracing in the 
presence of several Saints (3). 

64. Different Saints present at the Homage paid by St. 

John to the Infant Jesus (2). 

65. Saints adoring the Infant Jesus in His Cradle (2). 

66. The Present of Flowers. 

67. Heliodorus driven from the Temple ; after Ra- 
phael (2). 

134 



68. Bellona. A back figure turned towards the right. 

69. Diana. 

70. The Coronation of Pegasus. 

71. Mercury (2). 

72. Hercules, Deianira, and Nessus. 

73. Mars and Cupid. 

74. Ganymede and Hebe (2). 

75. Venus after Bathing. 



76. Bellona (2) ; signed ^A/ 



77. 
78. 
79. 
80. 
81. 

82. 
83. 
84. 
85. 
86. 
87. 



90; 

91. 
92. 
93. 
94. 



Bellona (2). 
Mars. 

Minerva and the Muses. 
The Judgment of Paris (4). 

The Eape of Helen (6) ; signei Andeea Mbldolui 
In-Ventoe. 

Virtue victorious over Vice. 
A Prophet ; full length. 
A "Woman carrying a Vase (2). 
The same print as described No. 74. 
A Woman accompanied by a Child. 
A Woman writing. 
Eleazar at the Well. 
The Adoration of the Shepherds. 
The Adoration of the Kings, a grand composition of 
sixteen figures. 
The Holy Family. 
Marriage of St. Catherine. 
The Holy Family. 
Christ and His Disciples; signed with the monogram 



w. 



95. Christ healing the Lepers. 

96. Boy bending a Bow. 

97. Mars. 

98. Return of the Prodigal Son (3) ; second state with 



the monogram 



M- 



third, with monogram 



jiP. 



altered, thus : 

Mercury (2). 

Apollo and Daphne. 

Apollo and Daphne (2). 

Judith. 

Judith (3). 

St. James the Great (?). 

St. Paul. 

Nymphs Bathing (2). 

Cupid, a whole-length figure walking. 

Bellona, whole-length figure looking towards the 

right. 

Bellona ; the same design as the preceding, tut 

reversed. 

Virgin and Child with St. John. 

Apollo and Python. 

Diana. 

Bellona, in profile, walking towards the left. 

Female Figure walking. 

Five Figures, in the centre a young woman. 

Faith ; signed with the monogram /r\/l 

Quos Ego. Neptune appeasing the storm ; copj/ of 
the centre compartment of the celebrated print by 
Marc Antonio. 

St. Christopher. 

Woman pouring Water from a Vase. (British 
Museum.) 

MELEAGBR. See Mommees. 

MELEM, JoHANN VON, (or Mehlem,) painted in 
Cologne during the first half of the 16th century. 
It has been supposed that he was a native of the 
village of Mehlem, near Bonn, and, from an in- 
scription on his autograph portrait in the Munich 
Gallery, that his birth took place in the year 1493. 
He viras a pupil of Jan van Scorel. His only 
authentic work is the portrait above alluded to. 

MELEUN, Comte de. was a French amateur 
engraver, mentioned by Basan. He lived about 
the year 1760, and etched several small plates 
after Berchem, Callot, and other masters. 



100. 
101. 
102. 
103. 
104. 
105. 
106. 
107. 
108. 

109. 

110. 
111. 
112. 
113. 
114. 
115. 

116. 

117. 



118. 
119. 



Melgarejo 



PAINTERS AND KNGRAVERS. 



Melluel 



MELGAREJO, Fray Gebonimo, an Augustine 
friar and painter of Granada, who flourished about 
the middle of the 17th century, left in his convent 
two pictures of which Cean Bermudez praises the 
composition. The first represents four monks of 
the order and sundry ecclesiastics, carrying the 
bones of their patron saint in solemn procession. 

MELINGUE, Etienne Maein, born at Caen in 
1808, was an actor, sculptor, and painter. He died 
at Veulles in Calvados in 1876. 

MELINI, Caklo Domemico, (or Mellini,) was 
an Italian engraver, born at Turin about the year 
1745, but chiefly resident in Paris, where he became 
a pupil of Beauvarlet. We have several plates by 
him, among which are the following : 

Portrait of the King of Sardinia. 

The Children of the Prince of Turenne ; after Drouais. 

La belle Source ; after Nattier. 

The Education of Cupid ; after Lagrenee. 

Morning, a landscape ; after Loutherhoarg. 

MELISSI, Agostino, was a native of Florence, 
and flourished about the year 1675. According to 
Baldinucci he was much employed by the Grand 
Duke in painting cartoons for tapestr3', from the 
designs of Andrea del Sarto. He also painted 
several pictures of his own composition ; among 
which the above-mentioned author commends his 
' Peter denying Christ,' in the Palazzo Qaburri. 

MELLAN, Claude, (or Melan,) an eminent 
French draughtsman and engraver, bom at Abbe- 
ville about 1601. His disposition for art discover- 
ing itself at an early age, he was sent to Paris, 
where he studied under Simon Vouet. An inclina- 
tion for engraving induced him to attempt the 
management of the burin, which he soon handled 
with extraordinary facility. He executed several 
plates from the busts and statues in the Giustiniani 
Collection. The greater part of his work at Rome 
is in the usual manner, with the strokes crossed a 
second and a third time, as the strength of the 
shadows require. After his return to Paris he 
adopted a novel and singular method of working, 
with single parallel lines, without any cross strokes 
over them, variety of light and shade being rendered 
by variations in the thickness of the lines. By 
this method he acquired considerable celebiity, 
but his permanent success is, of course, to be attri- 
buted to the dexterity with which he handled his 
tools, rather than to the peculiarity of his process. 
His 'Eebekah,' after Tintoretto, is full of colour; 
it is evidently engraved from the work of a great 
colourist; yet it is only in some of the accessories 
that cross lines are introduced. . Mellan lived to 
the advanced age of ninety, and died in Paris in 
1688. The following are his best prints : 

PORTRAITS. 

Urban VIII. ; after Bernini. 1631. 

Cardinal Bentivoglio. 

The Marquis Giustiniani. 

Anne of Austria, Queen of France. 

Henry, Duke of Montmorency. 

The Cardinal, Duke de Hichelieu. 

The Cardinal de Mazariu. 

Francis de Villemontfe, Bishop of St. Malo. 1661. 

Peter Seguier, Chancellor of France. 

Nicolas Cififteteau, Bishop of Marseilles; after Du 

Moustier. 
The Cardinal du Perron ; after Herbin. 
Tictor le Bouthillier, Archbishop of Tours. 1658. 
' Nicolas Claude Fabri de Peiresc ; one of his finest 

portraits. 
Charles de Crequis Lesdigueres, Marshal of France. 

1633. 



Pietro Gassendi, Professor of Mabhematics. 
Louisa Maria de Gonzaga, Queen of Poland. 1645 
His own Portrait. 1635. 

SUBJECTS FROM HIS OWN DESIGNS. 

Lob and his Daughters. Rome, 1629. 

Samson and Delilah. 

Moses and the Burning Bush. 1663. 

The Miracle of the Manna. 

The Annunciation ; inscribed Ecce Tlrqo conciviet 

1666. '^ ' 

The Virgin, with the Infant Jesus on her knee. 1659 
The Holy Family. Rome, 1635. 
Christ praying in the Garden ; a night-piece ; fine. 
Christ seized by the Soldiers ; inscribed Fater, ignosce 

illis, S[c. 
St. John, with Magdalene embracing the Cross. Rome. 
The Crucifixion, with the Virgin, Magdalene, and St. 

John. 
The Entombment, with an inscription, Terra mota est. 
The Resurrection ; inscribed Fer se resurgens. 16S3. 
The Sudarium of St. Veronica ; executed by a single 

spiral line, begun at the extremity of the nose, and 

continued unbroken, but with variations in its 

thickness over the whole face and background. 
Sb. Peter Nolasque, supported by two Angels. One 

of the finest and rarest of Mellan's prints. 
Four large plates from the Life of St. Bruno. 
St. Bruno praying in the Desert. 
St. Francis praying. 1638 ; very fine. 
Several other Saints in acts of Devotion. 
Mary Magdalene expiring, supported by Angels. 

SUBJECTS AFTER VARIOUS MASTERS. 

Herodias with the Head of St. John ; after S. Vouet. 

Roman Charity ; after the same. 

The Death of Lucretia ; after the same. 

St. Catherine kneeling, with an Angel presenting the 

palm of martyrdom ; after the same. 
Rebekah meeting the Servant of Abraham ; after Tin' 

toretto ; considered his finest plate. 

His plates from the Giustiniani Collection are 322 
in number. They were published in two folio 
volumes at Rome in 1640. Mellan also executed 
a number of plates from antique marbles in the 
French royal palaces. Mellan sigJied his works 
G. M. G. {Gallus) ; Gl. Mell. ; Mel. p. et sc. ; Md. 
scul. Eomae, &o., or a monogram. 

MELLIN, Charles, (Meslin,) painter of Lor- 
raine, was a pupil of Vouet, and afterwards went 
to Rome, where he spent the greater part of his 
life. He was called Lorenese. He painted his- 
torical and mythological works, and flourished 
between 1636 and 1693. 

MELLING, Anton Ignaz, born at Carlsruhe in 
1763, was instructed in art by his uncle, Joseph 
Melling, at Strasburg, and afterwards visited Italy, 
Egypt, and Smyrna. On his return in 1803 he 
became landscape painter to the Empress Josephine, 
and subsequently painter to Louis XVIII., and a 
member of the Legion of Honour. He died in 
Paris in 1831. Among his published works are : 

'Voyage pittoresque dans les Pyr&fes fran9aises.' 

' Voyage pittoresque de Constantinople et des liives du 
Bosphore.' 
In conjunction with his daughter, Madame Adelb 
Clergbt, who was also an artist, he produced an 
' Entry of Louis XIII. into Paris,' and a ' Dis- 
tribution of the Colours to the National Guards.' 

MELLING, Joseph, studied in Paris under Van- 
loo, and afterwards went to Strasburg. In 1777 
he became court painter at Carlsruhe, where he 
died at the end of the century. 

HELLISH, Thomas, an English marine painter, 
who practised about the middle of the 18th century. 

MELLUEL. See Malwel. 

135 



Melone 



A BIOGRAPHICAL DICTIONARY OF 



Memliuc 



MELONE, Altobelio, a distinguished contem- 
porary of Bocoaccino, was living at Cremona in 
the beginning of the 16th century. He painted 
seven frescoes from the lives of Christ and the 
Virgin in the cathedral of Cremona in 1517. The 
organ shutters at San Michele, in the same town, 
which represent the Virgin and Gabriel, and SS. 
Anthony and Paul the Hermit, are by this artist. 
He was also a portrait painter, and examples of 
his work may be found in the public galleries of 
Stuttgart, Bergamo, Naples, Venice, and Milan. 
The National Gallery possesses an excellent though 
somewhat bizarre picture of ' Christ and the Two 
Disciples going to Emmaus' by him. Panni, in 
his account of the pictures in Cremona, describes 
a picture in the cathedral divided into two subjects, 
' The Slaughter of the Innocents ' and ' The Flight 
into Egypt,' which was signed Altobellus de Me- 
lonibus P. MDXVII. Vasari, too, in his life of 
Garofalo, mentions Melone as superior to most of 
the Lombard painters of his time. He is praised 
also by Baldinucoi, Zaist, and Grasselli. 

MELONI, Antonio, a native of Mantua, who 
went to Rome in 1656 and worked in the school 
of Trevisani. He painted historical subjects, and 
died about 1700. 

MELONI, Francesco Antonio, an Italian painter 
and engraver, was born at Bologna in 1676. He 
was instructed by P. A. Paderna, J. Monti, and 
Marc Antonio Franceschini ; but not succeeding tD 
his wishes as a painter, he etched some plates after 
the designs of Franceschini, which encouraged 
him to devote himself entirely to engraving. He 
died at Vienna in 1713. His works are signed 
F.A.M. del. et inv., F.A.M.F., &c. Among others 
we have the following by him : 

The Adoration of the Shepherds ; after C. dgnani. 
Aurora ; from a ceiling painted at I'orli ; hy the same. 
Diana and Endymion ; after Franceschini. 

MELONI, Maeco, of Carpi, is the author of a 
'Madonna with SS. John the Baptist, Bernard, 
Francis, and Jerome,' dated 1504, in the Gallery 
of Modena. 

MELONI, PiETEO Antonio, born at Iraola in 
1761, was a pupil of Dardane and Gottarelli. He 
painted historical subjects, and was on the house- 
hold of Pope Pius VI. He founded an Academy 
at Ancona, and died in 1836. 

MELOTIUS, M. DE. See Palmezzano. 

MELOZZO DA FORLI. See Dbgli Ambrosi. 

MELZER, JoHANN Gottlieb, was born in 
Prussia about 1680, and after remaining some 
time in his own country he went to Hamburg, 
where he distinguished himself as a portrait 
painter, and where he died about 1730. 

MELZI, Francesco, II Conte, the pupil and 
friend of Leonardo da Vinci, was born at Milan 
about 1491. He was of noble birth, and practised 
the art of painting as a delightful employment 
rather than as a profession. No really authentic 
work by him has come down to us, but many are 
ascribed to him in various galleries and private 
collections. The ' Vertumnus and Pomona ' at 
Berlin has more to be said for it, perhaps, than 
any other, although ' Lermolieff' will not accept 
it as a Melzi. Melzi followed Leonardo to France, 
and attended him at his death, and succeeded to 
the whole of his drawings, instruments, books, 
and manuscripts. He furnished Vaeari and Lo- 
mazzo with notes on Leonardo's life, and it is to 
him that posterity is indebted for the preservation 

136 



of the valuable collection of the master's writings. 
He died in 1568. ny 

MEMLINC, Hans, was born about 1430—14^0, 
perhaps at Memling, near Aschaffenberg, in Ger- 
many, or at Memelynck, in Holland. He was 
probably settled at Bruges in 1471, certainly in 
1478. In May 1480 he was in possession of 
house property in the street now called Sint Jooris 
Straet. In the town accounts of 1480 he appears 
among the 247 burgesses who advanced money 
towards the carrying on of the war between the 
Emperor and the King of France. Memlinc was 
married ; his wife's Christian name was Anne, 
and she bore him three children, two boys and a 
girl, John, Nicolas, and 'Nielkin,' which may have 
been short for Cornelia. Anne was already dead 
on the 10th September, 1487, and Hans followed 
her, as Mr. Weale has ascertained from the 
orphan registers of the town, between the 1st 
June, 1492, and the 10th December, 1495. Vasari 
says Memlinc was the scholar of Roger van der 
Weyden, and in the collection of pictures in the 
possession of Margaret of Austria, once at Mechlin, 
there was a triptych of which the centre was by 
Roger and the wings by Hans. The names of 
two of Memlinc 's pupils have been ascertained : 
Hannekin Verhanneman, son of Nicolas, and Pas- 
scier van der Meersch, son of Passcier. The roman- 
tic tale first told by Descamps, which narrates how 
Memlinc fought as a soldier in the battle of Nancy, 
and returned grievously wounded to Bruges, to be 
nursed by the sisters of the Hospital of St. John, 
finds too little support before the year in which 
Descamps wrote (1713) to be accepted now. Mr. ' 
Weale, however, found in a MS. of the 17th century ; 
a statement to the effect that Memlinc painted one 
of his pictures for the Hospital out of gratitude for 
the services rendered to him by its members. For 
harmonious frankness of colour and purity of ex- 
pression, Memlinc must be put at the head of the 
old Flemish painters. The following list of his 
works is divided into two classes, the first con- 
taining all those of which authenticity is undoubted, 
in their approximate chronological order : 

CLASS I. 

France. Ckantilly. Diptych ('Cruoifixion'and 'Joan 

of France at a Prayer-desk ' ). 
1460 (?). 
Triptych. 1471 (?). 
1 Large Altar-piece. (Triptych.) 
J 1479. 
The Light of the World (called 
in catalogue ' The seven Joys 
of the Virgin '). 1480. 
Bruges. Sosjyiial. Small triptych with donor (J. 

Fioreins). 
Brussels. Gallery. Portraits of 'William Moreel and 

of his Wife, Barbara Vlaen- 
derbTch. M80. 
Bruges. Hospital, Portrait of their daughter Mary 

(called the ' Sibyl Sambetha 'j. 
1480. 
Large Altar-piece from the 
church of St. James. 1484. 
Diptych for Martin Nieuwen- 

hove. 1487. 
Portrait of a Man praying. 

1487. 
Chasse of St. Ursula. 1489. 
{Much injured and repainted.] 
Virgin and Child. 
A 'Light of the World.' (ffimt- 
lar to that at Munich.) 
Bruges. Hospital. Triptych painted for Adrian 

Keins. 



England Chiswick House. 
Bruges. Hospital of St. 

John. 
Munich. Old Finacothek. 



» 


Academy. 


11 


Hospital. 


Florence. 


Ufzi. 


Bruges. 


Hospital. 


London. 
Turin. 


Nat. Gallery. 
Gallery. 



Memmi 
Paris. 



PAINTERS AND ENGRAVERS. 



Antwerp. 



Louvre. Virgin Entbroned. 

{The dates of these last four 
are uncertain.) 

CLASS II. 

Museum. Portrait of an old Monk. 

„ Portrait of a member of the De 

Croy family. 
„ „ Diptych ('Virgin,' and a por- 

trait of Chretien de Hondt). 

Dantzig. Church of the} The liast Judgment. 1467 (?). 

Tiryin. J (The doubts as to Memlinc's 

authorship which some icriters 

have cast on this picture do 

not seem to he well founded.) 

Florence. TTffid, Virgin Enthroned. (Triptych.) 

London. Ifat. Gallery. St. John the Baptist and St. 
Lawrence. [The doubts ex- 
pressed as to these two panels 
seem to be ill founded.) 

Lubeck. Cathedral. The Crucifixion ; a triptych. 

(The largest production of the 
school^ but only partly from 
the handfif Memtinc.) 

Madrid. Museum, Triptych (' Adoration of the 

Magi,' 'Presentation in the 
Temple,' and the ' Nativity '). 
(Much injured^ and parts only 
by Memlinc''s own hand.) 

Munich. Old Pinacothek. St. John the Baptist. (Signed 
H. V. D. Goes, 1472, but the 
signature is a forgery.) 

[See 'Early Flemisli Painters,' by Crowe and 
Cavalcaselle (p. 251, ed. of 1879); and 'Hans 
Memling,' by W. H. James Weale (Arundel Society, 
1865).] W.A. 

MEMMI. ■ See Martini. 

MENA, Felipe Gil de, was a Spanish painter, 
born at Valladolid in 1600. He studied under 
Vanderhamen at Madrid, and was himself a teacher. 
At his death, in 1 674, he left a large collection of 
prints and models, valued at 3000 ducats. His 
most curious work, representing an ' Auto-da-F^ at 
Valladolid,' was painted for the Inquisition. His 
portraits of the painter Diaz and his wife resemble 
Pantoja in style. In 1444 he painted a series on 
the life of St. Francis for the convent of that saint, 
and some of the pictures are now in the Museum 
at Valladolid. 

MENABUOI, GiusTO di Giovanni de', called 
Padovano, or Justus op Padua, was born at 
Florence in. the earlier half of the 14th century. 
He was a follower of Giotto, and studied the 
works which that master had executed in Padua, 
of which city Giusto was made a citizen in 1375. 
He is supposed to have executed several- frescoes 
in Padua, but those in the baptistery of the 
cathedral, and in the chapel of St. Luke, in the 
church of Sant' Antonio, which were formerly 
ascribed to him, are now declared to be the work 
of two unimportant painters, who were probably 
jiis pupils — Giovanni and Antonio da Padova. The 
only autheaticated picture by him is a small trip- 
tych in the National Gallery ; it represents in the 
centre, the 'Coronation of the Virgin,' with various 
saints. On the interior sides of the wings are the 
' Birth ' and • Crucifixion of our Lord,' and the 
' Annunciation. ' On the exterior wings are various 
scenes in the life of the Virgin before her marriage. 
The picture, which was formerly in the Wallerstein 
Collection, and was presented to the National 
Gallery by the Queen, is signed on the back ' Justus 
pinxit in archa,' and dated in the front mccclxvii. 
Giusto died in the year 1400. 

MENAGEOT, FRAN901S Guillaume, (or Mesna- 
GEOT,) an historical painter, was born of French 



IVCenendez 

parents in London in 1744. He worked succes- 
sively under Augustin, Deshayes, Boucher, and 
Vien. He distmguished himself by his classic 
compositions, and became in 1780 a member, and 
" ,lor,°?.^ °^ ""^^^ professors of the Academy, and 
Tj.: T director of the French School at Rome. 
After having spent eight years at Vioenza he 
returned to France in 1809, and became a member 
of the Institute, dying in Paris in 1816. Among 
the best of his works are': 

Nebuchadnezzar ordering Kedekiah's sons to be put to 
death. ^ 

The Death of Leonardo da Vinci. 

Industry stopping the flight of Time. (Louvre ) 

Mars and Venus. (St. Petersburg.) 

Polyxenus taking leave of Hecuba. 

Astyanax torn from the arms of his Mother. 

Cleopatra at the Tomb of Marc Antony. 

Diana and Venus. 

Dagobert giving orders for the construction of the 
Church of St. Denis. 

MENAGEOT, Eobebt, an engraver, was bom 
in Paris in 1748. He was for some time a pupil 
of Boucher, and at first practised painting, but he 
afterwards devoted himself entirely to engraving. 
We have several plates by him, executed in the 
dotted manner, some of which were engraved for 
Boydell during a residence in London. Among 
others we have the following prints by him : 

Friendship ; a circular print ; after Correggia. 
Innocence ; the companion ; Mena<)eot fecit. 
The Virgin and Infant, with St. Elizabeth ; after Guido. 
An African Woman ; after Loutherbourg. 

MENANT, P., a French engraver, flourished in 
Paris about the year 1715. In conjunction with 
Raymond, Ponbonne, Scotin, and others, he exe- 
cuted part of the plates of the ' Views of the 
Palace and Gardens at Versailles.' 

MENAROLA, Cheistoforo, an Italian painter, 
who flourished at Vioenza in 1727. He was a 
pupil of Volpato, and painted historical subjects. 
In the churches of Vicenza several of his pictures 
are to be seen. 

MENAROLA, Crest ano, was a painter of Bas- 
sano, who produced gigantic figures in the style 
of Michelangelo, and composed in the manner of 
Paolo Veronese. He died in 1640. 

MENDEZ, DE Haro Sotomayor Guzman Ber- 
nardo Inca, a native of Cordoba, is mentioned by 
Bermudez as working in 1790 in pen-and-ink. 

MENDEZ, Juan, was a Spanish engraver who 
flourished at Seville, and in 1627 executed an 
architectural frontispiece, with Ionic columns and 
several figures, designed by one Juan de Herrera 
for Rodrigo Caro's edition pf the 'Apocryphal 
Chronicle ' of Flavins Lucius Dexter. 

MENDOZA, ESTEBAN Hurtado de, a Spanish 
painter who lived at Seville in 1680. He painted 
religious subjects, and his pictures are to be found 
in the principal buildings of Seville. He was a 
Knight of the Order of St. James of Campostello. 

MENEGHINO (or Meniohino). See Ambbogi. 

MENENDEZ, Anna, daughter and pupil of 
Francisco Menendez, was born at Naples in 1714. 
She painted miniatures and ^ scenes from ' Don 
Quixote.' In 1759 she was made a fellow of the 
Academy. Her sister Clara, a portrait painter, 
was born at Naples in 1712, and died at Madrid in 
1734. 

MENENDEZ, Francisco Antonio, was born at 
Oviedo in 1682, and at an early age joined his 
brother Miguel at Madrid. He proceeded to Italy 

137 



Meuendez 



A BIOGRAPHICAL DICTIONARY OF 



Hengs 



in 1699, visiting Genoa, Milan, Venice, Rome, and 
Naples. On his return in 1717 he devoted himself 
to miniature painting, achieving great success 
in portraits of the royal family. In 1726 he 
addressed a memorial to the king on the scheme 
for establishing an Academy of Art, but died 
before the realization of his hopes by the crea- 
tion of the Academy of St. Ferdinand in 1752. 
A votive picture of a ' Storm ' by Menendez adorns 
the high altar of our Lady of Atocha. 

MENENDEZ, ' Jos:fi Agostino, son of Francisco 
Menendez, was born at Madrid, 1724. He resided 
at Cadiz, and practised miniature painting. 

MENENDEZ, Luis, also a son of Francisco 
Menendez, was born at Naples in 1716, and studied 
painting under his father, and afterwards at Rome. 
At Naples he presented two pictures to King 
Charles, who appointed him painter- in-ordinary. 
Returning to Madrid, he was emploj'ed by Ferdi- 
nand VI. to illuminate the choir books of the 
royal chapel. In 1773 he painted a ' Holy Family,' 
in miniature, for the portable oratory of the Prin- 
cess of the Asturias. Although he painted several 
large devotional pictures, his favourite subjects 
were of a lower genre. As many as forty-four 
of his less ambitious works used to hang in the 
king's apartments at Aranjuez. Many good speci- 
mens are in the Royal and National Museums at 
Madrid, and in the latter collection is a portrait of 
iiimself, painted in a smooth and agreeable manner. 
He died at Madrid in 1780. In nearly all his 
pictures we find a dish of large Andalusian olives. 

MENENDEZ, Miguel Jacinto, was born at 
Oviedo in 1679, and studied painting at Madrid. 
He was appointed painter to Philip V. in 1712. 
Amongst his principal pictures were two for the 
cloister of the Shod Carmelites, a 'Magdalene' in 
the Recolete convent, and an 'Apostle' in the 
church of San Gil. His sketches for two com- 
positions for the church of San Felipe Real were 
afterwards made use of by his friend Andres de la 
Calleja. A drawing by Menendez representing St. 
Isidore in pontifical robes, on horseback, slaying 
Moors, was tolerably engraved by Juan Bernab6 
Palomino. 

MENESES, OsoEio Fkancisoo, born at Seville 
in 1630, was a pupil of Murillo's. He was 
president of the Seville Academy, for which he 
painted a 'Conception.' In tlie church of St. 
Martin, at Madrid, is an ' Elijah.' He died at 
Seville in 1705. 

MENGELBURG, Egidius. painter, was born at 
Cologne in 1770. In 1783 he studied at the 
Academy of Diisseldorf, returning to Cologne in 
1787. From 1790 to 1800 he was engaged in 
painting portraits and copying pictures in the 
Diisseldorf Gallery. From 1800 to 1806 he resided 
at Elberfeld, and returned to Cologne in 1821, 
where he died in 1848. 

MENGAZZINO. See Santi, Dombnico. 

MENGOZZI-COLONNA, Gibolamo, was born at 
Ferrara in 1688. He studied under A. Ferrari, and 
resided chiefly at Venice, where he painted in 
churches and palaces. He died in 1772. 

MENGS, Ana. See Caemona. 

MENGS, Anton Rafael, was born at Aussig, in 
Bohemia, in 1728. His father, Ismael Mengs, in- 
structed him in the first rudiments of drawing, and 
having removed to Dresden whilst his son was 
young, young Mengs had an opportunity of im- 
proving himself, by studying the works of the 
best masters in that celebrated Gallery. When he 

138 



was thirteen years of age his father took him to 
Rome, in 1741, where he was employed in copying, 
in miniature, some of the works of Raphael, for 
Augustus IlL, Elector of Saxony and King of 
Poland, which were sent to Dresden, and much 
admired. Mengs remained three years at Rome, 
where he studied under Marco Benefial and Seb. 
Conca, and on his return to Saxony was appointed 
one of the painters to the King-Elector, with a salary, 
and was permitted by his royal patron to visit Rome 
a second time, where he resided four years, and 
exhibited a large picture of the ' Holy Family ' 
of his own composition, which gained him great 
reputation. He married at Rome (his bride being 
a beautiful peasant girl, Margaretha Quazzi, who 
had sat to him as a model), and was desirous of 
fixing his residence in that capital, but his father 
would not permit him to indulge his inclination, 
and he was compelled to return to Saxony, where 
he arrived in 1749. He remained three years at 
Dresden, where the tyranny of his father rendered 
his situation so distressing, that he found his 
health and spirits impaired, and he requested and 
received the king's permission to return to Rome. 
He was soon afterwards reduced to very embar- 
rassed circumstances, by the discontinuance of his 
salary, which was stopped from the embarrassment 
of the king's finances occasioned by the war. He 
was working in Rome, at very low prices, when he 
was employed by the Duke of Northumberland to 
paint a copy of the celebrated ' School of Athens,' 
by Raphael. In 1754 he undertook the direction 
of the newly-established Art Academy in the 
Capitol. In 1787 he was engaged to paint the 
ceiling of the church of St. Busebius, and soon 
afterwards he executed his fresco of ' Mount Par- 
nassus,' in the Villa Albani, which has been finely 
engraved by Rafael Morghen. In an excursion he 
made to Naples, to execute a commission for the 
Elector of Saxony, he became known to the king, 
afterwards Charles III. of Spain, who, on his suc- 
cession to the throne, invited Mengs to Madrid, 
with the offer of a very considerable appointment 
This proposal was not refused, and he arrived at 
the Spanish court in 1761. His first undertaking 
was the ceiling of the king's antechamber, repre- 
senting the Graces ; and afterwards that of the 
queen's apartment, where he painted one of his 
most celebrated works, the ' Aurora,' a grand and 
beautiful composition. He was elected a member 
of the Academy of Madrid. The climate of Spain 
not agreeing with his constitution, he was per- 
mitted by the king to return to Rome, for the 
re-establishment of his health. On his arrival he 
was employed by Clement XIV. in the Vatican, 
where he painted two pictures in the Camera de' 
Papini. Mengs remained three years at Rome, 
and on his return to Madrid in 1773 was re- 
ceived with great kindness by his royal protector. 
It was soon after his return that he undertook the 
ceiling of the great saloon in the palace, on which 
he painted the ' Apotheosis of Trajan.' The fresco 
paintings of Mengs are greatly superior to his 
pictures in oil. Of the latter, perhaps the best 
is his picture of the 'Nativity,' in the royal col- 
lection of Spain. Mengs died at Rome in 1779. 
The following are some of his chief pictures : 



Berlin. 
Dresden. 



Museum. 
Catholic 1 



Portrait of Ismael Mengs. 
Holy Family. 



Ciiurch f ■^ss'i™ptiei' of the Virgin. 
Gallery. The Angel appearing. 



Mangs 
Dresden. 



PAINTERS AND ENGRAVERS. 



Mercey 



Gallery. Penitent Magdalen. 
„ „ Portrait of Maria Antouia, wife 

of Frederick Christian, Elec- 
tor of Saxony. 
„ „ Magdalen ; miniature. 

„ „ Holy Family ; miniature. {From 

the original by Raphael in the 
Naples Gallery.) 
„ „ Madonna della Sedia; minia- 

ture ; after Baphael. 
„ „ August III., King of Poland ; 

miniature, 
Florence. Uffizi. His own Portrait. (^Replicas are 

at Munich, St. Petersburg, and 
Madrid.) 
Madrid. Gallery. Adoration of the Shepherds. 

Munich. Pinakothek. Portrait of a Capuchin Friar. 
Petersburg. Hermitage. Annunciation. 

„ „ St. John preaching in the Wil- 

derness. 
„ „ The Descent of the Holy Spirit. 

„ „ Apotheosis of a Poetess. 

„ „ Perseus and Andromeda. 

„ „ Judgment of Paris. 

Rome. f^illa Albani. Apollo and the Muses. 

Vienna. Belvedere. The Angel appearing to St. 

Joseph. 
„ „ Madonna and Child. 

„ „ Annunciation. 

„ St. Peter. 

„ „ Portrait of Infanta Maria The- 

resa of Naples. 
„ „ Portrait of the Grand Duchess 

Maria Ludovica of Tuscany. 
MENGS, IsMAEL, a miniature painter, and father 
of Rafael Mengs, born at Copenhagen in 1690. He 
was the pupil of an English painter called Cooper. 
He was painter to the King of Poland and director 
of the Dresden Academy, where he died in 1764. 

MENGS, JnLiA, sister of Anton Rafael Mengs, 
was a miniature painter, and died in 1789. 
MENGS, Therese. See Makon. 
MENHEERE, Cornelis Latjrensz, a Dutch 
marine painter, lived at the beginning of the 
18th century. He resided at Flushing, and the 
greater part of his pictures are views of that city 
taken from the sea-coast. 
MENICO, Sang, or Ansano di. See Sano di 

PiBTRO. 

MENINI, Lorenzo, an historical painter, was 
born at Bologna about 1600. He was a pupil of 
Gessi, whom he accompanied to Naples. 

MENJAUD, Alexandre, a French historical and 
portrait painter, bom in Paris in 1768. He worked 
under Regnault, and having obtained the Prix 
de Rome in 1802, proceeded to Italy to complete his 
studies. His works obtained medals at the Salons 
of 1806 and 1819. He died in Paris in 18.32. 
Among his pictures we may name : 

The Death-bed of Louis VI. 1817. {St. Denis.) 

The Miser punished. 

The Death of Abbfi Edgeworth. 1817. {Bordeaux 
Museum.) 

The Death of the Duke of Berri. 

MENKEN, JoHANN Heinrich, was born at Bre- 
men in 1764. He studied under Klengel and 
Casanova at Dresden. He painted cattle-pieces, 
landscapes, forest scenes, &c. in the style of 
Euisdael, Berchem, Potter, and Wouwerman, and 
engraved among others : 

A Landscape with a Mill, and Cattle in the water. 

A Forest with Cottages and Cattle. 

The plates for ' Eeinecke Fuohs.' 

He died in 1837. Gottfried Menken, his son and 
pupil, bom in 1799, was also a painter. 

MENSAERT, G. p., a Flemish historical painter 
who resided at Brussels, where he executed, in 



company with several other artists, a ' Life of 
the Virgin' for the church of the Jesuits. He 
died in 1750. 

MENSGHEL, Alotsius, portrait painter, was 
born at Rumburg, in Bohemia, in 1782, and studied 
at the Dresden Academy from 1801 to 1807. In 
style he was an imitator of the early German 
school. He was also employed as a picture-restorer. 
We can find no record of his death. 

MENSING, Jan, painter, was born at Haarlem 
in 1685. He was a pupil of Van der Vinne the 
elder, and was enrolled in the registers of St. 
Luke in 1705. He died in 1741. 

MENTON, Frans, was born at Alkmaar in 1550, 
and was a, disciple of Frans Floris. He painted 
historical subjects and portraits. He a'so etched 
four spirited plates for the 'History of Lot,' wliich 
are now very rare. He died at Alkmaar in 1615. 
His chfff d'oeuvre is an 'Assumption' in the Jesuits' 
Church at Antwerp. 

MENZEL, Johann Georg, (Mentzel,) an en- 
graver, was born at Leipsic in 1675. He engraved 
several portraits, among which were Philip, Dulte 
of Orleans, and Anna, Empress of Russia. He 
died in 1730. 

MERA, JosEP DE, a Spanish painter, bora at Villa 
Meava de la Serena. He was a pupil of Barnabd 
d'Ayala. His best pictures are at the Carmelite 
convent at Seville. He died at Seville in 1734. 

MP]RA, PlETER, a Dutch historical painter who 
resided at Venice, where he painted several pictures 
for the churches. He died in 1680. 

MERANO, Francesco, called II Paggio, was 
born at Genoa in 1619. He began life as a page, 
but took to art, and was a pupil of Piasella, called 
Sarzana, whose style he followed. He died of the 
plague in 1657. 

MERANO, Giovanni Battista, wfis born at 
Genoa in 1632. He was a scholar of Valeric Cus- 
tello, and by the recommendation of his master 
studied with attention the works of Correggio, at 
Parma, where he was employed by the Duke and 
by many private patrons. One of his best per- 
formances is the 'Murder of the Innocents,' in the 
Jesuits' church at Genoa. He died in 1700 (or 1698). 

MERCATI, Giovanni Battista, a Florentine 
painter and engraver, was born at Citta San Sepol- 
cro, and flourished at Rome from 1616 to 1637. 
He was an imitator, if not a scholar, of Pietro da 
Cortona, and painted history in the style of that 
master. In the church of Santa Chiara, in his 
native city, he painted two subjects from the life 
of the Virgin ; and in San Lorenzo, an altar-piece 
which resembles the style of the Carracci. We 
have several spirited etchings by this artist, some 
of which are from his own designs ; they are 
variously signed O.M., G.M.I.F., G.B.M.I., G.M. 
del. Jo. Batt. inuen. et F., J.B.M. fecit, &c. The 
following are the principal : 

A set of fifty-two plates of Ruins and Views in Italy ; 
engraved in the manner of Sylvestre ; Gio. Bat. 
Mercatifec. 

Four Antique Figures, from the arch of Constantine ; 
engraved in the style of Galestruzzi ; circular ; Gio. 
Bat. Mercati. 

The Marriage of St. Catharine ; after Correggio. 

St. Bibiana refusing to sacrifice to false Gods ; after 
Pietro da Cortona. 

MERCEY, Frederic Bourgeois de, a French 
landscape painter, born in Paris about 1805. From 
1829 to 1837 he mnde many tours in Scotland, 
Italy, Switzerland, the Tyrol, Germany, &c., which 
furnished subjects for the pictures he exhibiled at 

139 



Mercier 



A BIOGRAPHICAL DICTION All V OF 



Kerian 



the Salon, where he first appeared in 1831. He 
subsequently held high office in the Department of 
Pine Arts, in connection with which he superin- 
tended the erection of the building for the Paris 
Exhibition of 1855. He died in Paris in 1860. 
Amongst the works which he published are : 

' Etudes sur les Beaux Arts,' 3 vols. 1855. 

'Le Toscaae et le M'di de I'ltalie,' 2 vols. 1858. 

MERCIER, Philip, was born of French parents 
at BerHn in 1689, and was brought up in the 
Academy there. After visiting France and Italy 
he went to Hanover, where he painted the portrait 
of Prince Frederick, son of George II., which he 
brought with him to England. When the Prince 
came over Mercier was appointed his painter, be- 
came a favourite, and was taken into his household, 
when by the prince's order he drew several of the 
royal family, particularly the three eldest prin- 
cesses, his work being reproduced in mezzotint by 
J. Simon. After some years he lost the favour of 
the Prince of Wales, and was dismissed from his 
service. He afterwards lived in Covent Garden, 
painting portraits and pictures of domestic subjects 
in the style of Watteau, in whose manner he has 
left an etching of himself, with his wife and two 
children. Still later he spent some time at York, 
and then in Portugal and Ireland. He died in 1760. 
A portrait of Peg WoflSngton by him is at the 
Garrick Club, and he has also left one of Queen 
Anne. His daughter Charlotte, who was also a 
painter and engraver, died in 1762. 

MERCK, JoHANN Cheistoph, a painter of Hall, 
in Wurteraberg, who flourished in the 18th century. 
He painted several pictures for King Frederick 
William, as also his portrait and those of the two 
Dukes Philipp and Ludwig on horseback. He 
died at Potsdam early in the present century. 

MERCOLI, Jakob, an engraver, was born at 
Mugena in 1745. He worked chiefly in Italy, 
and died in 1825. His son Michelangelo, born 
in 1773, 'who was also a painter, died in 1802. 

MERCURIUS. See Rocs, Phil. Pet. 

MERCURY, Paul, a French engraver, was born 
at Rome in 1808, died in Paris in 1886, He was 
often premiated at the salon, and, in 1847, was 
appointed professor of engraving at the French 
Academy in Rome. He occasionally exhibited a 
picture at the Salon. His best known plates are : 

Lady Jane Gray ; after Paul Betaroche. 

Sfc. Amfilie ; after the same. 

Madame de Maiutenon ; after Fetitot. 

La Pia ; an original subject, 

' Tasso ' and ' Christopher Columbus ' -tfor the ' Galleries 

bistoriques de Versailles.' 
Reapers in the Pontine Marshes ; afer Liopold Eoiert. 
Madonna ; after Raphael. 
A Series of Costumes from the XIII., XIV., and XV. 

centuries. 1828. 

M^RECINUS, P. See Meeica. 

MERELLE, p., a portrait painter, who worked 
in Paris from 1660 to 1710. Several of his works 
were engraved. 

MERIAN, Dorothea Maeia Heneietta, daugh- 
ter of Maria Sibylla Merian, was born in 1678. She 
followed in the steps of her mother, and painted 
insects. She married the painter Xells, who lived 
at St. Petersburg. She retained through life the 
name of Merian, though her real maiden name was 
Graff. She died in 1745. Her sister, Johanna 
Maeia Helena, was born at Frankfort in 1668. 
She also painted flowers and insects. She married 
a merchant named Herold, who was in business at 
Surinam. The date of her death is unknown. 

140 



MERIAN, Gaspae, was a native of Germany. 
He engraved a set of plates representing the 
' Ceremonies at the Election of the Emperor 
Leopold,' published at Frankfort in 1660. 

MERIAN, Jan Matthaus, was the son of 
Matthalis Merian the younger. He was a minia- 
ture painter, and died at Frankfort in 1716. 

MERIAN, Maeia Sibylla, the daughter of 
Matthaiis Merian the elder, was born at Frankfort 
in 1647. Sbe lost her father when she was only 
four years of age, but her mother having some 
time afterwards married Jacob Marel, a fruit and 
flower painter, he encouraged the disposition she 
discovered for drawing, and taught her the first 
rudiments of the art. Her father-in-law placed her 
under the care of Abraham Mignon, who had been 
his scholar, and who excelled in paintinginsects; and 
it was not long before she arrived at a perfection 
little short of her instructor. She usually painted 
in water-colours, on vellum. In 1665 she married 
Johann Andreas Graff, an artist of Nuremberg, who 
had been a scholar of Marel, and settled in that 
city. She died in 1717. The British Museum 
possesses two volumes of her drawings. 

MERIAN, Matthaus, the elder, an eminent 
draughtsman and engraver, was born at Basle in 
1593. Having discovered an early disposition for 
art he was sent to Zurich, and placed under the 
tuition of Dietrich Meyer, a glass painter and en- 
graver, with whom he studied four years. On 
leaving that master he was employed to make an 
etching of the frieze representing the 'Entry of 
the Duke of Lorraine into Nancy,' which he exe- 
cuted in twelve plates. From Zurich he visited 
Paris and Stuttgart. He also passed a short time 
in the Netherlands, and subsequently married the 
daughter of Theodor de Bry, an engraver at Oppen- 
heim. He then worked at Basle until 1624, and 
etched a considerable number of landscapes, battles, 
and hunts ; in the same year he returned to Frank- 
fort, and engraved topographical plates of Heidel- 
berg, Stuttgart, Schwalbach,&c.,which he afterwards 
published at Frankfort, and which are the best of 
his works. They are etched from his own designs, 
in a slight free style, and finished with the graver, 
and give a perfect idea of the places they repre- 
sent, though without much taste in the execution. 
He has the credit of having been the master of 
Hollar. Merian died at Sohwalbach in 1650. 
Among the important works which he illustrated 
were, the Bible, Gottfried's ' Chronik,' Zeiller's 
'Topographia' (1640-88), and 'Theatrum Euro- 
pium.' The following are his principal prints, 
which are sometimes marked with M M or one of 

these ciphers, -^^ or _^. 

portraits. 

David Parens, Prof. Academise Heidelberg, 

Daniel Senerbus ; oval. 

Arnold Weiokerdus, Med. Doc. 1626. 

SUBJECTS. 
A set of plates from Sacred History. 
The Last Supper, inscribed, Accepit Jesus paneni; a 

large plate. 
A large plate of the Picture of Human Life ; inscribed, 

Tahula Cebetis, continens totius vita humaiuB descrip- 

tionem. 
A set of seven Views in France. 
Six Views in Germany. 
Sixteen Views in Germany and Switzerland. 
Twelve Views of Gardens, &c. 
Twenty-four Picturesque Landscapes, with figures. 



SCerian 



PAINTERS AND ENGRAVERS. 



M#ryon 



MBRIAN, Matthaus, the younger, the son of 
Matthaiis the elder, was born at Basle in 1621. 
At the age of fourteen he came to Frankfort, 
where he learnt the principles of painting from 
Joachim von Sandrart, whom he accompanied 
to Amsterdam in 1637 and to England in 1640. 
In the latter country ho followed the style of Van 
Dyok, and after having travelled in the Nether- 
lands, he went to Paris and Rome, and studied 
there, under Sacohi's direction, after the works of 
the old masters. He painted history and portraits, 
and in the latter line he was employed by the most 
distinguished personages in Germany. After the 
death of his father in 1650 he continued his busi- 
ness as a printseller at Frankfort, and engraved 
several plates for the 'Theatrum Buropseum.' He 
died at Frankfort in 1687. Bartholomaus and 
Philipp Kilian, M. Kiissel, and several others have 
engraved after his works. His son Caspar was 
born in 1627. He was an engraver and assisted 
his father. Among the best works of Matthaiis 
we may name : 

Bamberg. Oathedral. Martyrdom of St. Lawrence. 
Basle. Town Library. The Resurrection. 

„ Herr Burhhard's. Artemisia. 

His best portraits are those of : 

His Father. 

His sister Maria Sibylla. 

The Electors of Brandenburg, Mentz, and the Palatinate. 

The Count Serini. 

A Family Picture. {Basle.) 1641. 

MERICA, Petrus A., generally called Meeecinus, 
(MiRiOENiJS, MiJRiciNis, &c.,) was a Flemish en- 
graver, a native of Merioa (perhaps Meereyok or 
Meeryck), and flourished about 1560-70. He en- 
graved several eccentric and strange compositions, 
after Jerome Bosch, Brueghel, and others. There is 
also a portrait of Albrecht Diirer at the age of 
fifty-six, copied by him from a larger print. He 

marked his plates with the cipher ^j^ • The 

name appears on several prints published by Jerome 
Cock ; one has the date 1567, and is signed Pet. 
Merecinus sa. This artist is said to be the same 
as Pieter Martini, a printseller of Antwerp. Among 
other plates there are by him : 

A Bird's-eye View of Antwerp in four plates. 

Tlie Twelve Apostles ; after M. de Vos. 

The Seven Mortal Sins ; after P. Brueghel. 

A Pedlar sleeping, surrounded by sportive Monkeys 

(his best plate). 
Master Hans, the Quack ; after P. Brueghel. 
The Two Blind Men ; a,fter J. Bosch. 
The Adoration of the Shepherds. 

MERIGI (or Merighi). See Amebigi. 

MERIM:6b, Jean FEANgois Lbonorb, a French 
painter, was born in 1765. He was a pupil of 
Vincent. He went to Rome, and on his return 
was appointed secretary of the Eoole des Beaux 
Arts. He painted portraits and historical subjects, 
among which were the portrait of Poussin and the 
' Resurrection ' of Hippolytua. He died in Paris in 
1836. 

MERKEL, Conrad, (Meeklin,) was a German 
historical, portrait, and still-life painter, born at 
Ulra. He was a contemporary and friend of 
Albrecht Diirer. He died in 1518 or 1526. 

MERKURIEFF, Ivan, a Russian painter, was 
sent by Peter the Great to Italy, where he made 
copies of the works of the best masters, and then 
returned to St. Petersburg, where he painted for 
the churches. He died at Moscow about 1710. 



MERLE, Hdgues, was a French genre painter, 
born at Iseres in 1823. His best known produc- 
tion is ' The Beggar-woman.' He died in 1881. 

MERLEN, Abraham von, an engraver who 
worked in the Netherlands in 1620. 

MERLEN, JoHANN VAN. This artist, conjointly 
with Theodor van Mbrlen, who was probably 
his brother, engraved a few plates after Maitin de 
Vos and others about the year 1600. 

MBRSION, Madeleine de, author of a ' Landscape 
with Cattle,' engraved in the ' Berghem ' style of 
Danckerts : it has no date. 

MERTENS, Jan, a Flemish painter who resided 
at Antwerp in the 15th century. He was a pupil 
of Jan de Mabuse, and was inscribed as master in 
the registers of St. Luke in 1505. 

MERTENS, Jan Cornells, portrait painter, was 
born at Amsterdam in 1745. He was a pupil of 
Quinkhard. He died in 1821. 

MERTER, Hans Michel, a German landscape 
painter. He was a pupil of J. Dorner, but died 
still young in 1790. 

MBRYON, Charles, sailor, engraver, and etcher, 
was born in Paris in 1821. His father, Charles 
Lewis Meryon, was an English physician, and his 
mother, Pierre Narcisse Chaspoux, a dancer at the 
opera. At five he went to school at Passy, and 
afterwards was taken by his mother to the south 
of France. In 1837 he entered the naval school at 
Brest, and two years later went to sea. While in 
the navy he had an opportunity of accumulating 
materials for use in the new profession which he 
finally adopted in 1846. In that year he settled 
in Paris, and became the pupil for a time of a 
painter named Phelippes, who was, employed at 
the Ministere de Guerre. It was while he was 
struggling to paint a large historical picture on 
the strength of the hints given to him by Phelippes, 
that he was discovered to be suffering from the 
affection of the eyes known as Daltonism, which 
made him quite unfit to be a painter. He then 
entered the atelier of M. B. BMry, the engraver, 
with whom he stayed six months, and after that 
began the series of etchings from the streets of Paris 
with which his name will always remain associated. 
In 1856 he went to Belgium on the invitation of 
the Due d' Aremberg, of whose chateau at Enghien 
be made some drawings, but returned to Paris 
early in 1858, the mental disease by which he had 
long been threatened having then greatly de- 
veloped itself. Two months later h6 was placed 
in the asylum at Charenton, the certificate declaring 
him to be "suffering from melancholy madness, 
aggravated by delusions." Here his health im- 
proved, and at the end of 1859 he left the asylum. 
For seven years he worked on, leading a curiously 
fitful life with the few whoni he called his friends ; 
but in 1866 his malady increased, and a second 
confinement became necessary. Mdryon died at 
Charenton at the beginning of 1868, and was 
buried in the cemetery of the asylum. The 
following is a complete list of his etchings : 

1. La Sainte Face. {His first attempt.) 

2. The Cow and the Ass. 

3. A Soldier ; after Salvator Rosa. 

4. A Shepherd ; after Stefano delta Bella. 

5. Sheep and Flies ; after Karel du Jardin, 

6. Three Pigs ; after the same. 

7. Two Horses ; after the same. 

8. Pavilion de Mademoiselle ; after Zeeman. {Louvre. ) 

9. Entrance to Faubourg St. Marceaux ; after the same. 

10. Water-mill near St. Deni.s ; after the same. 

11 . The Seine at the Angle de Mail ; after the same. 

12. Galliot of Jan Van Vyl ; after the same, reversed. 

141 



Merz 



A BIOGRAPHICAL DICTIONAKY OF 



Hesquida 



13. Amsterdam-Haarlem boat ; after Zeeman, reversed. 

14. South-sea Fishermen ; after the same, reversed. 

15. Calais to Flu.shing ; after the same, reversed. 

16. Entrance to the Oapucin Convent, Athens. 

17. The Salle des Pas Perdns. 

18. Chenonceau. [In ' Vlnventaire des meuhles, ^c, a 
Chenonceau,^ hy Prijice Auguste Galitzin, 1856.) 

19. The Pont Neuf. 

20. The Pont-au-Ohange ahout 1784 ; a.per Nicolle. 

21. The Battle of Sinope ; after a drawing by an Enylish 
naval officer. 

22. View of San Francisco. 

23. Ruins of the Chateau de Pierrefonds ; after a sketch 
hy Viollet le Due. 

24. Eue Pirouette-aux-Halles ; after a drawing l)y one 
Monsieur Laurence. 

25. Presentation to Louis XI. of ' Valere Maxime,' a 
boolc printed in Paris in 1475 ; after an old miniature 
belonying to the late M. l^iel. 

26. Apse of St. Martin-sur-Eenelle ; after a dratmng by 
Folydes Langlois. 

27. Passerelle du Pont-au-Change (after the fire of 1621). 

28. Part of the Cite, Paris. 

29. Le Grand Chatelet ; after an old drawing. 

30. The old Louvre ; after Zeeman . 

31. The Title to his ' Etchings of Paris.' 

32. Portrait of Zeeman. 

33. The old Gateway to the Palais de Justice ; frontis- 
piece to the Pans etchings. 

34. ' Qu'ame pure rougisse.' 

35. Symbolical arms of Paris. 

36. * Fluctuat nee mergitur ; ' the ship of Paris. 

37. Le Stryge. 

38. Le Petit Pont. 

39. L'Arche du Pont Notre-Dame. 1850. 

40. La Galerie de Notre-Dame. 

41. La Eue des Mauvais-Gar^ons. 

42. La Tour de I'Horloge. 

43- Tower in the Eue de la Tixcrauderie, demolished 
in 1S51. 

44. Saiut-Etieuue-du-Mont. 

45. La poiupe Notre-Dame. 

46. La petite pompe . 

47. Le Pont Neuf. 

48. Le Pont-au-Change. 

49. L'Esp6rance. 

0. La Morgue. 

1. L'hotellerie de la Mort. {Verses.) 

2. L'abside de Notre-Dame. 

53. Le Tombeaii de Moliere. 

54. ' Bstampes anciennes, Eochoux, Quai de I'hor'.oge, 
No. 19.' (Book-plate.) 

55. Tourelle, Eue de I'Ecole de Mfidecine. 

56. Eue de Ghantres, Paris. 

57. Carved Doorway to an old House at Bourges. 

58. Eue des Toiles, Bourges. 
69. Old House at Bourges. 

60. The Tongan Pilot. 

61. An Akaroan Fungus. 

62. Head of a New Holland Dog. 

63. New Zealand ; native huts at Akaroa. 

64. New Caledouia ; native barrack. 
Q5. Natives of Uvea fishing. 

GQ. Fishing in a Creek, Akaroa. 

67. Title-page to 'Etchings of New Zealand.' 

68. Akaroa. 

69. In the Mulgrave Islands. 

70. ' Petit Prince Dito.' 

71. ' A Monsieur Eugene Bl^ry.' 

72. ' La Loi Lunaire.' 

73. A second plate of the same subject. 

74. ' La Loi Solaire.' 

75 ) 

If.' !■ Trials for engraving In relief. 

ig' > Eebuses. 

79. Design for a Frame. 

80. Frontispiece for a Catalogue of the works of Thomas 
de Leu. 

81. View of the old Louvre ; after Zeeman. 
8j. La Miuistere de la Marine. 

83. Collfige Henri IV. - 

84. Bathing-shed on the Seine. 

85. Portrait of Himself, before his Easel, 
142 



86. Portrait of M. Deoourtive. 

87. Portrait of M. Eugene Blcry ; after Buttcra. 

88. Portrait of M. Casimir Lecomte. 

89. Portrait of Evariste Boulay-Paty ; after David 
d'' Angers. 

90. Portrait of Fraucjois Viete ; after an old, froviis- 
piece. 

91. Portrait of Pierre Nivelle, Bishop of Lucon ; after 
an old engraving. 

92. Portrait of T. Agrippa d'AubignS; after a litho- 
graphic reproduction of a portrait preserved at Geneva. 

93. Portrait of Jean Besley ; after L. {? J.) I sac. 

94. Portrait of Een^ de Burdigale ; after Cri^nde Pas. 

95. Portrait of Armand Gu&aud. 

96. Louis Jacques Marie Bizeul. 

97. Benjamin Fillon. 

(The last three from photographs. The numbers are those 
of M. Burty's List.) Vf.k. 

MERZ, Caspab Heinrich, an engraver, was born 
at St. Galle in Switzerland in 1806. In 1821 he 
entered the studio of Jacob Lips in Zurich, and in 
1825 the Munich Academy. In 1829 he became 
the pupil of Arasler, wlio was professor of en- 
graving in tlie Academy, and to this time belongs 
his fine engraving of the Madonna, after tlie altar- 
piece in the churcli of All Saints in Munich. He 
died from a fall on the Kaiser mountain in 1875. 
His cartoon engravings are picturesque. His chief 
plates are : 

The Destruction of Jerusalem.. 
The Portrait of Amsler ; after Kaulhach. 
The Mad-house ; after the same. 
Egmont and Clara ; after the same. 1835. 
The Night ; after Cornelius. 1836. 
The Last Judgment ; after the same. 
The Nativity and Crucifixion ; after the same. 
The Destruction of Troy ; after the same 
Five plates, the Life of a "Witch ; afttv Genelli. 
Ten plates, the Life of an Artist ; after the same. 
Scliultheiss Wengi ; after Bosshardt. 
The Eepentant Sinner, or the Joy of the Angels ; after 
Gustav Konig. 

,MERZ, Jakob, a Swiss painter, designer, and 
engraver, was born at Buch (Zurich) in 1783. 
Among his paintings may.be mentioned a portrait 
of J. J. L. Billwiller, and, among liis engravings, a 
' Cupid in the Chariot of Victory,' after Domeni- 
chino. J. J. L. Billwiller has engraved after him. 
Merz died in 1807. 

MESA, Alonso de, according to Palomino, was 
born at Madrid in 1628, and was a scholar of 
Alonso Cano. He painted several historical works 
for the public edifices in that capital, among them 
a series of pictures of the life of St, Francis, in 
the cloister of the Franciscans. He died at Madrid 
in 1668. 

MESA, Joan de, was a Spanish painter, who 
resided at Madrid at the commencement of the 
17th century. He painted for the college of the 
Jesuits de Alcala de Henares a series of pictures 
illustrative of the 'Life of St. Ignatius Loyola' 
by Father Eibadeneyra, wliich were engraved in 
Flanders. 

MESLIN, Chakles, called Le Lorrain, was a 
French landscape and historical painter and en- 
graver. He was a pupil of Vouet, but spent most 
of his time in Italy. He died in 1650. 

MESMER. See MOssmer. 

MESNIL, Elias du, (Mbnil,) a French engraver, 
was born at Troyes in 1726. He was a pupil of 
Fessard, and engraved several plates after Mieris, 
Karel de Moor, and other Dutch masters. 

MESQUIDA, GuiLLEEMO, the son of a merchant 
of Minorca, was born at Palina about 1675, and 
studied at Rome under Carlo Maratti. So close 



Messa 



PAINTERS AND ENGEAVEnS. 



Metsu 



was bis imitation that his works were often con- 
founded with his master's. At Venice he studied 
under an animal painter of local reputation. He 
went to Brussels, where he married, and met with 
some success. On his return to Italy he worked 
extensively at Bologna and Rome. In the latter 
city he became the master of Eosalba Salvioni. 
He died at Palma in 1747. Cean Bermudez praises 
his colouring. There are several paintings by him 
in the cathedral, in Sant' Eulalia, and in San Jaime, 
in his native town, where he spent the latter part 
of his life, and died in 1747. 

MESSA, Alonso db. See Mesa. 

MESSINA, Ant. da. See Antonio, Anto- 

NBLLO D'. 

MESSINA, Onofrio da. See Gabeiello. 

MESSINA, Pino da, was living in the 16th 
century, and is said to have been a pupil of 
Antonello da Messina. It is recorded of this artist 
that he painted a panel of St. Sebastian (now lost) 
for the church of San Ginliano, Venice. 

MESSINA, Salvo da, was, according to Hakert, 
in his ' Memorie de' Pittori Messinesi,' the nephew 
of Antonello da Messina, and flourished about the 
year 1511. He is said by that author to have 
been a successful follower of the style of Raphael ; 
and he mentions with distinction a picture by him, 
in the sacristy of the cathedral at Messina, repre- 
senting the ' Death of the Virgin.' 

MESSINESE, II. See Avellino, Giulio d'. 

MESSMER, Fbanz, was born at Antholz, in the 
Puster Valley, in 1729, and studied under Martin 
von Mytens, and was one of the best portrait 
painters of his time. In 1765 he was at the court 
at Innspruck, and in 1767 became a member of the 
Academy at Vienna, where we meet with his por- 
trait of Schmutzer. He died at that city in 1773. 
Schmntzer engraved after him the portrait of J. 
von Sonnenfels. 

MESSYS. See Massys. 

METGEK, J. J., is the name of an engraver, 
aflixed to a portrait of Cardinal Giovanni Nitardo, 
in Priorata's 'History of the Emperor Leopold,' 
published in 1672. 

METHODIUS, a monk of the Order of St. Basil, 
who in 863 went with St. Cyril to the court of the 
Duke Eatislaus of Bulgaria. He studied painting 
at Rome, and was employed by the Duke to 
decorate his palace with pictures. Whereupon the 
artist, we are told, painted a ' Last Judgment ' with 
such power as to cause the Duke and his subjects 
to be baptized on the spot I 

METRANA, Anna, according to Orlandi, was a 
native of Turin. She flourished aboutthe year 1718, 
and distinguished herself as a painter of portraits. 

METKODORUS, the elder, was a Greek painter, 
philosopher, and probably writer on art. He 
flourished about B.C. 168. He was painter to 
Lucius Paulus JEmilius, the conqueror of Perseus 
of Macedonia, and tutor to his children. 

METSU, Gabriel, a Dutch painter of genre, 
was born at Leyden in 1630. He was the son of 
Jacob Metsu, a native of Belle in Flanders, and of 
his third wife Jacomina Garnijerns, widow of a 
painter, Willem Fremault. His first teacher in 
art was probably his father, but he afterwards 
studied under Dou, though in his style he more 
resembled Terborch,for his pictures deal, as a rule, 
' with the more refined sides of domestic life. In 
1648 he was admitted into the Painters' Guild at 
Leyden, but two years later he left that city and 
went to Amsterdam, where he probably spent the 



rest of his life. In 1658 he married Isabella Wolff, 
and had to submit to the operation of lithotomy. 
Twelve months later he obtained the rights of a 
citizen of Amsterdam. He was buried at Amster- 
dam on the 24th October, 1667. His pictures are 
to be found in all the principal European galleries, 
as the subjoined list will show. 



Amsterdam. Museum. 



Berlin. 



Brunswick. 

Brussels. 

Cassel. 



Gallery. 
Museum. 
Gallery. 



Dorking. Deepdene. 

Dresden. Gallery. 



Dulwich. 


Gallery. 


Florence. 


Uffizi. 


Hague. 


Gallm-y. 


London. 


Nat, Gallery, 


»> 


» 


;; ^ 


•idgeioater Ho. 
1) 




Suckingham 
Palace, 


„ Hertford House. 
Madrid. Gallery. 
Montpellier. Museum. 


Munich. 


Gallery. 


Paris. 


Louvre. 



Pesth. Gallery. 

Petersburg. Hermitage. 



Eotterdam. Museum. 

Vienna. lielredere. 

Czernin Coll. 



The Breakfast. 

The Old Toper. 

An Old Woman. 

The Sportsman's Present. {In 

the Van der Hoop Collection.) 
The Family of the Merchant 

Gelflng. 
The Cook. 
Portrait of a Lady. 
A Dutch "Woman. 
The Luncheon Party. 
A Woman purchasini; Game. 
A Young Woman giving Alms. 
A Young Woman playing a 

Lute. 
The Letter. 
The Letter-writer. 
A Man and his Wife in an Ale- 
house. 
A Poultry-seller offering a Fowl 

to a Lady. 
An Old Woman bargaining with 

a Poultry-woman. 
The Game-seller bargaining with 

a Cook. 
A Man smoking by a Fire. 
A Young Woman with a Lace 

Cushion. 
A Woman reading a Letter. 
Old Woman eating (ascribed to 

Brekelenkamp). 
Domestic Scene. 
A Lady and a Cavalier. 
The Huntsman. 
The Amateur Musicians. 
Justice protecting the Widow 

and Orphan. 
The Duet. 
The Music Lesson. 
The Drowsy Landlady. 
The Fish-wife. 

A Lady caressing her Lap-dog. 
The Stirrup Cup. 

[ A Lady with a Wine-glass. 

A Man playing and a Lady. 

Le Corset bleu {a copy). 

The Artist painting. 

Four good Pictures. 

A Dead Hen. 

The Writer. 

Fisherwoman. 

A Cook with a Fowl. 

A Feast. 

The Woman taken in Adultery. 

The Vegetable Market at Am- 
sterdam. 

An Officer entertaining a Young 
Lady. 

The Music Lesson. 

The Chemist at a Window. 

A Dutch Woman. 

A Dutch Cook. 

Portrait of AdmiralVan Tromp. 

A Man and a Lady. 

Interior of a Public-house 
(known as 'The Prodigal 
Son '). 

The Sick Woman. 

The Concert. 

The Breakfast of Oysters. 

The Eepast. 

A Priest in his Study. 

The Lace-maker. 

The Smoker. 

143 



Metsys 



A BIOGEAPHICAL DICTIONARY OF 



]SIeuB 



METSYS. See Massys. 

METTAY, Pierre, a painter, was a native of 
Normandy, and a pupil of Boucher in Paris. He 
afterwards studied at Rome, and became a member 
of the Paris Academy. He painted genre pictures, 
mythological and historical scenes, and sea-views 
after the style of Vernet, several of which were 
engraved. He died about 1760. 

METTENLEITER, Johann Evangelist, an en- 
graver, the nephew of Johann Michael Mettenleiter, 
was born at Grosskuohen in 1792. He studied 
under his uncle. 

METTENLEITER, Johann Jakob, was born at 
Grosskuohen, Wiirtemberg, in 1750. He went to 
Spiers and Holland, where he enlisted as a soldier 
for the Cape. After his return he established him- 
self for a time at Augsburg, but went to St. Peters- 
burg in 1786, and died there in 1825. Some 
of his paintings are in the Augsburg Cathedral, 
viz., a ' Resurrection ' (1785) and two conversation 
pieces, with portraits of the Von Oberwexer Family. 
As an engraver he executed among others the 
following plates : 

A Peasant with a Hat and Stick. 

Peasant at Table with Jug and Pipe ; after D. Teniers. 

Peasants Drunli and another Laughing; afta- the same. 

METTENLEITER, Johann Michael, was born 
at Grosskuohen, Wiirtemberg, in 1766, and ac- 
companied his brother Johann Jakob to Rome 
when only ten years of age, but returned after- 
wards to Augsburg. He continued his studies 
under Dorner at Munich in 1782, and next etched 
for the bookseller Strobel at Augsburg, and in 
1790 became court engraver. The paintings in 
the Hirschgarten at Munich are by him. He en- 
graved in the style of Chodowiecki ; amongst 
others four plates for the ' History of Germany ' 
by Klein, and many plates from Bavarian history 
for Westenrieder's Almanac (1787—1816). He 
signed with his full name, or the initials J MM, or 
a monogram. He died at Pockau in 1853. 

METZ, Cakolinb M. , subject painter, the daughter 
of Johann Martin and sister of Conrad Metz. She 
came to London with her family, and there her 
works, which appeared at the Academy from 
1773 to 1794, included portraits, fruit, and land- 
scapes. 

METZ, Conrad Martin, an eminent engraver in 
the chalk manner and in aquatint, was born at 
Bonn in 1755, but received his education in art in 
London, under Bartolozzi. His principal works are 
imitations of and facsimiles from the drawings of 
the old Italian masters, of which be published a 
great number. In 1801 he left England for Rome, 
where he continued to exercise his ready talent at 
imitation, and otherwise engraving from works of 
the highest order till the time of his decease, which 
occurred in London in 1827. One of his chief 
works was Michelangelo's ' Last Judgment,' in 
twelve plates (1808). 

METZ, Franz, a Benedictine brother of the 
cloister of Prifling near Rheims, who went to 
Seeben in the Tyrol about 1630, and painted three 
altar-pieces. In the library at Innspruck is the 
drawing of a ' Magdalene ' by this artist. 

METZ, Gektraud, a flower painter, was the 
daughter and pupil of J. M. Metz of Cologne. She 
studied at the Academy of Diisseldorf about 1766, 
and with her father and brother came to England 
soon after. She painted some figure pictures, 
besides flowers, fruit, and insects. 

144 



METZ, GusTAV, painter and sculptor, was born 
at Brandenburg in 1817. He first tried sculpture 
under Rauch at Berlin, and followed his school- 
fellow Rietschel to Dresden, but being disappointed 
in his hopes of obtaining the grand medal of the 
Berlin Academy, he devoted all his attention to 
painting. Metz died of a severe attack of cholera 
in 1853, in London. A 'Betrothal of Tobias' by 
him is in the Berlin National Gallery. 

METZ, Johann Martin, was born about 1730, 
and was received a member of the Guild at 
Cologne in 1768. He was long court painter to 
the Elector Clemens August at Bonn, and made 
drawings of his castles, which were engraved by 
Nikolaus Mettel and Peter Wyon ; but he especially 
distinguished himself as a painter of flowers. In 
1771 he went to England, and died about 1800. 
Several of his still-life and genre pieces are at 
Cologne, in the Wallraf-Eichartz Museum. 

METZGER, Cheistoph, an engraver of Frank- 
fort on the Main, who lived in the latter part of 
the 17th century. 

METZGER, Johann Jakob, a German engraver 
who flourished in 1670. Six portraits engraved by 
him are known. 

MEUCCI, Vincenzo, was born at Florence in 
1694, and studied under Giachetto Fortini and 
Sebastiano Galeotti at Piacenza, and Giuseppe dal 
Sole at Bologna. He died in 1766. Gregori en- 
graved a ' Madonna ' after him. He has left the 
following works among others : 

Florence. Gerini Gall. A Ceiling with the History of 
Achilles. 
„ S. Lorenzo, Frescoes in the Cupola. 

MEULEMANS, Adriaan, (Meulmans,) a painter, 
was born at Dordrecht in 1766. He studied with 
Versteeg. He lived at Dordrecht, and painted 
water pieces, night scenes, and cabinet pictures. 
He died about 1834. 

MEUNIER, Louis, (Meusnier, or Musnier,) an 
architectural designer and engraver, flourished 
about 1665. His prints, which number eighty-six, 
consist of landscapes and architectural views in 
Spain, Portugal, Italy, France, and Belgium, in all 
of which countries he appears to have travelled. 
His manner of engraving resembles that of Perelle 
and I. Silvestre, and in some of his pieces that of 
Thierry Stoop. 

MEURER, Joseph, was born at Miinster, West- 
phalia, about 1740, and was instructed in the art 
of painting by an artist at Frankfort. He next 
studied in Paris, and afterwards lived at Miinster 
and Verden, but his works, representing still-life, 
landscapes, devastations by fire, genre, mythology, 
scenes from the Bible, and poi-traits, seem modelled 
on Rembrandt. He died at Verden in 1817. He 
etched several plates, among which the best are : 

The Boy with the Bird. 
The Hermit praying. 
Andromeda. 

MEURS, Cornelis Hubert tan, an engraver, 
was a nacive of Holland, and resided at Amsterdam 
about the year 1760. According to Basan he en- 
graved several plates after Mieris, Van der Werf, 
and other masters. 

MEURS, Jakob van, an engraver, was born 
at Amsterdam about 1640. His name is affixed 
to a portrait of Tycho Brahe, the astronomer. 
He was cliiefly employed by the booksellers, and 
engraved several frontispieces, &c. 

MEL'S, Livius, or Lieven. See Mehus. 



Ueusnier 



PAINTERS AND ENGRAVERS. 



Meyer 



MEUSNIER, Philippe, a French painter of 
perspective and architectural views, was born in 
Paris in 1655. He was a scholar of Jacques Rous- 
seau, and on leaving that master went to Rome, 
where he passed several years in the study of 
painting and in other work. On his return to 
Paris he was patronized by Louis XIV. and his 
successor. In 1680 he executed the decorations of 
the roof of the chapel at Versailles. He became 
a member of the Royal Academy in Paris in 1702, 
one of its council in 1703, and its treasurer in 1719. 
He died in I'aris in 1734. His son Philippe, a 
pupil of Largilliere, died in England. 

MEVES, Augustus, a miniature painter who 
practised in the 19th century. He died in Shore- 
ditch in 1818. 

MEVIUS, JoHANN Geoeq Ambbos, was a land- 
scape painter, native of Frankfort on the Main. 
He was born in 1710; and when he was sixty years 
of age he went to Amsterdam, where he died. 
His son JoHANN Fbiedrioh was born at Worms 
in 1727, and died about 1796. He also painted 
landscapes. 

MEYER, Andreas, according to Professor Christ, 
was a native of Zurich. He is said to have 
been a painter, and to have engraved some views 
of towns, which are marked with a curious mono- 

gram "^ • 

MEYER, Christian Gottlieb, a painter, was 
born at Dresden in 1730, and died in 1755. He 
was court portrait painter. 

MEYER, C. H., painter, was bom at Aurich in 
Bast Friesland. He studied at the Academy of 
Berlin. He painted views and landscapes, and 
died in 1836. 

MEYER, Daniel, painter and etcher, was born 
at Frankfort in 1570, and died there in 1630. The 
following etchings are by him : 
Eighty plates, ' Arohitectura, Vonn Austheylung der 

fiinff Sealen,' published in 1612. 
Fifty plates, 'Arohitectura, oder Yerzeiohniss aller- 
hand Binfassungen an Thiiren, Fenstern. AUes 
erstlichen new erfunden und geetzt durch Daniel 
Meyern, Mahlem vu Biirgern zu Franltfurt am Main 
MDOIX, neu aufgelegt im Jahr 1659. 
MEYER, Dietrich (or Theodoe), a Swiss painter 
and etcher, was born at Eglisau in 1572, and 
obtained a reputation for portraiture, historical 
and glass painting, as well as by several designs 
in Indian-ink and black and red chalk. A series 
of plates which he published in 1599 show that at 
that time he had not yet discovered the " soft etch- 
ing-ground " which at a later period he employed 
in all his plates. He died at Zurich in 1658. 
The following are the best of his plates : 

Six plates of Peasants dancing. 

A Festival Procession with fireworks, in Paris, on the 

occasion of a Double 'Wedding between members of 

the French and Spanish Courts. 
Six plates of Mythological figures. 

He used the monogram ^f\_- 

MEYER, Elias, a flower and landscape painter, 
was born at Copenhagen in 1763. He was a 
fellow of the Academy, and died in 1809. 

MEYER, Ernst, genre painter, was born at 
Altona in 1795. He attended the Academy at 
Copenhagen, studied at Munich under Cornelius, 
went in 1824 to Naples and Amalfi, and settled in 
1833 at Rome. He became a member of the 
Copenhagen Academy in 1843, and died at Rome 
in 1861. There are by him : 
VOL. II. L 



Berlm. Wat. Gallery, A Lazzaroni Family. 1831. 
Copenhagen. Thorwaldr ) ~ t • ^ 

sen Museum. S^^^^'^^^"'^'^''^^- 
Stuttgart. Bosenstein. A House at Tivoli. 

MEYER, Felix, painter and etcher, was born at 
Wmterthur in Switzerland in 1663. He was the 
son of a clergyman, who was desirous of bringing 
him up to the Church; but his inclination for' 
drawing interfered with his studies, and he was at 
length permitted to indulge his propensity. He 
possessed an uncommonly fertile imagination, and 
an extraordinary readiness of hand, of which he 
ninde the fullest use. Decamps says that during 
his travels through Germany, he visited the famous 
Abbey of St. Florian just when two halls had to be 
decorated in fresco. An obscure artist of the 
neighbourhood, who had been apphed to, had taken 
months to prepare a scheme, while Meyer, in the 
course of a few minutes' talk with the abbot, 
sketched out a complete series of pictures, drawing 
them in the while on the blank wall with a piece of 
charcoal tied to a stick. In the result he was en- 
gaged to carry out the work. There is an excellent 
landscape by Meyer in the Belvedere at Vienna. 
Meyer had his figures inserted usually by M. Roos 
and G. P. Rugendas. He died at Weyden in 1713. 
He etched several plates from his own designs. 
Among them are : 

A set of twelve Views of Switzerland ; Felix Meyer fee. 

Four Landscapes, with ruius and figares : same siqvMwre. 
1701. 

Four Views in Switzerland, with figures. 

Four Mountainous Landscapes, with buildings. 

The Falls of the Ehiue. 

MEYER, Franz Anton, (or Mbybrle,) was born 
at Prague in 1710. According to Lanzi he resided 
several years at Turin, where he took the name of 
Francesco Antonio Meyerle. He painted small 
highly-finished pictures of domestic subjects and 
portraits, and was less successful when he painted 
on a larger scale. He passed the latter part of 
his life at Veroelli, where many of his works are 
to be foimd. He died in 1782. 

MEYER, Geoeg Fbiedrioh, painter, was born 
at Mannheim in 1735. His first master was Daniel 
Hein, and th6n he went to Paris, where he studied 
under Casanova, and had the good fortune to meet 
with Duke Christian IV., who took him with him 
to Mannheim, where in the summer he studied 
nature on the banks of the Rhine and Neckar, and 
in the winter pursued his studies at the Academy. 
He died in 1809. 

MEYER, Hendrik, (Meijer,) a landscape and 
cattle painter, chiefly in water-colours and tempera, 
was born at Amsterdam in 1737. He was one of 
the directors of the Academy at Haarlem, where 
he resided. Late in life he became implicated in 
the Revolution of 1788, and had in consequence to 
leave Holland, upon which he visited England, in 
company with W. Hendriks, the painter of dead 
game, and estabhshed himself in London, where 
he died in 1793. He had exhibited at the Academy 
in the two previous years, executing principally 
Dutch scenes. His landscapes were in the style 
of Izaak van Ostade. 

MEYER, Henry, born in London in 1782, was 
a nephew of Hoppner and a pupil of Bartolozzi. 
He engraved in mezzotint and in the dotted manner, 
and was very skilful in his management of por- 
traits, on which he was principally engaged. He 
was one of the foundation members of the Society 
of British Artists, and contributed to some of their 

145 



Meyer 



A BIOGRAPHICAL DICTIONAEY OP 



Meyerheim 



exhibitions from 1824 (their first) to 1831. In the 
latter portion of his career he sometimes drew 
portraits, and that with great success. He died in 
1847. Among his plates there are : 

Admiral Nelson and Lord Cathcart ; after Hoppner. 
The Princess Charlotte and Prince Leopold; after 

Chalon. 
Miss O'Neal in the character of Belvidera ; after Devis. 
Mr. Mathews in various characters ; a/to" Harluwe. 
Sir John NichoU ; after Owen. 
Mary anointing the feet of Jesus ; after Hilton. 
Sir Koger de Coverley ; after Leslie. 
The Proposal and the Congratulation ; after Marlowe. 
The Stolen Kiss ; after Kidd. 
The Dancing Bear ; after Witherington. 

MEYEE, Jeremiah, (or Meibe,) English minia- 
ture painter, was born at Tubingen, in Wurtem- 
berg, in 1735. He came to this country with his 
father at the age of fourteen. He was long a 
member of the St. Martin's Lane Academy. In 
1757-8 lie had two years' pupilage under Zincke, 
for which he paid £200 premium. In 1762 he was 
naturalized, and in 1764 appointed on the house- 
holds both of the King and Queen. On the founda- 
tion of the Royal Academy in 1769 he was invited 
to become a member, and for fourteen years he 
was a constant contributor to its exhibitions. 
Meyer was a great student of Reynolds, from 
whom he caught not a little of his grace and 
refinement, and some of his power as a colourist. 
His miniatures were among the best of their 
time. Meyer married Barbara Marsden, herself 
an artist of some ability. He died at Kew in 1789. 

MEYER, Joachim, was a native of Strasburg, 
and flourished about the year 1570. We have by 
him a set of sixty-two woodcuts, representing 
combats with the sword. 

MEYER, JoHANN, was probably of the same 
family with Dietrich Meyer. He was a painter, 
and usually resided at Nuremberg. We have 
several prints by him, some of which are from his 
own designs. Among others, a set of battles, 
etched in a spirited style. He also engraved a set 
of the principal fountains at Rome, which were 
published at Nuremberg in 1600. 

MEYER, JoHANN, the sou of Konrad Meyer, was 
born in 1655. He was a painter and engraver. He 
died in 1712. Nagler gives a long list of his plates. 

MEYER, JoHANN, flower painter, was born in 
Switzerland in 1614, and died in 1666. 

MEYER, JoHANN Heinrich, also called Goethe- 
Meyer, was born at Stafa on the Lake of Zurich 
in 1760. He was first instructed by Johann Kaspar 
Fiissli at Zurich, from whence he returned home 
and studied by himself in 1781-4. He went to 
Italy in the latter year, and there made Goethe's 
acquaintance in 1786. At Naples, which city he 
visited in 1787, he studied the collections of the 
old vases and antiquities of the Museum at Her- 
culaneum. From Rome, where he went in 1788, 
he returned to Switzerland in 1789, and became 
drawing-master at the Academy at Weimar in 
1792. He undertook a second journey to Italy in 
1795, and stayed principally at Rome and Florence. 
He returned to Weimar in 1797, and shortly after 
gave himself up to writing upon art. He assisted 
Goethe a great deal in his works upon art, and was 
also in communication with Schiller. He died at 
Jena in 1832. His productions as an artist consist 
chiefly of water-colour and other drawings from 
antique remains, or from the works of the great 
Italian painters. 

146 



MEYER, Johann Heinrich Ludwig, (or Meijek,) 
painter, was born at Amsterdam in 1819. He was 
a pupil of Jan Willem Pieneman. During the 
early part of his career he devoted himself to 
landscape and history. In 1843 and 1844 he ex- 
hibited with success at the Salon, and in 1855 was 
awarded a prize at the Paris International Exhibi- 
tion. He died in 1866 at Utrecht. Among his 
best productions we may name : 

A Storm in the Channel. {Amsterdam Museum.) 

Burning of the ' ludia ' at Sea. 

Dutch Vessels off Flushing. 

A Ship striking on the English Coast. 

A Storm off Soheveniugen. 

Shipwreck on the Dutch Shore. 

MEYER, Johann Jakob, born at Zurich in 1749, 
was a designer, painter, and engraver, and was 
instructed in art by Balthasar Bullinger and Joh. 
K. Fiissli. He came afterwards to Vienna, and 
worked a great deal for the Hungarian nobihty. 
He died in 1812. 

MEYER, Konrad, the elder, the younger son of 
Dietrich, and the younger brother of Rudolph 
Meyer, was bom at Zurich in 1618. After receiv- 
ing some instruction from his brother Rudolph 
and L. Stadler, he went to Frankfort, where he 
became a scholar of Matthaus Merian, and studied 
the works of Bloemaert, Jordaens, and Sandrart. 
Subsequently he went to Augsburg, and in 1643 to 
Zurich, in both of which towns he was chiefly 
occupied in the painting of portraits, including 
that of his father, which is considered his best. 
He died at Zurich in 1689. As an engraver he 
may be considered as one of the most laborious 
artists of his time, and the number of his prints 
is very considerable. Kaspar Fiissli, who had 
endeavoured to collect an entire set of them, had 
got together upwards of 900, without having 
them nearly complete. Among the best we may 
enumerate : 

A series of ninety portraits of his fellon -citizens. 

A series of 103 portraits of writers and churchmen. 

A * Dance of Death ' (61 plates). 

The ' Mirror of a Christian ' (15 plates). 

The Sports of Children (26 plates). 

The ages of Man (10 plates). 

Scenes from the New Testament (102 plates). 

Meyer used the signatures C M fecit, G. M f, &c. 

MEYER, Ludwig, called Meter of Knonau, was 
born at Knonau in 1705. He was an engraver, and 
painted portraits and landscapes. He died in 1785. 

MEYER, Melohior, the unknown author of a 
plate of ' Apollo and Marsyas ' (Bartsch xvi. 146). 

MEYER, Rddglph, the son and scholar of 
Dietrich Meyer, was born at Zurich in 1605, and 
died in 1638. He painted history and portraits, 
but was more distinguished as an engraver than as a 
painter. We have by him several plates of emblem- 
atical subjects and portraits, some of which were 
published with those of his brother Konrad. He 
made the desii^ns for the ' Dance of Death,' which 
were engraved by Konrad. 

MEYER, Wilhelm, was bom at Zurich in 1806, 
and studied decoration under S. Quaglio at Munich. 
In 1833 he worked at Nuremberg, and from 1837 
to 1840 at Zurich, Berne, and Lucerne. He sub- 
sequently visited Italy and Spain, and in these 
countries devoted himself to architectural painting, 
in which branch he became deservedly esteemed. 
He died at Zurich in 1848. 

MEYERHEIM, Eduard Feanz, who was born 
at Berlin in 1838, first studied painting under his 
father F. E. Meyerheim, and in the Academy at 



Meyeringh 



PAINTERS AND ENGRAVERS. 



IVEezzadri 



Berlin, but afterwards travelled much in search of 
subjects for his pictures, which are mostly of a 
genre character. For a short time he held the 
post of professor of anatomical drawing at the 
Berlin Academy, but in 1878 his ill health com- 
pelled hira to resign, and he died in 1880 at Marburg 
on the Lahn. The following are a few of his best 
works : 

Children and Cats. 1859. 
Maternal Love. 1862. 
Market Day. 1863. 
The ToHng Mother. 1866. 
Hessian Peasant Family. 1868. 

MEYERINGH, AALBERT,(MEijERiNGH,)was born 
at Amsterdam in 1646. He was instructed in the 
elements of design by his father, Frbderik Meijee- 
INGH, who was chiefly employed in painting screens, 
and other articles of furniture. Albert was, how- 
ever, destined to exercise his talents in a higher 
Une. Whilst he was yet young he formed the 
project of travelling in search of improvement, 
and before he was twenty years of age he visited 
Paris, where he resided some time, but with no 
great encouragement. By assiduity and labour he 
procured the means of continuing his journey to 
Italy, where his abilities procured him the esteem of 
Jan Glauber and others, and he met with suflBcient 
employment to induce him to reside for some time at 
Rome. On his return to Holland, after an absence 
of ten years, he was employed by William, Prince 
of Orange. His views are agreeably varied, and 
are frequently embellished with the ruins of 
ancient architecture, and decorated with figures 
representing historical or fabulous subjects, in the 
style of Gerard de Lairesse. He died at Amster- 
dom in 1714. 

MEYERLE. See Meyer. 

MEYLENER, P., a little known Dutch painter 
of landscapes. He flourished about 1645. 

MEYNERT, Claes, was commissioned in 1507 
to paint a St. Matthew, for the Church of St. Bavon, 
at Haarlem, for the sum of 40 florins. 

MEYNIEE, Charles, a French historical and 
battle painter, born in Paris in 1768. He studied 
under Vincent, and shared the prix de Rome with 
Girodet in 1789. The Revolution, however, caused 
his premature return from Italy, and he im- 
mediately began to practise in Paris. Much of 
his time was engaged in decorative work. He 
painted several frescoes for the Louvre and for 
the Paris Bourse. He was elected a member of 
the Institute in 1815, and in 1822 was decorated 
with the Legion of Honour, becoming an officer in 
1830. Two years later he died in Paris of cholera. 
Amongst his chief works are : 

Amiens. Museum. CEdipus. 1814. 

Bordeaux. Museum. Erato. 1800. 

Montpellier. Museum. Timoleon. 

Paris. Louvre. Phorhas and CEdipus. 1814. 

St. Denis. Cathedral. Dedication of rit. Denis. 1812. 

St. Mand^. St. Michael conquering Satan. 

Versailles. Gallery. Bestoration of its colours to 

the 68th Regiment at Inns- 

pruok. 1808. 
„ „ Entry of the French into Berlin. 

MEYSSENS, CoRNELis, (Mytens, &c.,) the son 
of Jan Meyssens, was bom at Antwerp about the 
year 1640, and was instructed in engraving by his 
father. His principal plates are portraits, many 
of which are from the designs of Jan Meyssens. 
They are executed with the graver, in a stiff, 
tasteless style. He also engraved several frontis- 

L 2 



pieces, and other book ornaments. The following 
are his best works : 

A set of Portraits of the Austrian Emperors ; entitled 
' Effigies Imperatorum domds Austriac^, delineatsB 
per Joannem Meyssens, et seri insoulptra per filium 
suum Cornelium Meyssens.' 

The Portraits of the Sovereign Princes and Dukes of 
Brabant ; entitled, ' Les Effigies des Souverains 
Princes et Dues de Brabant.' A part of these are 
engraved by P. de Jode, "Waumans, and others. 

SINGLE PORTRAITS. 

Charles 11. ; for the History of Leopold. 

Octavius, Duke of Aremberg ; C. Meyssens so. 

Cardinal Antonio Barberini. 

Cardinal Einaldo, Principe Estense. 

John de "Witt, Grand Pensionary of Holland. 

David, Count of Weissenwolil, &c. 

MEYSSENS, Jan, often confused with Aart 
Izaah Mytens, was a Flemish painter and en- 
graver, born at Brussels in 1612. He was first 
a scholar of Anthonie van Opstal, and afterwards 
of Nicolas van der Horst, both obscure artists. 
He attempted both historical subjects and portraits, 
but was generally employed in the latter. The 
greater part of his life was passed in Holland. For 
many years he resided at Amsterdam, where he 
carried on an extensive commerce in prints, and 
engraved many plates from his own designs, as 
well as after other masters, among which are 
several portraits of artists. He died about 1670. 
Among his plates we may name : 

Portrait of Charles 1. 

Portrait of Henrietta Maria, his Queen. 

Portrait of Heudrik de Keyser, architect and sculptor ; 

J. Meyssens fee. 
Portrait of Guide Eeni ; se ipse pinx. J. Meyssens fee. 
Portrait of Francesco Padovanino, painter ; se ipse pivx. 
Portrait of Daniel Segers, flower-painter ; after Lievens. 
Portrait of Cornelis de Bie ; after Eras. Quellinus. 
Portrait of "William de Nieujant, painter. 
Portrait of Mary Ruthven, wife of A. van Dyck ; after 

Van Dyck. 
Portrait of himself ; se ipse pinx. 
The Virgin and Child ; after Titian. 
Meleager presenting the Boar's Head to Atalauta ; 

after Rubens. 

MEYTBNS, Martin van, (Mijtbns or Mytens,) 
a Swedish painter, was born at Stockholm in 1695 
or 1698. He was instructed by his father, Peter 
Martin Meytens, and visited for improvement 
Holland, England, and France. In the last country 
he learned enamelling under Boit, and painted at 
Paris the portrait of the Duke of Orleans, Louis 
XV., and the Czar Peter. Subsequently he was 
employed by August I. at Dresden. In 1721 he 
went to Vienna, afterwards to Venice and Rome, 
and there studied oil painting. On his return to 
Vienna in 1726 he became painter to the emperor, 
and in 1769 director of the Academy. He died at 
Vienna in 1770. Though his portraits were good 
likenesses, he followed the taste of his time in 
other respects, and fell into mannerism. There is 
an equestrian portrait of the Emperor Charles VI. 
by him in the National Museum at Stockholm. 

MEYVOGEL, Matthieu (?), a Dutch painter 
who was at work in Rome early in the 17th century. 

MEZIOS, M., is mentioned by Strutt as having 
engraved a few portraits ; among others, that of 
a physician and poet, Joannes Petrus Lothicus, 
prefixed to his works, which were published in 
1626. 

MEZZADRI, Antonio, was a native of Bologna, 
and flourished about the year 1688. According to 
Lanzi he excelled in painting fruit and flowers. 

147 



Hezzastri 



A BIOGRAPHICAL DICTIONARY OF 



Hiclielangelo 



MEZZASTRI, PlEE-ANTONiO, born at Foligno in 
1457, painted in fresco in the churches of that 
town. He died at Fohgno in 1606. His 6on 
Beenabdino Mezzastki followed the art of his 
father. 

MICARINO (Mecabino, &o.). See Beccafdmi. 

MICCO, Spadaeo. See Gaegitjoli. 

MICHAEL, Master. See Sohwaez. 

MICHAELIS, Geeaed Jan, a Dutch landscape 
painter and engraver, was born at Amsterdam in 
1776. He was a pupil of Jurian Andriessen, and 
the miniature painter G. N. Bitter. He died at 
Haarlem in 1857. 

MICHAELIS, J. W., an engraver, resided at 
Frankfort about the year 1700, and engraved 
several heads for a work entitled, ' Notitia Univer- 
Bitatis FranoofertanEB,' published in 1707. 

MICHALLON, Achille Etna, a French land- 
scape painter, born in Paris in 1795. When quite 
young he lost his father, the sculptor Claude 
Michallon. At the early age of fifteen his pictures 
attracted attention, and he received a pension from 
the Russian Prince Issoupoff. His studies were 
directed by David, Valenciennes, Bertin, and 
Dunouy. Re was but sixteen years of age when 
he obtained a second class medal at the Salon of 
1812. Five years after he won the grand prix for 
his ' Democritus and the Abderans.' After a stay 
of four years at Rome he returned and settled 
down in Paris to the practice of his profession. 
The promise of his career was, however, cut short 
by his premature death, which occurred in Paris 
in 1822. Amongst the few works which he left 
are : 

Landscape near Frascati. 1822. {Louvre.) 

The Isle of LemDos. 1822. (Montpellier Miiseum.) 

Eoland at Eoncesvalles. 

The Centaurs and the Lapithse. 

MICHALOWSKI, a Polish water-colour painter 
of military scenes, was horn at Cracow in 1804. 
He took refuge in Prance, where he became 
the friend of Horace Vernet and Charlet. He 
died in 1855. 

MICHAU, Th:^obald, was born at Toumay in 
1676, but resided chiefly at Brussels. He studied 
under W. Schellinks, and painted landscapes and 
merry-makings, in which he imitated Pieter and 
Jan Breughel, David Teniers, and Pieter Bout. 
In 1699 he was residing at Brussels, and was 
received into the Corporation of St. Luke. He. 
died at Antwerp in 1756. There are by him : 

Augsburg. Gallery. The Ford. 

„ „ The Cattle Market. 

„ „ A Fair. 

„ „ March of Troops. 

„ „ Street Scenes. 

Vienna. Belvedere. Several paintings. 

MICHAULT, Georges, a French engraver, was 
born at Abbeville in 1752. He was a pupil of 
Frangois Aliamet, and engraved several plates in 
the style of his instructor ; among them some 
views in the neighbourhood of the Pare Monceau, 
Paris. He died about 1810. We have also the 
following by him : 

Acis and Galatea ; after Lafosse. 

The dead Christ ; after Schiavone ; in the Orleans 
Gallery. 

MICHEL, Geoeges, landscape painter, was 
born in Paris about 1763. His father was em- 
ployed in the Paris markets, but his son found 
a protector who placed him, in childhood, in the 

148 



house of a village curate on the plain of St. 
Denis, and afterwards apprenticed him to the 
painter Leduc. When he was sixteen, Michel 
formed an alliance, it is uncertain whether a 
legal one or not, with a girl of his own age, 
who bore him eight children before he was out 
of his first youth. In 1827 she died, when he 
married Anne Maria Charlotte Olaudier-Vallier, who 
survived him, and to whom we owe most of what 
is known of his life. This seems to have been a 
sufficiently adventurous one in a small way. At 
one time he was the painting companion of Louis 
Bruandet, at another he was living in the house 
of a noble amateur, whose pictures he finished. 
His favourite subject was the great plain which 
stretches from Montmartre out to the north of St. 
Denis. There he found subjects for the hundreds 
of pictures which he left behind, and which are 
only now emerging from obscurity. As a rule 
they are painted on prepared paper, and in style 
may be compared, at a respectful distance, to the 
work of Old Crome. In spite of the small prices 
he received, Michel contrived to pass his life in 
modest comfort. He died in Paris in 1843. The 
following two pictures are to be seen in the new 
gallery at the Luxembourg : 

Aux environs de Montmartre, 

Int^rieur de F6ret. ■^ ^ 

MICHEL, Jean Baptiste, an engraver, was horn 
in Paris in 1738 or 1748. He is said to have been 
a scholar of Chenu, whom he greatly surpassed. 
He came to England about the year 1780, and was 
employed on several plates for Boydell. He died 
in 1804. The following are his principal prints: 

poeteaits. 

Sir Thomas Gresham ; after Sir A. More. 
Eubens's Wife ; after Rubens. 
Frans Hals ; after a picture hy- himself. 
La Joconda ; after Leonardo da Vinci. 
M. F. A. de Voltaire. 

SUBJECTS AFTEE VAKIOUS MASTERS. 

Two prints of the Bath of Venus ; after Boucher. 

The Death of Dido ; after M. A. Challes. 

The Death of Hercules ; after the same. 

Abraham, Sarah, and Hagar ; after Pietro da Cortona. 

The Prodigal Son ; after Salvator Rosa. 

Hercules and Omphale ; cifter Somanelli. 

Venus and Cnpid ; after Carlo Maratti. 

The Death of St. Joseph ; after Velazquez. 

The Three Graces ; after Subens. 

Faith, Hope, and Charity ; after the same. 

The Nativity ; after Carlo Cignani. 

The Adoration of the Shepherds ; after Guido. 

Clytie ; a circular print ; after Annib. Carracci. 

Cupid stung by a Bee ; after West. 

Alfred dividing his last Loaf with a Pilgrim ; after the 

sanne. 
The Continence of Alfred ; after the same. 

MICHEL, Jean, a French historical painter, who 
flourished at Rouen in 1564. In conjunction with 
his father he executed a picture for the church of 
St. Jean at Rouen, representing the ' Passion.' 

MICHEL, Louis, (Michiel,) a fruit and flower 
painter, flourished at the Hague in 1675. He was 
a pupil of Wieling and Hermann Verelst. 

MICHELANGELO. See Buonaeeoti. 

MICHELANGELO, Feancesoo, called II Aqui- 
LANo, was an historical painter, who flourished at 
Aquila in 1700. He was a pupil of B. Luti. He 
died young.j 

MICHELANGELO da I-UCCA. See Anselmi. 



Slichelangelo 



PAINTERS AND ENGEAVEES. 



Sliel 



MICHELANGELO ' delle Battaglie.' Se 
CmtQuozzi. 

MICHELANGELO di Tode. See Eicciolini. 

MICHELE DA PAEMA. See Eocca. 

MICHELE DA PAVIA was an historical and 
portrait painter, who flourished about 1460. In 
1459 he worked for Pius II., and was painter to 
the court of Mantua from 1458 to 1465. 

MICHELE DA Verona, painted in that city at 
the beginning of the 16th century. We know that 
he existed because a series of frescoes and canvases 
bearing his name have come down to us. Of these 
the most important is a ' crucifixion ' dated 1500, 
formerly in the refectory of San Giorgio at Verona, 
but now in San Stefano, at Milan. Pictures by him 
are also to be found in Sant' Anastasia, Verona ; 
Santa Maria in Vanzo, Padua ; Santa Chiara, 
Verona ; and in churches at Selare and Villa di 
Villa, near Este. In his art he was allied but far 
inferior to Cavazzola. His latest known picture is 
' The Madonna enthroned,' at Villa di Villa, which 
is dated 1523. There is a fair example of his work 
in the National Gallery. The subject is the en- 
counter between Coriolanus and his wife and 
mother, Virgilia and Volumnia. 

MICHELE DEL GHIRLANDAIO. See Bigoedi. 

MICHELE DI MATTEO. See Lambbktini. 

MICHELE, Ande^, called Vioentino, an his- 
torical painter, was born at Vicenza in 1539. He 
was a pupil of Palma the elder. He died in 1614. 
At Florence there are by him ' The Queen of Sheba,' 
' Banquet of Solomon,' ' The Visitation ' ; at Munich 
' The Assembly of Crowned Heads ; ' at Paris ' The 
Reception of Henri III. at Venice in 1574 ; ' and 
at Brussels ' The Marriage of Cana in Galilee.' 

MICHELE, Paerasio, was a native of Venice, 
and flourished about the year 1590. He was a 
pupil first of Titian and then of Paolo Veronese, 
whose style he followed with some success. There 
are several of his works in the churches at Venice ; 
among them a ' Pieta ' in San Giuseppe. The 
Aoademia has by him a portrait of a Venetian 
noble. 

MICHELIN, Jean, a French historical painter, 
born at Langres in 1623. He died in Jersev in 1696. 

MICHELINO DA MILANO, see Milano. 

MICHELINO, DoM. di. See Domenico. 

MICHELIS, Alexander, landscape painter, was 
bom at Miinster in 1823. He entered the Academy 
at Diisseldorf in 1843, and studied landscape 
painting under Schirmer. He died at Weimar in 
1868. 

MICHEUX, Michel Nicolas, a French flower 
painter, bom in 1688. He was received in the 
Academy in 1725, and died in 1733. 

MICHU, BenoIt, a Flemish historical and por- 
trait painter, born in 1610. He settled in Paris, 
where he died in 1703. His son did some work in 
the chapel of Versailles. 

MICIEE, Pedeo, was an Italian, who flourished 
as a painter at Saragossa in the 17th century, and 
amassed a considerable fortune, which at his death 
he bequeathed to the churches for which he had 
painted. One Pablo Miciee, an amateur, who 
lived at the same time at Saragossa, seems to have 
been a distinct person. Pedro died in 1659. 

MICOCARD. Papillon mentions a woodcut by 
this artist, representing 'Diogenes,' after Parmi- 
giano. It is probably a copy of the print in 
' chiaroscuro ' by Ugo da Carpi. 

MICON, a Greek painter and sculptor, flourished 
about 460 B.C., and assisted Polygnotus. He 



painted ' The Battle of the Amazons ' and a part 
of 'The Battle of Marathon' in the Pcecile at 
Athens. He also painted some pictures in the 
Temple of Theseus, but we have no account of 
their subjects. He was an excellent painter of 
horses. His pictures were purchased by the 
Athenians at large prices. 

MICONE, Nicolas, called II. Zoppo, an obscure 
landscape painter, born at Genoa in 1750. He 
was a pupil of Javella, and died in 1830. 

MIDDIMAN, Samuel, a distinguished English 
engraver, was born in 1750. He was a pupil of 
Byrne, and is said to have also studied under 
Woollett and Bartolozzi. His forte was in land- 
scape, of which he left many beautiful examples ; 
two of the large prints for Boydell's Shakspeare, 
' A Scene from the Winter's Tale,' and the melan- 
choly ' Jaques,' may vie with the productions of 
Woollett. He engraved several other plates for 
the same work, and landscapes after Berohem, 
Gainsborough, Barret, Zuccarelli, and Hearne. He 
exhibited at the Free Society in 1781, at Spring 
Gardens in 1773 and 1775, and at the Academy 
in 1780 and some of the subsequent years up to 
1797, producing for 1780 some stained drawings. 
His etchings also were much admired ; in this 
branch he worked for Pyne. His ' Select Views 
in Great Britain' (1784-92) is a charming work, 
and was very popular both in England and on the 
continent; it was followed in 1807-11 by 'Pictur- 
esque Views and Antiquities of Great Britain.' 
Middiman died in London in 1831. 

MIDDLETON, Charles, was an architectural 
draughtsman and engraver. From 1766 to 1790 
he was a member of the Incorporated Society of 
Artists, and up to 1790 contributed to the Royal 
Academy. He published several works, and made 
many designs. He died about 1818. 

MIDDLETON, J. J., an English draughtsman 
and landscape painter of the 19th century. In 
1812 he published ' Grecian Remains in Italy.' 

MIDDLETON, John, landscape painter, was 
born at Noi-wich in 1828. He received lessons in 
painting from J. B. Crome, and also from Stannard. 
From 1849 to 1855 he was a fairly constant ex- 
hibitor at the Royal Academy, and also at the 
British Institution. He painted illustrations of 
the seasons, especially of early spring. ' A Study 
in March, on the Norfolk Coast' may be mentioned 
as a specimen of his style. His death occurred 
in 1856. 

MIDIAS, a Greek painter, executed the design 
upon the vase found in Campania representing 
the Rape of the daughters of Leucippus by the 
Dioscuri. 

MIEL, Jan, (Miele, or Mbel,) also called 
Bicker, and by the Italians Giovanni dblla Vitb 
and Jamielli, was a painter and etcher, born in the 
castle of Ulaerdingen near Antwerp in 1599. He 
was a scholar of Gerard Seghers, and on leaving 
that master went to Rome, where he attached him- 
self to Andrea Sacchi, and was shortly entrusted to 
assist his master in some of his most considerable 
works. Being, however, employed by Sacchi to 
co-operate with him in a picture for the Palazzo 
Barberini, representing a Procession of the Cavalry 
of the Pope, Miel, whose disposition naturally led 
him to the grotesque, introduced something which 
was deemed inconsistent with the gravity of the 
subject. This occasioned a sharp rebuke, and a 
consequent separation. Stung with the reproach 
of his mastei', and encouraged by the advice of his 

149 



Mielicb. 



A BIOGRAPHICAL DICTIONARY OF 



Mieris 



friend Bernini, Miel determined to improve and 
strengthen his powers by visiting Nortii Italy for 
the purpose of studying the works of Correggio and 
the Carracci ; and he passed some time at Parma and 
Bologna. On his return to Rome he was employed 
by Alexander VII. to paint a picture of ' Moses 
striking the Rock,' for the gallery of Monte Cavallo. 
He also painted for the churches of San Martino 
de' Monti, the ' Baptism of St. Cyrillio ' ; and in 
Santa Maria dell' Animi, some frescoes of the life 
of St. Lamberti, and the ' Annunciation.' His best 
performances, however, are his easel pictures, re- 
presenting fairs, markets, huntings, festivals of the 
Carnival, and similar subjects. Miel was made a 
member of the Academy of St. Luke in 1648. He 
was invited to the court of Turin by Charles 
Emanuel, Duke of Savoy, who retained him in his 
service for the remainder of his life, and conferred 
on him the order of St. Maurice. Miel died at 
Turin in 1664. Le Bas, Beaumont, and others have 
engraved after him. Among his extant paintings 
are the following : 



Berlin. 


Gallery. 


Landscape— a Dead Ass. 


Dresden. 


Gallery. 


Shepherd Playing. 


Madrid. 


Gallery. 


The Violin Player ; and others. 


Paris. 


Louvre. 


The Beggar. 


» 




The Barber. 
Landscape. 


), 


>» 


Military Halt. 


Eotterdam. 


Gallery. 


Italian Peasants. 


„ 


» 


Landscape, 


Stockliolm. 


Gallery. 


Preaching of St. John the Baptist. 


St. Petersburg. Her- 
tivitage. 


1 The Charlatan. 






Peasant Dance. 


'1 


II 


Italian Scene. 


^» 


)j 


Mountain Landscape. 



Jan Miel has etched several plates from his own 
designs in a masterly style. He sometimes signed 
with his name in full, and sometimes with a 
monogram and date. We have the following by 
him: 

The Holy Family. 

The Assumption of the Virgin. 

A set of Four Pastoral Subjects ; in one of them a 

figure seated on a bank, picking a thorn from his foot. 
Three Battle Pieces ; for the History of the Wars in 

Flanders, by Flaminius Strada. 

MIELICH See MtiLicH. 

MIBREVELT, Miohibl Janszen, (Mirbveldt, 
&c.,) was born at Delft in 1567. He was the son 
of a goldsmith, who, perceiving his disposition for 
drawing, placed him under the care of Jerome 
Wierix, with the intention of his becoming an 
engraver. When he was twelve years of age he 
executed a plate of ' Christ and the Woman of 
Samaria ' ; and soon afterwards another of ' Judith 
with the H«ad of Holofernes.' These juvenile 
performances attracted the attention of Anthonie 
van Montfoort, called Blocklandt, who persuaded 
him to apply himself to painting, and offered to 
receive him into his school at Utrecht. This in- 
duced him to quit the graver for the pencil, and for 
some years he studied historical painting under 
that master. His first productions on leaving the 
school of Blocklandt were some altar-pieces for the 
churches at Delft ; but having painted the portraits 
of some of the princes of the house of Nassau, they 
were so universally admired, that he afterwards 
met with continual employment in that branch, 
and as he lived to an advanced age, he is supposed 
to have painted a greater number of portraits than 
any other artist of his country. He is said, by 

150 



Hague. 



Gallery. 



Berlin. Gallery. 

Copenhagen. Gallery. 

Delft.' Town Hall. 

Dresden. Gallery. 

Madrid. Gallery. 

Paris. Louvre. 

Rotterdam. Gallery. 



Descamps, to have been invited to England by 
Charles I., and to have declined the proposal on 
account of the plague, which at that time raged 
in London. Mierevelt entered the Guild of St. 
Luke at the Hague in 1625, and died at Delft in 
1641. 

Amsterdam. Museum. Portrait of Prince Maurice. 

„ „ „ Prince Frederic Henri. 

Fredericb V., Prince 

Palatine and King of 

Bohemia. 

„ „ „ the wife of Admiral 

Tromp. 
„ „ „ Jacob Cats. 

„ „ „ General Smeltzing. 

„ „ „ "William the Silent. 

„ „ „ Prince Philip William. 

„ „ „ John van Oldenbarne- 

velt. 
„ J. Uytenbogaert. 
Portrait of WiUiam the Silent. 
„ Louise de Colligry. 
„ Prince Philip William . 
„ Prince Maurice. 
„ Prince Frederick Henry 
— and four others. 
Portrait of an old Woman. 
Portraits of a Man and Woman. 
Portrait of a young Lady. 
Series of Pictures. 
Several Portraits. 
Portrait of a Woman. 
A Female Portrait. (La Caze collec- 
tion.) 
Portrait of Philip of Nassau. 
Portraits of Prince Frederic Henri 
and his Wife. 
„ „ Portraits of William the Silent 

and his Wife. 
„ „ Portrait of Maurice of Nassau, 

and others. 

MIEREVELT, Jan, the son of Michiel Mierevelt, 
also a portrait painter, died insane in 1633. 

MIEREVELT, Pieter, the son and pupil of 
Michiel J. Mierevelt, was born at Delft in 1595, 
and practised portrait painting in the style of his 
father. One of his most esteemed works is a large 
picture in the Hall of the Surgeons at Delft, con- 
taining the portraits of the principal members of 
that society at the time ; other productions of his 
are at Brunswick, Copenhagen, and Dresden. He 
died young, at Delft, in 1632. 

MIERIS, Frans van, was born at Delft in 1635. 
He was one of twenty-three children of his father, 
who was a lapidary. In early youth he was appren- 
ticed to the glass painter, Abraham Torenvliet, 
whose studio he soon abandoned for that of Gerard 
Dou, who called him the prince of his pupils. 
Later on he studied historical painting under 
Abraham Tempel. He painted genre pictures, and 
loved to represent silks and satins, plate and jewels. 
He was painter to the Prince, and in every way 
he enjoyed the unusual good fortune of being 
thoroughly appreciated during his life. His best 
pictures, on the rare occasions of their changing 
hands, fetch enormous prices. He died at Leyden 
in 1681. Among his pictures are : 

Amsterdam, Museum. The Letter. 

„ „ The Lute Player. 

„ „ Jacob's Dream. 

„ „ The lost Bird. 

Berlin. Museum. Portrait of a Young Man. 

„ „ A Young Woman before a Glass. 

Copenhagen. Gallery. An OfScer. 

„ „ A Dutch Peasant's Room. 

„ „ Three Portraits. 

Dresden. Gallery. The Magdalen. 



Mieris 



PAINTERS AND ENGRAVERS. 



Kietsch 



Dresden. Gallery. 



Florence. 



Ugizi. 



Hague. 



Gallery. 



London. JSat. Gall. 
„ Buchingham Fal. 



Collection of the Earl 

of Dudley. 

Montpellier. 



Uunich. 



Gallery. 



Paris. 



Louvre. 



St. Petersburg. Herm. 



Turin. 
Tienna. 



Gallery. 
Gallery. 



A Girl sitting at a Table. 
A Lady playing the Lute. 
An Old ■Woman placing a Pink in 

a Flower-pot. 
An Old Man. 
A Soldier Smoldng. 
A Young Lady with a Dog. 
A Man in a Cuirass. 
The Tinker. 
A Man mending a Pen. 
Portrait of Himself. 
The Painter's Studio. 
A Girl with a Parrot. 
The Cloth Merchant. 
Poetry. 

Portrait of Himself. 
Portrait of his Son Jan. 
Portrait of Himself. 
A Young Woman. 
The old Lover. 
An old Man and old Woman. 
The Drinkers. 
Portrait of Himself. 
Portrait of Himself and his 

Family. 
Soap Bubbles. 
Portrait of Florentius Sohuijl, 

Professor of Medicine and 

Botany at Leyden. 
Portrait of Himself and his Wife. 
A Lady in a Crimson Jacket. 
Portrait of Himself and his Wife. 

(Two versions.) 
A Country Woman. 
Soap Bubbles. 
Le Chevalier Amoureux. (Pcr- 

haps his master-jnece.) 
Soap Bubbles. 
Genre Scene. 
A Soldier Smoking. 
A Boy beating a Drum. 
A Lady playing with her Dog. 
The Sick Woman. 
Portrait of Himself. 
Portrait of a Woman. 
The Painter talking to the Land- 
lord of an Inn. 
Interior of an Inn. 
A Lady playing the Lute. 
A Lady with a Parrot. 
Interior of a Cottage. 
A Lady at her Glass. 
The Breakfast. 

A Soldier Smoking and Drinking. 
Portrait of a Man. 
A Lady at her Toilet. 
The Tea Party. 
A Dutch Family. 
An Interior. 
An Oyster Breakfast. 
A Peasant Woman with Eggs. 
A Lady seated at a Table. 
The Guitar Player. 
A Lady Writing. 
Portrait of Himself. 
A Doctor feeling a Lady's 

Pulse. 



MIERIS, Fkans van, 'the younger,' the son of 
■Willem van Mieris, was born at Leyden in 1689, 
and was instructed by his father. He painted 
portraits and conversation pieces, but was inferior 
to his father in every respect, as becsime very 
evident when he attempted to copy his works. 
He died at Leyden in 1763. He has left an etching 
of 'The Muse Erato,' and in the capacity of a 
numismatist and historical writer he prepared and 
furnished the medal-illustrations for a book on 
the privileges of the Counts of Holland, &o., and 
for some similar works. 

MIERIS, Jan, the elder son of Erans Mieris the 
elder, was born at Leyden in 1660, and received 



his first instruction in art from his father. Despair- 
ing of being able to equal him in the minuteness 
and delicacy of his finishing, he devoted himself to 
a different pursuit, and attempted historical paint- 
ing and portraits as large as life. After the death 
of his father he went to Italy, and on his arrival at 
Rome applied himself to his studies with an assidu- 
ity whicih proved fatal to him. He died in 1690. 

MIERIS, Willem van, the younger son of Frans 
Mieris the elder, was born at Leyden in 1662. He 
studied under his father, whose style he adopted 
so far as he could. At the age of nineteen, when 
his father died, he was already an able artist. His 
best pictures represent subjects taken from ordinary 
life, such as confectioners' shops, women selling 
game or vegetables, the interiors of apartments, 
and conversations. In these, every minute object 
is finished with painful care. The works of Gerard 
de Laires-se had at that time excited universal 
admiration ; and Mieris was encouraged by his 
friend and patron, M. de la Court, to aim at a more 
elevated style, and to paint landscapes with his- 
torical or fabulous subjects. One of the best 
attempts in the style thus forced upon him .is in 
the collection of Sir R. Wallace. His pictures of 
domestic subjects are to be found in the best 
collections. In his last years he became blind. 
He died at Leyden in 1747. The following list 
includes most of his more important works : 
Amsterdam. Museum. The Poulterer. 

„ „ An Arcadian Landscape. 

„ „ A Lady and Gentleman. 

Antwerp. „ The Fishmonger. 

Dresden. „ Musician and Girl. 

The Game Dealer. 

A Woman pouring out Wine for 
a Man. 

A Baker blowing a Trumpet. 

Oephalus and Procris. 

Venus asleep. 

Bacchus and Ariadne. 

Fortune-teller. 

Man looking at a Girl who brings 
him Drink. 

Preciosa recognized by her 
Mother. 

Venus and Paris. 

Apes in Human dress. 

The Cook. 

The Grocer's Wife. 

The Poulterer's Shop. 

Woman and Violinist. 

An Oyster Feast. 

A Classical subject. 

Blowing Bubbles. 

The Game Dealer. 

The Cook. 

A Spanish Soldier. 
„ „ Female portrait. 

„ „ An old Man offering money to a 

Woman. 

Few large collections are without examples of this 
painter. Mieris etched one plate, which is very 
rare ; the subject is ' The fate of .alsculapius.' 

MIEROP, Feans van Ctttck van, a Flemish 
painter, was born in Bruges in 1640. He settled 
in Ghent where he painted many historical pictures, 
introducing portraits of the leading merchants of 
the town. He particularly distinguished himself 
by his pictures of animals, and of fish, many of 
which are scarcely inferior to those of Snyders. 

MIERS, B. H., a Dutch landscape painter, who 
settled in London, where he died in 1793. 

MIETSCH, Cheistian Gottlieb, painter and 
etcher, was born at Dresden in 1742. In 1756 be 
entered the Academy at Dresden, and studied under 

151 



Hague. „ 

London. N'at. Gallery. 

„ Bridgewater Gall. 

„ Buckingham Pal. 

„ Hertford House. 
Paris. Louvre. 



Vienna. Belvedere. 



Higer 



A BIOGRAPHICAL DICTIONARY OP 



niguard 



Silvestre and Hutin, and in 1763 became a teacher 
himself. Among his etchings are : 

The Pool of Bethesda. 

Christ healing the Sick. 

Luna and Antheus. 

The Sleeping Endymion. 

He died in 1800. 

MIGBR, Simon Charles, a French engraver, was 
born in Paris in 1747. He was a pupil of Charles 
Nicolas Cochin, the younger, and has engraved 
several plates of historical subjects and portraits. 
He was a member of the old ' Aoad^mie Itoyale.' 
He died in 1805. The following are some of bis 
best plates : 

POETEAITS. 

David Hume, ; after Cochin. 
John Stanley, Musician ; after the same. 
Count Matirice de Bruhl ; after the same. 
Christopher Gluck ; after Duplessis. 
Laurent Cars, Engraver ; after Perenneau. 
Jean Jacques Rousseau ; after Le Moyne. 
Frans Miens ; after a picture hy himself. 

SUBJECTS AFTER VAKIOtJS MASTERS. 

Hercules stranghng Antseus ; after Voiriot ; engraved 
for his reception into the Academy in 1777. 

The Maying of Marsyas ; after C. van Loo ; pendent to 
the last. 

Hercules and Omphale ; after Dumont. 

The Bape of Europa ; after Halle. 

A View of the Coast near Civita Vecchia ; after Fernet. 

MIGLIARA, Giovanni, Cavaliere, was born at 
Alessandria in 1785, and studied decoration and 
perspective under Albertolli and Levati, and the- 
atrical painting under Galeari at the Brera at 
Milan. He painted a considerable number of 
scenes for the theatre, pictures of genre, and 
views of Milan Cathedral. He was painter to the 
Sardinian Court and member of several academies. 
He died at Milan in 1837. Works : 

Munich. Gallery. Cloisters of San Maurizio, Milan. 

,, „ Cloisters of Sant' Ambrogio, 

Milan. 
Hamburg. Gallery. Church Interior. 

MIGLIARA, Theodelinda, an Italian painter, 
flourished at Milan at the beginning of the present 
century. She painted city views, one of the best a 
view of the Piazza del Duomo, at Como (Vienna). 

MIGLIONICO, Andrea, according to Dominici, 
was a native of Naples, and a pupil of Luca 
Giordano. He painted historical subjects, and 
there are several of his works in the churches of 
his native city, the best, perhaps, a ' Descent of the 
Holy Ghost,' in the SS. Nunziata. He died soon 
after Luca Giordano (1706). 

MI6LI0RI, Francesco, an historical painter, 
bom at Venice in 1684. He died in 1734. In the 
Dresden Gallery are the following pictures by him : 

Joseph interpreting Dreams in Prison. 

Bacchus and Ariadne. 

Cain and Abel. 

Europa. 

Boman Piety. 

Lot and his Daughters. 

The Sacrifice of Abraham. 

MIGNARD, Nicolas, called Mignard d' Avignon, 
was born at Troyes, in Champagne, in 1605 or 
1608. He received his first instruction in art from 
an obscure painter of his native city ; but he soon 
afterwards went to Fontainebleau, where he had the 
advantage of studying the works of Primaticcio, 
Fr^minet, II Rosso, and others, and the antique 
statues which had been collected by Francis I. 

152 



He afterwards visited Italy, and passed two years 
at Rome, where he studied Albani and Anni- 
bale Carracci. On his return to France he passed 
some time at Avignon, where he married, and from 
his long residence in that city was called ' Mignard 
d'Avignon,' to distinguish him from his brother 
Pierre Mignard, called ' Le Remain.' By the 
recommendation of Cardinal Mazarin, he was in 
1660 invited to the court of Louis XIV., and 
employed in several works for the palace of the 
Tuileries, among which were ' Apollo crowning the 
Muses of Poetry, Painting, and Music'; 'Apollo 
and Daphne ' ; and ' Mercury presenting a Lyre to 
Apollo.' He was also much employed as a portrait 
painter ; some of his best works in that genre have 
been admirably engraved by Antoine Masson. 
His own portrait is in the Museum at Lyons. 
Mignard was a member of the Paris Academy. He 
died in that city in 1668. Mignard etched eight 
plates after Annibale and Agostino Carracci's works 
in the Farnesina. 

MIGNARD, Paul, portrait painter and engraver, 
was a son of Nicolas Mignard. He was born at 
Avignon in 1639, became a member of the Lyons 
Academy, and died there in 1691. 

MIGNARD, Pierre, a French historical and 
portrait painter, born at Troyes in 1610. Intended 
by bis father for the medical profession, he showed 
so strong a predilection for art, that at the age of 
twelve he was placed for a year with a painter 
named Boucher, who enjoyed a considerable local 
reputation at Bourges. He then spent two years 
in study amongst the treasures of art which had 
been collected at Fontainebleau. Returning to 
Troyes, he began the practice of his profession by 
painting some decorative works for the Marechal 
de Vitry in the chapel of his chateau at Coubert- 
en-Brie. The promise he showed in the execution 
of this commission was such that the Marechal 
sent him to Paris to complete his art education in 
the studio of Vouet, the nursery of French art in 
the 17th century. That the master had a high 
opinion of Mignard' s future is shown by the fact 
that he offered him his daughter in marriage. 
But the pupil's desires were centred on Italy, and 
in 1635 he set out for Rome. Here he renewed 
' acquaintance with his fellow-student Du Fresnoy, 
and the two painters henceforth became inseparable, 
living and studying together on terms of the closest 
friendship. Twenty-two years of Mignard's life 
were spent in Italy : chiefly in Rome, whence he 
acquired the cognomen of 'Le Remain,' to 
distinguish him from his elder brother, Nicolas 
Mignard, d'Avignon. During this Italian sojourn 
he diligently studied the antique, and gradually 
obtained a great reputation. His practice as a 
portrait painter was very large : three successive 
popes, Urban VIII., Innocent X., and Alexander 
VII., sat to him. In 1653 his friend Du Fresnoy 
left him to return to France. Taking a circuitous 
route, he was joined at Venice by Mignard, who 
embraced the opportunity to make a lengthened 
tour through some of the chief c'^ties of Italy. 
After this excursion he again settled down in 
Rome, and in 1656 married the daughter of an 
architect. At this period he produced many 
pictures of the Virgin and Child, in which he 
reproduced the features of his wife, whence 
such Madonnas were called "Mignardes." His 
reputation had now spread so widely that in 
1667 he received a royal command to return to 
France. On his journey he was struck down by 



Kignard 



PAINTERS AND ENGRAVERS. 



Hihes 



a dangerous illness, which necessitated a sojourn 
of some months with his brother at Avignon, where 
he formed an intimacy with Molifere. Arrived in 
Paris, he settled down again with his old friend 
Du Eresnoy, and obtained a large practice as a 
portrait painter. He was patronized by royalty, 
and was especially regarded as the painter of the 
court beauties. But he aimed at higher things than 
portraiture, and undertook various decorative works. 
The chief of these were the great frescoes repre- 
senting Paradise in the dome of the Val-de-GrS,ce, 
which he painted for Anne of Austria, and some 
works at the palaces of St. Cloud and Versailles. 
On the completion of the Val-de-Grfice commission, 
he felt his status sufBciently assured to send to 
Italy for his wife and children to rejoin him. For 
many 3'ears a keen rivalry existed between him 
and Le Brun. So great was the jealousy, that 
Mignard declined to become a member of the 
Academy, as he would have had to occupy an 
inferior position to his rival. He joined the 
Academic de St. Luc, of which he became the head, 
and thence led the opposing faction. The death 
of Colbert, and the accession of Louvois to power, 
at length enabled Mignard to outstrip his rival ; 
and after Le Brun's death he was received into 
the Academy, all the honours of that body being 
conferred on him at a single sitting. He had now 
no competitor to fear, and during the remaining 
years of his life his supremacy in French art was 
unquestioned. The last great work on which he 
was engaged was a design for the decoration of 
the dome of the Invalides, but he did not hve to 
carry it out. He continued painting till the year 
of his death, which took place in Paris in 1696. 
There are many specimens of Mignard's art in the 
French provincial galleries. The following is a 
list of his works in some of the chief public 
collections of Europe : O.J.D. 

Berlin, Gallery. Portrait of Marie Mancini. 

Florence. Uffizi. Portrait of Mad. de Sevign^. 

„ „ Comtesse de Grignon. 

London. ^^<=T<^^J^ | Portrait of Louis XIV. 

" f^tGaliZ:}^^"^^^^^' I^^ol'^^' of Orleans. 

„ „ Louise de Qu^ronaille, Duchess of 

Portsmouth. (1682. ) 

„ Hampton Court, Massacre of the Innocents. 

„ Windsor Castle. Henrietta, Duchess of Orleans. 

Madrid. Museum. St. John in the Desert. 

„ „ Portrait of a French Prince. 

Mayenoe. Gallery. Poetry, History, and Painting. 

,, „ The God of Time. 

Paris. Lmvre. The' Way to Calvary. (1684.) 

„ „ Virgin with Grapes. 

„ „ Ecce Homo. 

„ „ ' Mater Dolorosa.' 

„ „ St. Cecilia. (1691.) 

„ Faith. (1692.) 

„ „ Hope. (1692.) 

„ „ Neptuneofferingrichesto France. 

„ „ St. Luke painting the Virgin. 



Bome. JPal. Conserv, 
St. Petersburg. Jler- 



Turin. 

Versailles. 

Vienna. 



Portrait of Himself, &c. 
Holy Family. 

' [ Eeturn of Jephtha. 

Magnanimity of Alexander the 

Great. (1680.) 
Death of Cleopatra. 
Portrait of his Daughter. 
Portrait of Louis XIV. 
„ Portrait of the Dauphin. 

Gallery. Portrait of his Daughter. 
„ Seven other Portraits. 

Belvedere. St. Anthony. 



Vienna. Liechtenstein t „ , „ 

Ga^Z.jHoly Family. 

„ Archduke Al- 1 j,_^ . .. ,,.,.- 
irecht's Galle7-y.i^°'^^'^^''^ °^ Mohere. 

)> „ Three Angels. 

MIGNARD, PiEEBE, 'the younger,' was the son 
of Nicolas. He treated historical subjects, and 
was painter to Maria Theresa of Austria, knight of 
the Order of Christ, and member of the Academy 
of Architecture. He died at Avignon at the age of 
thirty-five years. 

MIGNERET, Adrian, an engraver, born in Paris 
in 1786. He was a pupil of Langlois, and in 1817 
received a gold medal for an engraving of VafHard a 
dying Moliere. Among his engravings are also : 

Portrait of Moliere ; after Mignard. 
Peter the Great ; after Steuben. 
Young Woman ; after Metzu. 
Portrait of Cardinal Fleury. 

MIGNON, Abraham, (or Minjon,) was born at 
Frankfort in 1639. He was the son of a merchant, 
who designed him for his own profession, but in 
view of his inclination for art, placed him under the 
tuition of Jacob Marel, a painter of still-life, with 
whom be continued till he was seventeen years of 
age. Marel carried on a considerable commerce 
in works of art, and his business leading him to 
Holland, he was accompanied by his pupil, whom 
he recommended to the care of Jan Davidsz de 
Heem, at Utrecht. Mignon soon became popular, 
and with the greatest industry scarcely managed 
to keep pace with the demand for his works. He 
died at Wedzlar in 1697. He was the instructor 
of Maria Sibylla Merian, whose mother, the widow 
of Matthaiis Merian, he had married. 

Frankfort. A dead Cock hung up by the Feet. 

Paris. Louvre. A Bouquet of Wild Flowers. 

„ „ Flowers and Fruit. 

Vienna. Liechtenstein \ -p,, ■j. 
Gall.r'^"-^- 

Other works by him are to- be met with at 
Amsterdam, Carlsruhe, Cassel, Dresden, Munich, 
Paris, St. Petersburg, and Stockholm. 

MIGNON, Jean, is mentioned by Strutt as the 
author of a coarse etching, representing ' Abra- 
ham purchasing the Cave of Machpelah from the 
Children of Heth.' It is inscribed, lo Mignon fee. 
He is said to have been working at Fontainebleau 
in 1530. 

MIGNON, Gaspard, a French painter of the 17th 
century, of whose life no details are known. 

MIGNOT, Daniel, probably a Frenchman, was 
a designer, engraver, and goldsmith. He worked 
at Augsburg about 1590, and has left 150 excellent 
and very rare plates from goldsmith's work. 

MIGNOT, Jennin, an obscure painter of Bruges, 
who was active in that city in 1468. 

MIGNOT, Louis Ebmy, was a creole. He was 
born in 1831 in South Carolina, and passed most of 
his life in New York and London. He painted 
tropical landscapes, and in 1859 was elected a 
member of the American Nat. Academy. He died 
at Brighton in 1871. 

MIGUEL EI. Flamengo. See Ambeees. 

MIHES, Julie, painter and lithographer, was 
born at Breslau in 1786, and studied at Vienna. 
Here she was married in 1823 to the custos Pri- 
misser, but was left a widow in 1827, and betook 
herself to a nunnery. She died in 1855. She 
was clever in reproducing the characteristics of 
the old masters, as in copies of a ' Christ,' by 
Bellini, and a ' Madonna,' after Annibale Carracci 

153 



Mij 



A BIOGRAPHICAL DICTIONARY OF 



nCiller 



(both at Dresden). She lithographed ' The Ador- 
ation of the Holy Trinity,' after Albrecht Diirer. 

MIJ. See Van der Mij. 

MIJIN, Henei Arnauld, (Myin,) was born at 
Antwerp in 1760, and instructed by B. P. Omme- 
ganck, whose manner he followed both in his land- 
scapes and animals. He married Ommeganck's 
sister, and died in 1826. 

MIJN. See Van dee Mijn. 

MIJRICINUS. See Mbrica. 

MIJETILL. See Glauber, J. G. 

MIJTBNS, Martin van. See Mbytens. 

MIKCKER, Jan, a landscape painter, lived in 
the early part of the 17th century, and is said to 
have been one of the masters of J. B. Weenix. He 
painted well-wooded landscapes ornamented with 
buildings, in a low tone of colour. 

MILANESE, Cesare. See Sesto. 

MILANESE, Felice, who was probably a painter, 
has left a small upright etching, representing the 
' Virgin and Infant seated on a pedestal, with a 
Bishop and several Children before her,' 

MILANESE, IL. See Cittadini. 

MILANI, AuRELiANO, the nephew of Giulio 
Cesare Milani, was born at Bologna in 1675, and 
was a scholar of Cesare Gennari, and afterwards of 
Lorenzo Pasinelli. He did not, however, attach 
himself to their manner, but devoted himself to an 
attentive study of the style of the Carracci. His 
principal works at Bologna are, his ' San Girolamo,' 
in Santa Maria della Vita; 'The Stoning of 
Stephen,' in Santa Maria Masoarella ; and ' The 
Resurrection,' in La Purita. He died in 1749. 

MILANI, GjuLio Cesare, was born at Bologna 
in 1621, and was a disciple of Flaminio Torre, of 
whose style he was a successful follower. Of his 
works in the churches at Bologna the best are, a 
' Marriage of the Virgin,' in San Giuseppe ; a ' S. 
Antonio di Padova,' in the church of Santa Maria 
del Costello ; and a ' Holy Family with St. John,' 
at the Servi. He died in 1678. 

MILANI, Giuseppe Maria, was bom at Pisa in 
1678, and was a scholar of Camillo Gabrielli. 
Following the example of his instructor, he imi- 
tated the style of Pietro da Cortona and Ciro Ferri. 
He afterwards applied himself with great assiduity 
to the study of architecture, and excelled in mag- 
nificent buildings, which he embellished with well- 
drawn figures. Several of his frescoes are in 
the churches at Pisa. 

MILANO, Beamante da, is the name given to 
an artist stated to have been born at Milan towards 
the end of the 14th century. His very existence 
has been denied by some, but those who have 
accepted it assert that he was a painter and archi- 
tect at the above town, and that he executed a 
'Pietk,' in the church of Sant' Angelo there in 
1418, and afterwards a ' Martyrdom of St. Sebas- 
tian,' and two large frescoes in other Milanese 
churches. His latest work was that of ' Christ in 
the Tomb,' over the door of San Sepoloro, which 
Philip II. had copied for the Escorial. His death 
is said to have occurred about 1470. 

MILANO, Giovanni da, properly Giov. Jacobi, 
was a Milanese painter of the 14th century, born 
in Milan about 1300. He learnt his art in Florence, 
in the studio of Taddeo Gaddi, but died at Milan at 
a good old age. Among his works we may name : 

Florence. Uffizi. An altar-piece in ten compait- 

ments {formerly in the church 
of the Oynissanti). 
154 



Florence. Academy. PietA. (Formerly in S. Girolamo 

sulla Costa.) 
„ S. Croce. Scenes from the lives of the 

Virgin and of the Saviour. 
(.In the Rinuccini Chapel; 
formerly ascribed to T. Gaddi.) 
Prato. Com. Gallery. An altar-piece in five compart- 
ments [signed ego Johannes 

DB MeDIOLANO PINXI HOC 

opus). 

MILANO, MiCHBLiNO da, lived in the 16th 
century. Count Giorgio Giulini in his ' Memorie ' 
states of him, that he was famous as a painter of 
animals. He decorated the court and other parts 
of the Casa Borromeo, Milan; but unfortunately 
his frescoes have been nearly all whitewashed 
over. The Casa Vendramin at Venice formerly 
possessed a book with coloured sketches of animals 
by Michelino. 

MILATZ, F. A., a Dutch painter, bom at Haar- 
lem in 1763. He painted landscapes and executed 
some engravings. He was also a physician, and 
died in 1808. 

MILBOURN, John, an English portrait painter, 
in the latter part of the 18th century. He was a 
pupil of F. Cotes, and was awarded a premium by 
the Society of Arts in 1764. Some of his works 
were exhibited at the Academy in 1773-4. T. 
Gaugain engraved after him. 

MILDE, Karl Fribdrich August, a painter born 
at Gorlitz in 1788. He worked at Dresden, made 
copies of famous pictures, and painted portraits. 

MILDE, Karl Julius, a German painter, was 
bom at Hamburg in 1803. He painted ornamental 
pieces, historical subjects, landscape, and sea pieces. 
He lived at Lubeck, where he died in 1875. 

MILDORFER, Michael Ignaz, was a painter of 
Innsbruck, who flourished in the first part of the 
18th century, and painted sacred subjects. His 
son, Joseph Ignaz, studied at Vienna under Paul 
Troger, and in 1742 gained a first prize for 
painting. In 1751 he was painter to the Duchess 
Emanuela of Savoy. His daughter, Maria Eliza- 
beth, born in 1713, was a miniature painter of some 
repute. She lived some time at Rome, but after- 
wards returned to Innsbruck. She became blind, 
and died in 1792. 

MIL6. See Millet. 

MILfi, N., a portrait painter, who flourished in 
Brabant in the 17th century. He was a pupil of 
K. E. Biset. 

MILES, Edward, an English miniature painter, 
bom at Yarmouth about the middle of the 18th 
century. He practised in London, becoming minia- 
ture painter to Queen Charlotte and the Duchess of 
York, and exhibited at the Academy from 1786 to 
1797. He died at Yarmouth early in the present 
century. 

MILLAN, Sebastian, a Spanish portrait and 
genre painter, was born at Seville towards the 
middle of the 17th century. He was a pupil of 
Escobar. He died very old in 1731. 

MILLS, Jan Baptist, was a Flemish painter of 
the 18th century. He was a pupil of Van Helmont, 
and was received into the Academy of St. Luke at 
Brussels about 1718. He painted figures in the 
landscapes of Coppens. 

MILLER, Andrew, an engraver, is believed to 
have been of Scotch descent, but was born in 
London, and lived in Dublin from about 1740 
till his death some ten years later. He studied 
under Faber. He engraved the designs of Frank 



Sliller 



PAINTERS AND ENGRAVEES. 



Millet 



Hayman, and like him wa8 given to drink, through 
•which his life was materially shortened. His 
best known works were portraits in mezzotint, 
which are by no means destitute of merit. Among 
others, we have the following : 

Dean Swift ; after F. Bindon. 1743. 

Eobert Boyle, philosopher. 

Charles Lueas, M.D., of Dublin. 

Eobert Josleyn, Lord Newport, Chancellor of Irelstnd. 
1747. 

Josiah Hort, Arohbishcp of Tuam. 

Eaten Stannard, Eecorder of Dublin. 

Joseph Baudin, Painter. 

Joseph Miller, Actor, in the character of ' Teague.' 

John Harper, in the character of ' Jobson.' 

Snowdon, in the character of ' Oaled,' in the ' Siege of 
Damascus.' 

Turbntt, in the character of ' Sosia,' in ' Amphytrion.' 

MILLER, James, an English landscape painter 
of the early water-colour school, who exhibited at 
the Academy from 1773 to 1775. At the South 
Kensington Museum there are by him : 

Entrance to Greenwich Park. 

View in St. James's Park. 

MILLER, John, an English engraver, flourished 
about the year 1760. We have a variety of prints 
by him, chiefly portraits, among many others 
the following : 

King George III. ; ad vivum. 

Queen Charlotte ; the same. 

Jeffery, Lord Amherst. 

George Bridges, Lord Rodney. 
' Charles Townsend, Chancellor of the Exchequer. 

Thomas Gray. 

Charles Churchill. 

Sir John Vanbrugh. 

John Wilkes, M.P. 

MILLER, John, an English flower painter and 
engraver, born in London about 1750. He was 
awarded a Society of Arts' premium in 1766. 
Between 1770 and 1789 he illustrated and pub- 
lished two books on the system of Linnteus, the 
'Illustratio systematis sexualis Linnsei (1770-7),' 
and the ' Illustratio terminorum Linnsei (1789).' 

MILLER, John Sebastian. See Mulleb. 

MILLER, William, engraver, was born at 
Edinburgh, 28th May, 1796. His father, who 
belonged to an old Scottish family, sent him to 
London to study engraving under George Cooke. 
After some years in London he returned to the 
family home, Millerfield, near Edinburgh, and 
settled down to the practice of his art. The great 
bulk of his work is after Turner. Euskin speaks 
of him as the best of Turner's engravers. In the 
last half of his life he travelled a good deal, and 
also practised painting in water-colour. He was an 
honorary member of the Royal Scottish Academy, 
and occasionally sent water-colour drawings to its 
exhibition. Miller was a member of the ' Society 
of Friends ; ' he wa_s twice married ; he lived at his 
home of Millerfield for about eighty years, and 
died there on the 20th of January, 1882. The 
following list includes all his best work : 

The Grand Canal, Venice ; I The Rhine at Felzen ; after 
after Turner. I the same. 

IN TITENER's ENGLAND AND WALES SERIES : 

Carew Castle. 

Chatham. 

Dover. 

Durham Cathedral, 

IN EOGEES'S poems: 
Llewellyn's Hall. I Loch Lomond. 

The Eialto. I 



Stamford. 
Windsor Castle. 
Varmouth. 



IN THE PROSE WORKS OP SIR WALTER SCOTT; 



Dumbarton Castle. 

Brussels. 

Houguemont. 

Jerusalem. 

Norham Castle. 

New Abbey (near Dumfries) , 

Hotel de Ville, Paris. 

Brienne. 

PiAcenza. 

Venice. 

Veroua. 

Vincennes. 

Craigmillar Castle. 

Dunstaffnage. 

Linlithgow. 

Glencoe> 



St. Cloud. 
Mayence. 
The Simplon. 
Pere la Chaise. 
Malmaison. 
Fontainebleau. 
Field of Waterioo. 
Chiefswood Cottage. 
Rhymer's Glen. 
Edinburgh, from St. An- 
thony's Chapel. 
Stirling. 
Killiecrankie. 
Inverness. 
Fort Augustus. 



IN THE POETICAL WORKS OF SIR WALTER SCOTT : 
Dryburgh. Loch Achray. 

Melrose. Skiddaw. 

Loch Katrine. Berwick-on-Tweed. 

Edinburgh. 



RIVERS OF FRANCE : 



Clairmont. 
Chateau de Nantes. 
Rouen. 



Rouen (looking down the 
PontNeuf. Seine). 

Meudon (?) 



CAMPBELL'S POEMS 



Oran. 

Tower of London ; after 

Turner. 
The Shepherd; after the 



after H. 



Loch an Eilan ; 

MacuHoch. 
Illustrations to Hood's 

Poems ; after Birket 

Foster. 



MILLER, William, an English portrait and 
historical painter, born about 1740. He was em- 
ployed on the Shakespeare Gallery for Alderman 
Boydell, whose portrait he painted. His works 
were exhibited at the Academy from 1790 to 1803. 
He died about 1810. 

MILLET, Pranqois, (orMlLi,) sometimes known 
as Feancisqtje. The family of this artist was 
originally French, though he was born at Antwerp 
in 1644. His father was a turner of ivory, born at 
Dijon, and accompanied the Prince de Cond6, to 
whom he was attached, into the Netherlands, at the 
time of the revolt, and settled at Antwerp. Having 
shown an early inclination for art, the young Millet 
was placed as a pupil of Laurent Franck. His father 
dying when he was still young, he had no other 
resource than the exercise of his talents ; and when 
he was eighteen years of age, he had acquired 
sufficient reputation to induce his master to give 
him his daughter in marriage. He soon afterwards 
went to Paris, where he painted history and 
heroic landscapes, vdth figures representing some 
historical or fabulous subject. He is stated by M. 
d'Argenville to have visited Holland and England, 
in both of which countries he left proofs of his 
ability. On his return to Paris he was received into 
the Academy, and his works were held in high 
estimation. Millet died in 1680. His sons Henri 
and Jean FRANgois were also painters. The latter 
died in 1723. Among Millet's works are : 

Bordeaux. Gallery. Landscape Ruins. 

Brussels. „ Best of the Holy Family during 

„ the Flight to Egypt. 

Dresden. „ Landscapes. 

Munich. „ Landscapes. 

„ „ Sea Views. 

Petersburg. „ View of a Harbour. 



We have a few etchings by this artist ; 
them, the following : 



among 
156 



Killet 



A BIOGRAPHICAL DICTIONARY OP 



Milon 



A Landscape, with Egyptian Euins, with the subject of 

Moses saved from the waters of the Nile: Francisque 

inv. 
Another Landscape, with the History of Cephalus and 

Procris. 
A Mountainous Landscape, with Bgures, and a town in 

the middl6. 
Les deux Amants. 
Le Voyageur. 
Ville antique. 

MILLET, FRi:Di;Eic, a French miniature painter, 
born at Charlieu (Loire) in 1786." His art instruc- 
tion was due to F. Aubry, Pernot, and leabey. He 
first exhibited at the Salon in 1806, and received 
medals in 1817, 1824, and 1827. His practice was 
very extensive : almost all the eminent personages 
of the time were his sitters. He died in Paris in 
1859. His son Ami was also an artist. 

MILLET, Jean Franqois, a French painter of 
landscape and peasant life, born at Gruchy, near 
Cherbourg, in 1814. His parents were Norman 
peasants, who industriously cultivated a small 
farm. Amid these rustic surroundings he received 
a simple yet sound education from his grand- 
mother and his great-uncle, a priest without cure 
of souls, who both lived under the family roof. A 
taste for art early developed itself in him, and his 
first systematic instruction was received from 
Langlois at Cherbourg, where he was sent in 1834. 
His progress was such that he was granted a small 
pension by the Municipal Council to enable him to 
pursue his studies in Paris. Thither he went in 
1837, and entered the studio of Delaroche, where 
Diaz, Rousseau, and Corot were among his 
fellow-pupils. During the period of student life 
he frequently suffered great privations through 
the slenderness of his resources. His first appear- 
ance at the Salon was in 1840, when he exhibited 
a portrait. In the same year he returned to his 
native country, and for some time earned a living 
by painting sign-boards at Cherbourg. While 
thus engaged he met his first wife, whom he 
married in 1841. He went back to Paris in the 
next year to renew his struggles, which were 
increased by the ill-health of Ids wife, who died 
after a short married life of three years. Return- 
ing once more to Normandy, he entered the married 
state again, and his second wife proved a devoted 
companion. The newly-married couple spent 
some time at Havre, where he earned a scanty 
subsistence by painting portraits, small genre 
pictures, &c. He sought Paris again in December 
1845, and during the next few years his struggle 
for existence was very arduous : he and his family 
being frequently in need of the barest necessities 
of life. This was an important period in the 
development of his art. Still under the influence 
of the Delaroche studio, he wavered for some time 
between historical and landscape painting. The 
appearance of his ' Winnower ' in 1848 and of ' The 
Sower ' in the following year showed his true 
vocation, and henceforth he adhered strictly to 
subjects taken from peasant life. In 1849 he 
removed from Paris to Barbizon, a village in the 
beautiful Fontainebleau country with which his 
name became inseparably connected. He settled 
in a peasant's cottage of three rooms, which he 
gradually enlarged to meet the requirements of his 
growing family. Here, in the midst of the scenery 
and peasant life so dear to him, he found no lack 
of congenial subjects. His oircumstancesfor many 
years still continued straitened. His pictures only 
brought small prices, and were but httle appreci- 
156 



ated, save by a few. Although he was awarded 
medals at the Salons of 1863 and 1864, it was not 
until 1867 that his means began to improve. In 
that year he was awarded a first class medal at the 
Paris Universal Exhibition, and he also received the 
unasked-for distinction of the Legion of Honour. 
During the remainder of his career he felt less of 
the carking cares of poverty, but he continued his 
same simple rustic life at Barbizon, where he died 
on the 20th January, 1876. Since his death his 
works have fetched enormous prices, but his widow 
and family were left comparatively poor, and were 
granted a pension of 1200 francs by the State. The 
following is a list of some of his works : O.J.D. 

The Angelus. {M. Lecretan, Paris.) 

The Sower. 1849. 

Moses. {Chertoury Museum.) 

Peasant grafting a Tree. 1855. 

Woman pasturing a Cow. (Bourg Museum.) 

A Park with Sheep : Moonlight. 

The Gleaners. 1837. 

The Potato-Harvest. 1863. 

Death and the Woodcutter. 

Woman shearing Sheep. 1861. 

Planting Potatoes. 

The Church at Greville. (Paris, Zuxemimirg.) 

Women Bathing. (Paris, Luxembourg.) 

The abandoned Plough. 

Shepherdess and Flock. 1864. 

Man with a Hoe. 1863. 

Offering to Pan. (Montpellier Museum.) 

Gathering Beans. 

Woman pasturing Geese. 1867. 

November. 1870. 

A Mother. 1861. (Marseilles Museum.) 

The Woodcutters. (G. lonides, Esq.) 

MILLIN-DUPERREUX, Alexandre Louis 
Robert, a French landscape painter, born in Paris 
in 1764; He studied under Huetand Valenciennes, 
and devoted himself to " historic ' ' landscape. Ex- 
cursions to the south of France, Switzerland, Italy, 
and Spain furnished subjects for his brush. The 
Pyrenees had an especial attraction for him, and he 
spent nearly seven years amidst their rugged 
scenery. In some of his pictures the figures were 
introduced by a Flemish painter named De Masne. 
He died in 1843. 

MILL1N6T0N, James Heath, a subject and 
miniature painter, born at Cork early in the 19th 
century. He entered in 1826 the schools of the 
Academy, where in his later years he became 
Curator of the Painting School. He exhibited up 
to 1870, and died in 1873. 

MILLINGTON. See Mannin. 

MILLOT, E., a French portrait painter, pupil of 
Largilliere, who died in 1756. He was a member 
of the old academy of St. Luke, Paris. 

MILLS, Alfred, an English wood engraver, 
born in 1776. He was employed on the illustra- 
tions for children's books, such as 'Pictures of 
Grecian History' (1812). He died at Walworth 
in 1833. 

MILN, Robert, engraved some plates of Scottish 
antiquities for a book published at Edinburgh 
in 1710, entitled ' Miscellanea qusedam Eruditaa 
Antiquitatis.' 

MILOCCO, Antonio, an Italian painter of the 
18th century. He was a native of Turin, and 
painted historical subjects. 

MILON, Alexis Pierre, a French painter of 
landscapes and interiors, was born at Rouen in 
1784. He was a pupil of David and Bertin. 
Among his better works we may name a view of 
the ' Belfry and Markets of Lillebonne,' and one 
of the ' Val de GrSce, Paris.' 



Milot 



PAINTERS AND ENGRAVERS. 



Dlinorello 



MILOT, an engraver mentioned by Strutt, who 
resided at Antwerp about 1620, and is said to have 
worked for the booksellers only. 

MILTON, John, an English landscape and 
marine painter in the latter part of the 18th 
century. _ He exhibited from 1769 to 1771 at the 
Free Society of Artists. His known works are : 

A Strong Gale. 

The English Setter. 

Six Dockyard Views. 

MILTON, Thomas, an English landscape en- 
graver, born about 1743. He had a good practice 
in London, and subsequently in Dublin, and was a 
governor of the Society' of Engravers. His grand- 
father was brother to the poet Milton. He died 
at Bristol in 1827, Specimens of his work are to 
be found in : 

' Views of Seats in Ireland.' 1783. 
Mayer's ' Views in Egypt.' 1801. 

MILTON, William, an engraver who practised 
in London, and was chiefly employed by the 
booksellers. He died in 1790 at Lambeth. 

MILVIUS. See Kytb. 

MILWITZ, Bartolomaus, a native of Dantzig, 
who painted interiors, &c. The Katharinen Kirche 
of Dantzic possesses an ' Entry of Christ into Jeru- 
salem ' by him, signed B. M. W. It is Dutch in 
style. Milwitz died in 1655. 

MIMAULT, a French historical and portrait 
painter, bom at Aix. He was a pupil of Aloysius 
Finsonius. In the church of the Magdalen at Aix 
is a picture of the ' Baptism of Christ,' signed by 
him and dated 1625. 

MlffANA, Fray Josef, of the Order of the 
Trinity, was born at Valencia in 1671, and success- 
fully cultivated both art and literature. He studied 
painting at Naples, and executed for his convent, 
at Murviedro, two pictures for the high altar com- 
mended by Cean Bermudez. Besides several letters 
and papers on Valencian antiquities, he wrote a 
Latin continuation of Mariana's 'History of Spain.' 
In 1704 he obtained the chair of rhetoric at Valencia 
University, and died in the monastery of Our Lady 
of Succour in 1730. 

MINARDI, ToMMASO, painter and designer, was 
born at Faenza in 1787. He was a member of the 
Academy of St. Luke at Rome, and was the head 
of the so-called Purists, who hoped to restore the 
simplicity of the old masters. He made drawings 
of the 'Last Judgment,' after Michelangelo, "and 
of the ' Laocoon.' He also worked much at restora- 
tion in the churches of his native town. He died 
at Rome in 1871. 

MINAYA. See Velazquez Minata. 

MINAZZI, Jacques, a designer of the English 
school, who died in 1865. 

MIND, GoDFRiED, a Swiss painter, was born at 
Berne in 1768. He was" a pupil of Preudenberger. 
He painted chiefly in water-colours, and his sub- 
jects were mostly oats, for which he had an extra- 
ordinary affection. His body was diseased, his 
character eccentric, and his conduct not that of a 
good citizen, but his talent as an artist was con- 
siderable. He died in 1814. 

MINDERHOUT, Hendrik van, a painter and 
etcher, was born at Rotterdam in 1632. At an 
early period of his life he removed to Bruges, 
where he married in 1664, and where he was re- 
ceived into the Society of Painters in 1663, and 
where there are several of his pictures in the 
public edifices and in private collections. In 1672 
he settled at Antwerp, where he entered the Guild, 



and in 1696 he died. The works of this master 
generally represent marines and seaports, fre- 
quently those of Antwerp and Bruges. They are 
usually of a large size, but very unequal in 
execu,tion, and towards the latter part of his life 
they seem to have been painted with negligence 
and haste. His best works are, however, to be 
found in the principal collections in Flanders, 
The Museums of Antwerp and Christiania each 
possess a ' Harbour of the Levant ' by him 

MINDERHOUT, Willbm August van, son of 
Hendrik van Minderhout, was born at Antwerp in 
1680. As his father died when he Was sixteen, 
he set out on his travels, and finally settled in 
Moravia, where he died in 1752. 

MINDERICK, Jan van, a painter of the Flemish 
school, was born at Santen in the first quarter of 
the sixteenth century. He was made a citizen of 
Antwerp in 1553. 

MINERDORPF, P. In the Lille Museum there is 
a ' Death of Peter Martyr ' signed with this name 
and dated 1629. 

MINGA, Andrea del, an historical and portrait 
painter, who lived at Florence. He was a pupil 
of Eidolfo Ghirlandaio, and died after 1568. The 
Pitti collection contains a ' Creation of Eve ' and 
an ' Adam and Eve driven out of Paradise' by him, 
both from designs by Baccio Bandinelli. 

MINGACGINO. See Santi, Dom. 

MINGOT, Tbodosio, was a native of Catalonia, 
born in 1551, and was a disciple of Gaspar 
Becerra. He is erroneously stated by Palomino 
to have studied at Rome under Michelangelo, who 
died when he was only thirteen years of age. He 
is believed, however, to have visited Italy. He 
was employed by Philip II. in the palace of the 
Pardo, where his principal works perished in the 
conflagration by which that edifice was destroyed. 
He died in 1590. 

MINGUET, Andreas, a still-life painter of the 
Flemish school, was born in 1818. He was a 
pupil of G. Wappers. He died in 1860. 

MINGUET, Pablo, was a Spanish engraver who 
furnished the title-page and other plates to Rod- 
riguez's work on Polygraphy (Madrid, 1737). 

MINI, Antonio, was an historical and portrait 
painter of the 16th century, who resided at 
Florence. He was a pupil of Michelangelo, but had 
little talent. He went to France, where he died. 

MINIATI, Babtolommeo, a native of Florence, 
who flourished in the 16th century. He painted 
portraits and historical subjects, and assisted Rosso 
in his works at Fontainebleau. 

MINIERA, BlAGlO, an historical painter, was 
born at Ascoli in 1697. He was a pupil of Maratti, 
and died in 1755. 

MINNE, Jan Baptist, was born at Waoken 
in West Flanders in 1734. He was a pupil of 
Gerraerts, but finished his studies in Paris. Ho 
painted historical subjects. In 1764 he received a 
prize at the Antwerp Academy. He died in 1817, 

MINNBBROER, Frans. See Crabbe. 

MINNITL See Minuti. 

MINO DA TURRITA, called Prate Ming, was 
a famous painter of mosaics in 1225, and was 
called Turrita from his birthplace, near Siena. 
He worked in Florence, Rome, and Pisa, His 
mosaic in S. Andrea, Florence, is inscribed : 
Viginte quinque Christi cum mille ducentis. 

MINORBLLO, Franoesco, an Italian historical 
painter, was born at Este in 1624, He was a 
pupil of Luoa Ferrari, and died in 1657, 
^ 157 



Hinozzi 



A BIOGRAPHICAL DICTIONARY OF 



IVHiruoli 



MINOZZI, Bernardino, an Italian landscape 
painter, was born at Bologna in 1699. He was a 
pupil of Perrajuolo and Cavazzoni. He had a son, 
Inkocenzio, a painter, who died in 1817. Bernar- 
dino died in 1769. 

MINTROP, Theodor, a German historical painter, 
born at Barkenhofen, near Verden, on the Ruhr, 
in 1814. Being drawn for the army he visited 
Miinster and Cologne, where for the first time his 
real bent was betrayed by the effect worked upon 
him by the works of art in those cities. By the 
help of E. Geselechap, he entered the Dusseldorf 
Academy and studied under Sohn. The subjects 
he treated were chiefly of a religious and monu- 
mental class, but in Cologne he carried out several 
decorative works in private houses. Unfortunately 
his early life in the country had unfitted him for 
the sedentary habits of a painter, and both his art 
and his health suffered in consequence. He died in 
1870. Among his better works we may name : 
Diisseldorf . Gallery. Virgin and Child, and St. John . 
Verden. Church. A Holy Conversation. 

Christ and St. John with Angels. 

The Murder of The Innocents. 

The Sermon on The Mount. 

MINUCCIO, a history and portrait painter, 
called sometimes Ming, Ser Ming di Simgne, and 
Maestro Ming. He executed a fresco in the Justice 
Hall of Siena in 1287, representing the 'Virgin 
and Child on a throne, surrounded by Angels,' with 
a dais held up by the apostles. It is very good 
work for its time. 

MINUTI, Mario, an Italian historical painter, 
born at Syracuse in 1577. He was a pupil of 
Caravaggio, with whom he worked at Rome. He 
lived chiefly at Messina, and died in 1640. 

MINZOCCHI, Francesco, called II Vecohig di 
San Bernardo, was born at Forli about 1513. He 
formed his first manner by studying the works of 
Marco Palmezzano, whose stiffness and formality 
are visible in his first productions, particularly in 
his picture of the ' Crucifixion,' at the Osservanti. 
He afterwards took Girolamo Genga and Pordenone 
for his models. Among his best works are the 
' Sacrifice of Melchizedek ' and the ' Miracle of the 
Manna,' in a chapel at Loretto ; a fresco in the 
church of Santa Maria della Grata, at Forli, is too 
vulgar in conception to be pleasing. Minzocchi 
died in 1574. He left two sons, Pietro Paolg and 
Sebastiang, who painted history, but were far in- 
ferior to their father. 

MIO, Giovanni de, called Fratina, was an his- 
torical painter of Vicenza, who flourished in 1556. 

MIOEN, B., a Dutch historical painter, born at 
Cortemarok in East Flanders. He died in 1851. 
His two best pictures are : 

St. I'ran9ois Xavier. {Roulers.) 

Sacred Heart. (Lichtermlde.) 

MIOZZI, NiooGLG, an Italian historical painter, 
who flourished in 1670. He was a pupil of 
Carpioni, A Marc- Antonio Miozzi was working 
at the same time as Niocolo. 

MIRADORI, Luigi, was a native of Genoa, 
whence he has been called II Genovesing, and 
flourished from the year 1639 till 1647. After 
learning the first principles of art in his native city, 
he went to Cremona about the beginning of the 
17th century, where he studied after the works of 
Panfilo Nuvolone. He afterwards adopted a style 
which bears some resemblance to that of the 
Carracci. His works are highly esteemed through- 
out Lombardy, particularly at Cremona, where he 

i.0o 



chiefly resided. He frequently made choice of, 
and was the most successful in, the most terrific 
subjects he could select. Among his most esteemed 
works are : 

Cremona. S. Clemente. St. John Damascenus. 
Milan. Casa Borry. Punishment of Conspirators. 
Piacenza. Mereh. Guild. Pieta. 

MIRANDA, Carrbng. See Carreno de Miranda. 

MIRANDA, Juan Garcia. See Garcia Miranda. 

MIRANDA, Pbdrg Rodrigbuz and Francisco. 
See RoDRieuEZ Miranda. 

MIRANDOLESE, II. See Paltrgnieri. 

MIRBEL, LiziNSKA AimjSb Zoe, was a French 
miniature painter, born at Cherbourg in 1796, 
whose maiden name was Rue. Louis XVIII. ap- 
pointed her miniature painter to his court. She 
died in 1849. 

MIRE. See Lemire. 

MIRETI (or MIEETTO), Girolamg, was a por- 
trait and historical painter of Padua, who flourished 
in the 15th century. 

MIRETTO, Giovanni, is the reputed author of 
some frescoes in the Sala della Ragione, at Padua, 
representing the months and planets, treated 
allegorically, the apostles, and other personages, 
mythical and real — making in all nearly 400 
pictures of wonderful incomprehensibility. They 
are supposed to have been executed in the early 
half of the 16th century. This Giovanni may have 
been a brother or other relation of Girolamo, who 
is called Moreto by Vasari. 

MIREVELT. See Mierevelt. 

MIRI, Ludovicg, a designer,painter,and engraver 
of Rome in the 18th century, made drawings about 
1778 of the wall paintings discovered in the Baths 
of Titus, which he afterwards etched, besides 
several ceiling pieces after Raphael in the Villa 
Madama, and others in the Villa Hadriana, in 
the Baths of Livia, and in the Famese Garden. 

MIRICENYS. See Merioa. 

MIEON, Antgn, (Mirgv, or Miruleus,) is a 
Flemish painter, whose works are extremely rare. 
Those in existence display much merit; they 
are, for the most part, landscapes ornamented 
with scenes from sacred history, and occasionally 
with subjects of a sporting character, or in the 
style of Jan Brueghel. Mention may be made of 
a landscape with the conversion of St. Paul in the 
Vienna Gallery, and a landscape with a duck-hunt- 
ing scene, dated 1653, in the Berlin Gallery. Several 
of his views in the neighbourhood of the Schwalbach 
Spa have been engraved by M. Merian. The fol- 
lowing among his works may also be mentioned : 
Berlin. Museum. A scene in a Forest with Duck- 

Hunters. 1653. 
Copenhagen. Gallery, A Landscape. 
Gotha. „ A Forest Landscape with Hunters. 

1614. 
Madrid. „ Hagar and Ishmael. 

Petersburg, fleiwiaje. Hermits in the Forest. 

„ „ Village on Fire. 

Schleissheim. The Interior of a Wood with the 

Temptation of Christ. 
Vienna. Belvedere. A Landscape with the Conversion 
of St. Paul. 

MIROSLAW, is the author of some miniatures 
in a manuscript entitled ' Mater verborum,' of the 
date- 1102, in the Museum at Prague. 

MIRUOLI, Girolamg, according to Vasari, was 
a native of the Eomagna, and flourished about 
the year 1570. He was a disciple of Pelleg.rino 
Tibaldi, and was a reputable painter of history. 
There are som« frescoes by him in the church of 



Misciroli 



PAINTERS AND ENGRAVEES. 



Hodigliani 



the Servi at Bologna. He also distinguished him- 
self at Panna and Modena, where he was employed 
by the Duke, and difid painter to the court. 

MISCIROLI, ToMMASO, an historical painter, bom 
at Faenza in 1636. He studied without a master, 
and was called ' The peasant painter.' He died 
in 1699. 

MISEROTTI, DoMENico, is mentioned by Strutt 
as the engraver of several plates for the collection 
of prints from the paintings in the gallery of the 
Grand Duke of Tuscany. He flourished about 
1750, or rather later. 

MITAN, James, an English engraver, born in 
London in 1776. He received instruction from 
Agar, from Cheeseman, and in the schools of the 
Academy. He obtained an excellent practice, and 
in his later years devoted himself to architecture. 
He died in 1822. Specimens of his work will be 
found in : 

Inchbald's ' British Theatre.' 1808. 

Smixke's * Don Quixote.' 

Stothard's ' Irish Melodies.' 

Dibdiu's ' Bibliographical Tour.' 1821. 

MITAN, S., was brother and pupil of James 
Mitan. He engraved for Batty's ' Views of 
France,' and was employed by Messrs. Aokerman. 

MITCHELL, John, a Scotch engraver, born in 
1791, who practised in Edinburgh, and died in 
1862. His best known plates are : 

Alfred in the Neatherd's Cottage ; after Wilkie. 

The Bat-catchers ; after the same. 

MITCHELL, Thomas, an English marine painter 
in the latter part of the 18th century, who held 
appointments in the dockyards, and practised art 
as an amateur. He exhibited at the Academy 
from 1774 to 1789. 

MITELLI, Agostino, (or Metelli,) was born at 
Battidizzo, near Bologna, in 1609. He received his 
first education at the school of the Carracci in 
Bologna, and studied perspective and architecture 
under Falcetta, and afterwards painting under 
Miniati and Dentone. With this last artist he 
visited Parma in 1627, and painted for the theatre 
at Bologna. After the death of Dentone he at- 
tached himself to Michelangelo Colonna, in con- 
junction with whom he painted the decorations of 
the archiepiscopal palace at Ravenna, sometimes 
designing the figures, and sometimes the perspec- 
tives ; but he afterwards devoted himself entirely 
to the latter. His intimacy with Colonna lasted 
twenty-four years, and was only terminated by his 
death. Of the numerous works of the pair at 
Bologna, the most admired are the Capella del 
Rosario and the saloon in the Palazzo Caprara. 
They equally distinguished themselves at Parma, 
Modena, and Genoa. In 1674 they were invited 
to the court of Spain by Philip IV., where they 
ornamented the palaces with some of their finest 
works, particularly a grand saloon, in which 
Colonna introduced. the fable of Pandora. Mitelli 
died at Madrid in 1660. We have twenty-four 
spirited vignettes by this master, consisting chiefly 
of architectural ornaments ; and a set of forty- 
eight friezes, dated 1645. 

MITELLI, Giuseppe Maria, (Metelli,) the son 
of Agostino Mitelli, was born at Bologna in 1634. 
After receiving some instruction from his father, 
he entered the school of Flaminio Torre. He 
painted historical subjects, and occasionally intro- 
duced figures into the perspective views of Agos- 
tino. There are several of his pictures in the 
churches at Bologna, of which the most worthy of 



notice are, ' St. Riniero healing the Sick,' in Santa 
Maria della Vita; a 'Pietk' in the Annunziata ; 
and ' Christ taken in th« Garden ' at the Cappuccini. 
He was more distinguished as an engraver than as a 
painter, and has etched a great variety of plates 
from his own designs and after some of the most 
celebrated of the Italian masters. He died in 1718. 
Bartsch describes 162 pieces by him, and Nagler 
has increased the number. 

The following are his principal works : 

A set of twelve plates, after the most esteemed pictures 

iu the churches at Bologna. 
The history of ^neas, in twenty plates; after the 
pictures by the Carracci, in the Palazzo Favi, at 
Bologna. 
The Cries of Bologna, in forty-one prints ; after Ann. 

Carracci. 
The Adoration of the Shepherds, called the Notte ; after 

Correffgio. 
The Martyrdom of St. Erasmus ; after Pmssin. 
David and Goliath ; after Titian. 
The finding of the Cross ; after Tintoretto. 
The Rich Man and Lazarus ; after Paolo Veronese. 
The twenty-four Hours of Human Felicity. There are 
two additional prints, making a set of twenty-six, 
probably from his own designs. They were published 
at Bologna in 1675, and are now become scarce, 

MOALLB, LoYS, a French historical painter 
and native of Peronne, who flourished about 1475. 
In 1610 he was working at Valenciennes. 

MOCETTO, GiROLAMO, (Mozetto,) was living 
between the 15th and 16th centuries, and was both 
a painter and a famous engraver. He was a 
pupil and journeyman of Giovanni Bellini, and 
painted the ' Virgin and Child between SS. Biagio 
and Giuliana,'in the chapel of San Biagio, Verona ;^ 
a ' Madonna and Child ' in the Gallery of Vicenza ; 
and a ' Portrait of a Man ' in the Gallery of Modena. 
His engravings date from 1490 to 1514. As to 
the dates of his birth or death there is no 
certainty. His principal engravings are : 

Battle of the Israelites and Amalekites. 

Judith. 

St. John the Baptist in the Desert. 

Baptism of Christ. 

Resurrection of Christ. 

The Virgin on the Throne. 

The Virgin in Glory. 

Bacclius. 

Triumph of Neptune. 

Calumny of Apelles. 

MOCHETTI, Alessandro, an engraver, was 
born at Rome about 1760. He studied under 
Volpone, and executed several excellent plates. 
He died about 1812. 

MOCK, JoHANN Samuel, court painter to King 
August of Saxony and Poland. He died about 
1738. 

MOCK, J. J., a topographical draughtsman, was 
. born at Herisau in 1776. He drew several Swiss 
views. He died in 1824. 

MODALULPHE, a painter who flourished in 
France in the 9th century. 

MODENA, Ant. da. See Begarelli. 

MODENA, Barnaba da. See Serafini. 

MODENA, Martino da, a miniature painter of' 
the latter half of the 15th century, was the son of 
Giorgio, and grandson of Alberto, of Germany. 

MODENA, Nio. da. See Rosex. 

MODENA, Pellegrino da. See Aretusi. 

MODENA, Tom. da. See Eabisino. 

MODESTUS, a monk who worked as a mini- 
aturist at St. Gall, in the ninth century. 

MODIGLIANI, Francesco, was a native of 
Forli, and flourished about the year 1600. He is 

169 



Hodoniuo 



A BIOGRAPHICAL DICTIONARY OF 



Mogford 



said to have been a pupil of Pontormo. Lanzi 
notices some of his works at Urbino, where he is 
called ' Francesco da Forli,' representing a ' Deposi- 
tion from the Cross,' and some frescoes in the 
church of Santa Lucia. But his best productions 
are at the Osservanti at Forli, and in the church 
of Santa Maria del Rosario ; they are subjects from 
the Old Testament, among which are ' Adam and 
Eve driven from Paradise,' the ' Deluge,' the 
'Tower of Babel,' and others. 

MODONINO, Giovanni Battista, painter, was a 
native of Modena. He painted architecture with 
some success at Rome, and died at Naples of the 
plague in 1656. 

. MOECHSELKIRCHEL, Gabriel, a German 
historical painter, who flourished at Munich in 
1470. At Schleissheim there are two pictures of 
' Christ bearing Hie Cross,' and ' The Crucifixion.' 

MOEGLICH, Ani reas Leonhard, engraver, was 
bom at Nuremberg in 1742. He studied first alone, 
but afterwards entered the school of Preissler. 
His first worlcs were vignettes and small portraits, 
which were succeeded by a few plates on a larger 
scale. He died about 1810. 

MOELART, Jakob, was born at Dordrecht in 
1649, and was for some time a scholar of Nicolas 
Maas. His progress under that master was con- 
siderable, and he proved a leputahle painter both 
of history and portraits. Of his historical works, 
Houbraken particularly commends his pictures of 
' Moses striking the Rock ' and the ' Destruction of 
Pharaoh and his Host.' He died in 1727. 

MOENCH, Charles Victoire Frederic, a French 
historical and decorative painter, born in Paris in 
1784. He was a pupil of Girodet. He exhibited 
at the Salon in 1810, and obtained a medal in 
1817. Several years were spent at Rome, and 
on his return he was much patronized by the 
Orleans family. The restoration of the paintings 
in the chapel at Versailles was entrusted to him, 
and he executed some decorative works in the 
Diana Gallery at Fontainebleau. He died in 1867. 
Among his works are : 

Diana and Actseon. 

The Holy Family. 

The Birth of Venus. 

Susanna at the Bath. 

The wife of King Candaules, &c. 

MOENS, Arnold, a painter and sculptor, who 
flourished at Brussels in 1447. He was attached 
to the Brotherhood of St. Eloi in that year. 

MOENS, E. H., a Dutch painter, was born at 
Middlebourg in the 17th century. He accom- 
panied Abraham Genoels to Rome, and in 1674 
was admitted into the Society of Foreign Painters 
in that city. 

MOERE. See Van der Moerb. 

MOEBENHOUT, Josef Josse, a Flemish land- 
scape painter, was born at Eeckeren near Antwerp 
in 1801. He was a pupil of Horace Vernet, and 
painted chiefly horses and winter scenes. Speci- 
•mens of his works are to be found at Haarlem and 
Munich. He died in 1876. 

MOERMAN, Albert, a Flemish landscape 
painter, born in 1808. He was a pupil of P. F. 
de Noter. He died in 1857. 

MOERMANS, Jakob, was a Flemish painter, 
born in 1602. In 1621-2 he was a pupil of Rubens 
at Antwerp, and in the same year free of the 
Guild. He was on